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  • Games have been used in the history of human culture as a powerful medium to provide educational contents. Today videogames have improved the game experience with immersive virtual environment and impressive 3D graphics simulation of the reality. Serious Games (SG) are the attempt of research community to exploit videogame’s features to support acquisition of knowledge and skills. In a typical SG, the pedagogical objectives are not directly apparent. They have to remain in the background of the story, leaving entertainment in prominence. The idea is to provide an edutainment (education + entertainment) experience through play, which is a powerful mediator for learning Using a constructivist pedagogical approach SGs intend to promote an active engagement of the player (“learning by doing”), in particular among young people (digital natives), and to allow the knowledge construction by situating the learner in concrete virtual experiences.
  • The challenge for the SG research is to produce methods and practices to effectively embed learning aspects in the game mechanics in a seamless way, leaving entertainment in prominence. To this end, it is important to investigate how to exploit the appeal of VideoGames (VGs) to favor/induce learning also in an audience which is not purposely learning. Achieving this goal is not only a matter of contents, since simply “superimposed” educational contents risk to be perceived as boring stuff. We believe, instead, that the game should feature knowledge/skill acquisition mechanisms that are smoothly embedded in a meaningful, homogeneous and compelling whole. In order to investigate and validate this concept it is important also to realize a user evaluation phase is to understand whether the knowledge components inserted in SG are accepted by the users and do not compromise the highly pleasant and compelling experience that is usually perceived by users playing with commercial VGs. However, there is no yet agreement for a standard player enjoyment model yet.
  • The challenge for the SG research is to produce methods and practices to effectively embed learning aspects in the game mechanics in a seamless way, leaving entertainment in prominence. To this end, it is important to investigate how to exploit the appeal of VideoGames (VGs) to favor/induce learning also in an audience which is not purposely learning. Achieving this goal is not only a matter of contents, since simply “superimposed” educational contents risk to be perceived as boring stuff. We believe, instead, that the game should feature knowledge/skill acquisition mechanisms that are smoothly embedded in a meaningful, homogeneous and compelling whole. In order to investigate and validate this concept it is important also to realize a user evaluation phase is to understand whether the knowledge components inserted in SG are accepted by the users and do not compromise the highly pleasant and compelling experience that is usually perceived by users playing with commercial VGs. However, there is no yet agreement for a standard player enjoyment model yet.
  • The challenge for the SG research is to produce methods and practices to effectively embed learning aspects in the game mechanics in a seamless way, leaving entertainment in prominence. To this end, it is important to investigate how to exploit the appeal of VideoGames (VGs) to favor/induce learning also in an audience which is not purposely learning. Achieving this goal is not only a matter of contents, since simply “superimposed” educational contents risk to be perceived as boring stuff. We believe, instead, that the game should feature knowledge/skill acquisition mechanisms that are smoothly embedded in a meaningful, homogeneous and compelling whole. In order to investigate and validate this concept it is important also to realize a user evaluation phase is to understand whether the knowledge components inserted in SG are accepted by the users and do not compromise the highly pleasant and compelling experience that is usually perceived by users playing with commercial VGs. However, there is no yet agreement for a standard player enjoyment model yet.
  • The challenge for the SG research is to produce methods and practices to effectively embed learning aspects in the game mechanics in a seamless way, leaving entertainment in prominence. To this end, it is important to investigate how to exploit the appeal of VideoGames (VGs) to favor/induce learning also in an audience which is not purposely learning. Achieving this goal is not only a matter of contents, since simply “superimposed” educational contents risk to be perceived as boring stuff. We believe, instead, that the game should feature knowledge/skill acquisition mechanisms that are smoothly embedded in a meaningful, homogeneous and compelling whole. In order to investigate and validate this concept it is important also to realize a user evaluation phase is to understand whether the knowledge components inserted in SG are accepted by the users and do not compromise the highly pleasant and compelling experience that is usually perceived by users playing with commercial VGs. However, there is no yet agreement for a standard player enjoyment model yet.
  • The challenge for the SG research is to produce methods and practices to effectively embed learning aspects in the game mechanics in a seamless way, leaving entertainment in prominence. To this end, it is important to investigate how to exploit the appeal of VideoGames (VGs) to favor/induce learning also in an audience which is not purposely learning. Achieving this goal is not only a matter of contents, since simply “superimposed” educational contents risk to be perceived as boring stuff. We believe, instead, that the game should feature knowledge/skill acquisition mechanisms that are smoothly embedded in a meaningful, homogeneous and compelling whole. In order to investigate and validate this concept it is important also to realize a user evaluation phase is to understand whether the knowledge components inserted in SG are accepted by the users and do not compromise the highly pleasant and compelling experience that is usually perceived by users playing with commercial VGs. However, there is no yet agreement for a standard player enjoyment model yet.
  • The challenge for the SG research is to produce methods and practices to effectively embed learning aspects in the game mechanics in a seamless way, leaving entertainment in prominence. To this end, it is important to investigate how to exploit the appeal of VideoGames (VGs) to favor/induce learning also in an audience which is not purposely learning. Achieving this goal is not only a matter of contents, since simply “superimposed” educational contents risk to be perceived as boring stuff. We believe, instead, that the game should feature knowledge/skill acquisition mechanisms that are smoothly embedded in a meaningful, homogeneous and compelling whole. In order to investigate and validate this concept it is important also to realize a user evaluation phase is to understand whether the knowledge components inserted in SG are accepted by the users and do not compromise the highly pleasant and compelling experience that is usually perceived by users playing with commercial VGs. However, there is no yet agreement for a standard player enjoyment model yet.
  • The challenge for the SG research is to produce methods and practices to effectively embed learning aspects in the game mechanics in a seamless way, leaving entertainment in prominence. To this end, it is important to investigate how to exploit the appeal of VideoGames (VGs) to favor/induce learning also in an audience which is not purposely learning. Achieving this goal is not only a matter of contents, since simply “superimposed” educational contents risk to be perceived as boring stuff. We believe, instead, that the game should feature knowledge/skill acquisition mechanisms that are smoothly embedded in a meaningful, homogeneous and compelling whole. In order to investigate and validate this concept it is important also to realize a user evaluation phase is to understand whether the knowledge components inserted in SG are accepted by the users and do not compromise the highly pleasant and compelling experience that is usually perceived by users playing with commercial VGs. However, there is no yet agreement for a standard player enjoyment model yet.
  • The challenge for the SG research is to produce methods and practices to effectively embed learning aspects in the game mechanics in a seamless way, leaving entertainment in prominence. To this end, it is important to investigate how to exploit the appeal of VideoGames (VGs) to favor/induce learning also in an audience which is not purposely learning. Achieving this goal is not only a matter of contents, since simply “superimposed” educational contents risk to be perceived as boring stuff. We believe, instead, that the game should feature knowledge/skill acquisition mechanisms that are smoothly embedded in a meaningful, homogeneous and compelling whole. In order to investigate and validate this concept it is important also to realize a user evaluation phase is to understand whether the knowledge components inserted in SG are accepted by the users and do not compromise the highly pleasant and compelling experience that is usually perceived by users playing with commercial VGs. However, there is no yet agreement for a standard player enjoyment model yet.
  • The challenge for the SG research is to produce methods and practices to effectively embed learning aspects in the game mechanics in a seamless way, leaving entertainment in prominence. To this end, it is important to investigate how to exploit the appeal of VideoGames (VGs) to favor/induce learning also in an audience which is not purposely learning. Achieving this goal is not only a matter of contents, since simply “superimposed” educational contents risk to be perceived as boring stuff. We believe, instead, that the game should feature knowledge/skill acquisition mechanisms that are smoothly embedded in a meaningful, homogeneous and compelling whole. In order to investigate and validate this concept it is important also to realize a user evaluation phase is to understand whether the knowledge components inserted in SG are accepted by the users and do not compromise the highly pleasant and compelling experience that is usually perceived by users playing with commercial VGs. However, there is no yet agreement for a standard player enjoyment model yet.
  • The challenge for the SG research is to produce methods and practices to effectively embed learning aspects in the game mechanics in a seamless way, leaving entertainment in prominence. To this end, it is important to investigate how to exploit the appeal of VideoGames (VGs) to favor/induce learning also in an audience which is not purposely learning. Achieving this goal is not only a matter of contents, since simply “superimposed” educational contents risk to be perceived as boring stuff. We believe, instead, that the game should feature knowledge/skill acquisition mechanisms that are smoothly embedded in a meaningful, homogeneous and compelling whole. In order to investigate and validate this concept it is important also to realize a user evaluation phase is to understand whether the knowledge components inserted in SG are accepted by the users and do not compromise the highly pleasant and compelling experience that is usually perceived by users playing with commercial VGs. However, there is no yet agreement for a standard player enjoyment model yet.
  • The challenge for the SG research is to produce methods and practices to effectively embed learning aspects in the game mechanics in a seamless way, leaving entertainment in prominence. To this end, it is important to investigate how to exploit the appeal of VideoGames (VGs) to favor/induce learning also in an audience which is not purposely learning. Achieving this goal is not only a matter of contents, since simply “superimposed” educational contents risk to be perceived as boring stuff. We believe, instead, that the game should feature knowledge/skill acquisition mechanisms that are smoothly embedded in a meaningful, homogeneous and compelling whole. In order to investigate and validate this concept it is important also to realize a user evaluation phase is to understand whether the knowledge components inserted in SG are accepted by the users and do not compromise the highly pleasant and compelling experience that is usually perceived by users playing with commercial VGs. However, there is no yet agreement for a standard player enjoyment model yet.
  • The challenge for the SG research is to produce methods and practices to effectively embed learning aspects in the game mechanics in a seamless way, leaving entertainment in prominence. To this end, it is important to investigate how to exploit the appeal of VideoGames (VGs) to favor/induce learning also in an audience which is not purposely learning. Achieving this goal is not only a matter of contents, since simply “superimposed” educational contents risk to be perceived as boring stuff. We believe, instead, that the game should feature knowledge/skill acquisition mechanisms that are smoothly embedded in a meaningful, homogeneous and compelling whole. In order to investigate and validate this concept it is important also to realize a user evaluation phase is to understand whether the knowledge components inserted in SG are accepted by the users and do not compromise the highly pleasant and compelling experience that is usually perceived by users playing with commercial VGs. However, there is no yet agreement for a standard player enjoyment model yet.
  • The challenge for the SG research is to produce methods and practices to effectively embed learning aspects in the game mechanics in a seamless way, leaving entertainment in prominence. To this end, it is important to investigate how to exploit the appeal of VideoGames (VGs) to favor/induce learning also in an audience which is not purposely learning. Achieving this goal is not only a matter of contents, since simply “superimposed” educational contents risk to be perceived as boring stuff. We believe, instead, that the game should feature knowledge/skill acquisition mechanisms that are smoothly embedded in a meaningful, homogeneous and compelling whole. In order to investigate and validate this concept it is important also to realize a user evaluation phase is to understand whether the knowledge components inserted in SG are accepted by the users and do not compromise the highly pleasant and compelling experience that is usually perceived by users playing with commercial VGs. However, there is no yet agreement for a standard player enjoyment model yet.
  • The challenge for the SG research is to produce methods and practices to effectively embed learning aspects in the game mechanics in a seamless way, leaving entertainment in prominence. To this end, it is important to investigate how to exploit the appeal of VideoGames (VGs) to favor/induce learning also in an audience which is not purposely learning. Achieving this goal is not only a matter of contents, since simply “superimposed” educational contents risk to be perceived as boring stuff. We believe, instead, that the game should feature knowledge/skill acquisition mechanisms that are smoothly embedded in a meaningful, homogeneous and compelling whole. In order to investigate and validate this concept it is important also to realize a user evaluation phase is to understand whether the knowledge components inserted in SG are accepted by the users and do not compromise the highly pleasant and compelling experience that is usually perceived by users playing with commercial VGs. However, there is no yet agreement for a standard player enjoyment model yet.
  • The challenge for the SG research is to produce methods and practices to effectively embed learning aspects in the game mechanics in a seamless way, leaving entertainment in prominence. To this end, it is important to investigate how to exploit the appeal of VideoGames (VGs) to favor/induce learning also in an audience which is not purposely learning. Achieving this goal is not only a matter of contents, since simply “superimposed” educational contents risk to be perceived as boring stuff. We believe, instead, that the game should feature knowledge/skill acquisition mechanisms that are smoothly embedded in a meaningful, homogeneous and compelling whole. In order to investigate and validate this concept it is important also to realize a user evaluation phase is to understand whether the knowledge components inserted in SG are accepted by the users and do not compromise the highly pleasant and compelling experience that is usually perceived by users playing with commercial VGs. However, there is no yet agreement for a standard player enjoyment model yet.
  • The challenge for the SG research is to produce methods and practices to effectively embed learning aspects in the game mechanics in a seamless way, leaving entertainment in prominence. To this end, it is important to investigate how to exploit the appeal of VideoGames (VGs) to favor/induce learning also in an audience which is not purposely learning. Achieving this goal is not only a matter of contents, since simply “superimposed” educational contents risk to be perceived as boring stuff. We believe, instead, that the game should feature knowledge/skill acquisition mechanisms that are smoothly embedded in a meaningful, homogeneous and compelling whole. In order to investigate and validate this concept it is important also to realize a user evaluation phase is to understand whether the knowledge components inserted in SG are accepted by the users and do not compromise the highly pleasant and compelling experience that is usually perceived by users playing with commercial VGs. However, there is no yet agreement for a standard player enjoyment model yet.
  • The challenge for the SG research is to produce methods and practices to effectively embed learning aspects in the game mechanics in a seamless way, leaving entertainment in prominence. To this end, it is important to investigate how to exploit the appeal of VideoGames (VGs) to favor/induce learning also in an audience which is not purposely learning. Achieving this goal is not only a matter of contents, since simply “superimposed” educational contents risk to be perceived as boring stuff. We believe, instead, that the game should feature knowledge/skill acquisition mechanisms that are smoothly embedded in a meaningful, homogeneous and compelling whole. In order to investigate and validate this concept it is important also to realize a user evaluation phase is to understand whether the knowledge components inserted in SG are accepted by the users and do not compromise the highly pleasant and compelling experience that is usually perceived by users playing with commercial VGs. However, there is no yet agreement for a standard player enjoyment model yet.
  • The challenge for the SG research is to produce methods and practices to effectively embed learning aspects in the game mechanics in a seamless way, leaving entertainment in prominence. To this end, it is important to investigate how to exploit the appeal of VideoGames (VGs) to favor/induce learning also in an audience which is not purposely learning. Achieving this goal is not only a matter of contents, since simply “superimposed” educational contents risk to be perceived as boring stuff. We believe, instead, that the game should feature knowledge/skill acquisition mechanisms that are smoothly embedded in a meaningful, homogeneous and compelling whole. In order to investigate and validate this concept it is important also to realize a user evaluation phase is to understand whether the knowledge components inserted in SG are accepted by the users and do not compromise the highly pleasant and compelling experience that is usually perceived by users playing with commercial VGs. However, there is no yet agreement for a standard player enjoyment model yet.
  • The challenge for the SG research is to produce methods and practices to effectively embed learning aspects in the game mechanics in a seamless way, leaving entertainment in prominence. To this end, it is important to investigate how to exploit the appeal of VideoGames (VGs) to favor/induce learning also in an audience which is not purposely learning. Achieving this goal is not only a matter of contents, since simply “superimposed” educational contents risk to be perceived as boring stuff. We believe, instead, that the game should feature knowledge/skill acquisition mechanisms that are smoothly embedded in a meaningful, homogeneous and compelling whole. In order to investigate and validate this concept it is important also to realize a user evaluation phase is to understand whether the knowledge components inserted in SG are accepted by the users and do not compromise the highly pleasant and compelling experience that is usually perceived by users playing with commercial VGs. However, there is no yet agreement for a standard player enjoyment model yet.
  • The challenge for the SG research is to produce methods and practices to effectively embed learning aspects in the game mechanics in a seamless way, leaving entertainment in prominence. To this end, it is important to investigate how to exploit the appeal of VideoGames (VGs) to favor/induce learning also in an audience which is not purposely learning. Achieving this goal is not only a matter of contents, since simply “superimposed” educational contents risk to be perceived as boring stuff. We believe, instead, that the game should feature knowledge/skill acquisition mechanisms that are smoothly embedded in a meaningful, homogeneous and compelling whole. In order to investigate and validate this concept it is important also to realize a user evaluation phase is to understand whether the knowledge components inserted in SG are accepted by the users and do not compromise the highly pleasant and compelling experience that is usually perceived by users playing with commercial VGs. However, there is no yet agreement for a standard player enjoyment model yet.
  • The challenge for the SG research is to produce methods and practices to effectively embed learning aspects in the game mechanics in a seamless way, leaving entertainment in prominence. To this end, it is important to investigate how to exploit the appeal of VideoGames (VGs) to favor/induce learning also in an audience which is not purposely learning. Achieving this goal is not only a matter of contents, since simply “superimposed” educational contents risk to be perceived as boring stuff. We believe, instead, that the game should feature knowledge/skill acquisition mechanisms that are smoothly embedded in a meaningful, homogeneous and compelling whole. In order to investigate and validate this concept it is important also to realize a user evaluation phase is to understand whether the knowledge components inserted in SG are accepted by the users and do not compromise the highly pleasant and compelling experience that is usually perceived by users playing with commercial VGs. However, there is no yet agreement for a standard player enjoyment model yet.
  • The challenge for the SG research is to produce methods and practices to effectively embed learning aspects in the game mechanics in a seamless way, leaving entertainment in prominence. To this end, it is important to investigate how to exploit the appeal of VideoGames (VGs) to favor/induce learning also in an audience which is not purposely learning. Achieving this goal is not only a matter of contents, since simply “superimposed” educational contents risk to be perceived as boring stuff. We believe, instead, that the game should feature knowledge/skill acquisition mechanisms that are smoothly embedded in a meaningful, homogeneous and compelling whole. In order to investigate and validate this concept it is important also to realize a user evaluation phase is to understand whether the knowledge components inserted in SG are accepted by the users and do not compromise the highly pleasant and compelling experience that is usually perceived by users playing with commercial VGs. However, there is no yet agreement for a standard player enjoyment model yet.
  • The challenge for the SG research is to produce methods and practices to effectively embed learning aspects in the game mechanics in a seamless way, leaving entertainment in prominence. To this end, it is important to investigate how to exploit the appeal of VideoGames (VGs) to favor/induce learning also in an audience which is not purposely learning. Achieving this goal is not only a matter of contents, since simply “superimposed” educational contents risk to be perceived as boring stuff. We believe, instead, that the game should feature knowledge/skill acquisition mechanisms that are smoothly embedded in a meaningful, homogeneous and compelling whole. In order to investigate and validate this concept it is important also to realize a user evaluation phase is to understand whether the knowledge components inserted in SG are accepted by the users and do not compromise the highly pleasant and compelling experience that is usually perceived by users playing with commercial VGs. However, there is no yet agreement for a standard player enjoyment model yet.
  • The challenge for the SG research is to produce methods and practices to effectively embed learning aspects in the game mechanics in a seamless way, leaving entertainment in prominence. To this end, it is important to investigate how to exploit the appeal of VideoGames (VGs) to favor/induce learning also in an audience which is not purposely learning. Achieving this goal is not only a matter of contents, since simply “superimposed” educational contents risk to be perceived as boring stuff. We believe, instead, that the game should feature knowledge/skill acquisition mechanisms that are smoothly embedded in a meaningful, homogeneous and compelling whole. In order to investigate and validate this concept it is important also to realize a user evaluation phase is to understand whether the knowledge components inserted in SG are accepted by the users and do not compromise the highly pleasant and compelling experience that is usually perceived by users playing with commercial VGs. However, there is no yet agreement for a standard player enjoyment model yet.
  • The challenge for the SG research is to produce methods and practices to effectively embed learning aspects in the game mechanics in a seamless way, leaving entertainment in prominence. To this end, it is important to investigate how to exploit the appeal of VideoGames (VGs) to favor/induce learning also in an audience which is not purposely learning. Achieving this goal is not only a matter of contents, since simply “superimposed” educational contents risk to be perceived as boring stuff. We believe, instead, that the game should feature knowledge/skill acquisition mechanisms that are smoothly embedded in a meaningful, homogeneous and compelling whole. In order to investigate and validate this concept it is important also to realize a user evaluation phase is to understand whether the knowledge components inserted in SG are accepted by the users and do not compromise the highly pleasant and compelling experience that is usually perceived by users playing with commercial VGs. However, there is no yet agreement for a standard player enjoyment model yet.
  • The challenge for the SG research is to produce methods and practices to effectively embed learning aspects in the game mechanics in a seamless way, leaving entertainment in prominence. To this end, it is important to investigate how to exploit the appeal of VideoGames (VGs) to favor/induce learning also in an audience which is not purposely learning. Achieving this goal is not only a matter of contents, since simply “superimposed” educational contents risk to be perceived as boring stuff. We believe, instead, that the game should feature knowledge/skill acquisition mechanisms that are smoothly embedded in a meaningful, homogeneous and compelling whole. In order to investigate and validate this concept it is important also to realize a user evaluation phase is to understand whether the knowledge components inserted in SG are accepted by the users and do not compromise the highly pleasant and compelling experience that is usually perceived by users playing with commercial VGs. However, there is no yet agreement for a standard player enjoyment model yet.

CIG 2009 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. A Task Annotation Model for SandBox Serious Games F. Bellotti, R. Berta, A. De Gloria, L. Primavera ELIOS Lab DIBE – University of Genoa Elios Lab - UniGe
  • 2. Summary
    • A specialization of computer games
      • Infuse instruction into the game play experience
      • Huge potential
        • a growing slice of population is familiar with playing games
        • Realistic and compelling challenges, capturing user concentration span for long times
        • suited to engage the learner and encourage active construction of meaning and development of skills
    • Methodologies/tools now needed to support pedagogical authors in developing effective learning experiences
    Serious Games
  • 3. Elios and partner
    • Importance of helping students develop well-connected knowledge structures representing relationships among facts and concepts
      • When the knowledge structure for a topic is well-connected, new information is more readily acquired, since the cognitive load is low
    • The Sand Box Serious Games (SBSGs) SG class
      • Successful pure entertainment games
        • Grand Theft Auto , Oblivion
    Cognitive Processing
  • 4. The SBSG model
    • A concrete spatial organization where knowledge is distributed
      • The VW to be explored
    • Tasks, spread and contextualized in the VW
      • Tasks embody units of knowledge that can be discovered and accessed by the player in order to construct meaning, build lasting memories, deepen understanding
      • Task Based Learning (TBL) theory
        • Concrete, focused activities to construct knowledge and develop skills
        • Characterizing tasks:
          • An ability to engage the learner’s interest; a primary focus on meaning; a need to be completed; an outcome in terms of which the success is judged; a clear relationship with real-world activities
  • 5. Inserting tasks in SBSGs
    • Content
    • Delivery Strategy
      • When, where and how they become are assigned to the player
      • A key aspect to support effective knowledge building
        • Usually tackled through author-scripted levels and missions
          • Costly and difficult to scale
  • 6. Vision
    • Hp: huge availability of simple contents (tasks)
      • Elementary online visual authoring tools
        • Also User Generated Contents (UGC) trend.
      • Simple task models:
        • Minigames, quizzes, visiting a limited VW zone, interactions with 3d objects or CVHs
    • Tasks are semantically annotated by the author
      • Employable in various VW environments
        • A city, an industrial plant, an island
  • 7. Decoupling contents from their delivery strategy
    • Domain experts focus on defining the tasks’ content and annotation
      • e.g. topics, difficulty, geo-ref. position, learning style, etc.
    • Game authors specify the requirements for a runtime task delivery strategy according to their educational and entertainment objectives
      • Strategy learned by a specific CI module embedded in a Game Engine (GE)
      • This Experience Engine (EE) performs the gameplay task sequencing
        • drive the player’s exploration of the environment by dynamically assigning tasks tailored on his actual profile
  • 8. Workflow and high-level System Architecture
  • 9. Concept (I)
    • No need for a detailed story specification
    • A high-level challenge spurring competition through exploration
      • E.g. various types of treasure hunts
    • The story emerges from player-environment, player-task, player-player interactions in a meaningful (3d) context
    • A shift of focus is needed, in content production, from narrative to actual edu contents (the tasks)
      • Enlarge the basis of authors and provide users with high quality, content-rich multimedia educational experiences.
  • 10. Concept (II)
    • Not better than a strong interactive narrative architecture
      • They are complementary approaches
    • But it is a new model that uses AI to deal with a database of semantically annotated tasks and with various types of user features/needs and teacher perspectives/requirements
      • VW independent
  • 11. The model (I)
    • SBSG as an exploration field where the player is given missions
      • Missions consists of tasks embedded in the VW
  • 12. The model (II)
    • The requirements for the decision policy are parameters of the model
      • Values to be specified by the game author
    • The runtime system will learn the decision policy
      • Choice of the tasks according to their fitness to the author strategy with regard to the player
  • 13. Annotating the tasks
    • Proposed parameters
      • Type (quiz, arcade, dialogue, exploration)
      • Entertainment value
      • Quality value
      • Skill relevance
      • Skill benefits
      • Difficulty
      • Covered learning styles
      • Dependences
      • Place
  • 14. Sample values
  • 15. User Model
    • Skill Level
    • Navigation Ability Level
    • Task Type Need/Preference
    • Skill Need/Preference
    • Learning Style Need/Preference
      • Visual, auditory, reading and kinesthetic learning modalities
  • 16. Model of the Delivery Strategy
    • Definition of a Cost Function for a Mission
    • To be minimized by the runtime system
    • Cost = deviation from the reference values specified by the game author
  • 17. Reference Difficulty Curve
  • 18.
    • Navigation Difficulty Curve
    • Inter-task dependences
      • C NoDep penalizes the absence of dependences from previous tasks (Nd a 0 or 1)
      • C FailedDep penalizes the absence, in the previous tasks of the sequence, of a task on which the a th task depends (Fd a 0 or 1)
    CIs
  • 19. Distributions
    • Task Type
    • Learning Style
    • Covered Skills
  • 20. CIs
    • Entertainment and quality thresholds
    • Trend for entertainment and quality
    • Performance curve
  • 21. SkillBenefit Threshold
    • The benefit for the player must be above a threshold
    • Repetition
  • 22. Runtime AI Engine
    • EE built atop of the Torque Game Engine
    • Genetic Algorithm implementation
    • The EE can operate also in absence of the specification of the delivery strategy
      • Continuous adaptation of the game flow without aiming at the achievement of target knowledge levels predefined by the author
        • Reinforcement Learning implementation
  • 23. Sample Application: Travel in Europe
    • The TiE platform is designed to promote the knowledge of the European cultural heritage to a wide audience using the paradigm of multiplayer SGs
    • A cultural treasure hunt across Europe
      • Visit a certain number of cities (objective), and in each town the player has one or more missions to accomplish.
  • 24. Sample Application: Travel in Europe
    • Mission are characterized by a number of questions
    • The player’s explores the urban environments in search of the places indicated in the mission
    • At each target PoI, the player looks for 3D icons
    • Each icon triggers a task session through which the user can virtually manipulate pieces of the artistic heritage and face quizzes related to the PoI
  • 25. Sample Application: Travel in Europe
    • The structure and high-level plot is quite simple and schematic
    • But it is a scalable and flexible format
      • Cost-effective development (3 rd parties & UGC)
    • Little overhead on the player , who can focus his attention on the contents
      • Easy to understand overall structure
      • Minigames instances of templates
    • 3D settings, game mechanics and interaction modalities necessarily high quality
  • 26. Conclusions (I)
    • Methodologies to support effective authoring of SGs
      • Abstract model
        • VW , tasks
    • Support authors to focus on defining the tasks
      • No game scripting
        • hard-coding events, actions, locations and contents of a specific game.
  • 27. Conclusions (II)
    • Task annotation allows reusing tasks also in different games
      • UGC: involvement of user communities
      • A new authoring model
        • Exploit repositories of tasks
        • Build educational games specifying a VW and the task delivery strategy criteria for the missions
          • Learnt at runtime by a CI engine.
      • New perspectives to pedagogical experts and game designers to provide players with adaptive contents
  • 28. Upcoming work
    • Extensive user testing is now needed
      • Assess and analyze the support for effective learning in a real entertainment context
    • Open issues
      • An extensive validation of the user and task models and of the delivery strategy cost function
      • The speed of the runtime user adaptation process
    • However, it is important that the developed games are able to attract users, similarly to commercial videogames, even if they deal with educational topics
  • 29. Thank you!