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Particularly useful for teachers looking for materials on the following topics: Teaching Speaking, Teaching Speaking and Grammar, Teaching Speaking in Communicative Context, Teaching the Macro Skills, …

Particularly useful for teachers looking for materials on the following topics: Teaching Speaking, Teaching Speaking and Grammar, Teaching Speaking in Communicative Context, Teaching the Macro Skills, Approaches in Teaching Grammar, Communicative Teaching of Grammar, and Language Teaching.

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  • 1. •  When you know a language, you know the sounds, the words, and the rules for their combination. Dr. Elineth Elizabeth L. Suarez 3
  • 2. Phoneme Morpheme Syllable Word Phrase STRESS RHYTHM Clause INTONATION Utterance Text Source: Erin Lowry Senior English Language Fellow Workshop for Manizales Bilingüe February 17, 2009
  • 3. Remember! “Your understanding of the components of language will determine to a large extent how you teach a language.” (Brown 1994) Dr. Elineth Elizabeth L. Suarez 5
  • 4. Motor perceptive skills Interaction skills
  • 5. MotorPerceptive Skills Perceiving Interaction skills Recalling Articulating
  • 6. Challenges How to integrate skills How to give a reason for communication (information gaps) How to provide opportunities for authentic communication contexts How to assess these skills in an objective manner Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez 8
  • 7. Input 2: Language Development http://www.mc.road9media.com/en/index.php option=com_content&view=article&id=375:learning-how-totalk&catid=26:baby&Itemid=19
  • 8. Stages of 2nd Language Acquisition •  (see handout) 1.  Preproduction (0-6 months) 2.  Early Production (6 months-1yr) 3.  Speech Emergence (1-3 years) 4.  Intermediate Fluency(3-5 years) 5.  Advance Fluency (5-7 years)
  • 9. Speaking MotorPerceptive Skills Perceiving Recalling Interaction skills Articulating
  • 10. Speaking MotorPerceptive Skills Perceiving Recalling Interaction skills Articulating
  • 11. Speaking MotorPerceptive Skills Perceiving Recalling Interaction skills Articulating
  • 12. Speaking MotorPerceptive Skills Perceiving Recalling Interaction skills Articulating
  • 13. Speaking MotorPerceptive Skills Perceiving Recalling Interaction skills Articulating
  • 14. Speaking MotorPerceptive Skills Perceiving Recalling Interaction skills Articulating
  • 15. Speaking MotorPerceptive Skills Perceiving Recalling Interaction skills Articulating
  • 16. Source: Bygate, M., 1995 Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez
  • 17. INPUT: H. D. BROWN’S PRINCIPLES FOR TEACHING SPEAKING SKILLS 1.  Focus on both fluency and accuracy 2.  Provide intrinsically motivating techniques 3. Encourage the use of authentic language 4. Provide appropriate feedback and correction 5. Capitalize on the natural link between speaking and listening 6. Give students opportunities to initiate oral communication 7. Encourage the development of speaking strategies Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez 21
  • 18. FLUENCY is about being familiar with something through repeated exposure or practice. •  Juggling is an example of motor fluency and requires repeated practice to do Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez well. 22
  • 19. Fluency vs. Accuracy Accuracy Speaking at normal •  Speaking using speed, without correct forms of hesitation, grammar, repetition, or selfvocabulary, and correction, and with pronunciation the smooth use of connected speech Fluency Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez
  • 20. 2. Provide intrinsically motivating techniques Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez 24
  • 21. 3. Encourage the use of authentic language in meaningful contexts Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez 25
  • 22. 4. Provide appropriate feedback and correction Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez
  • 23. 5. Capitalize on the natural link between speaking and listening Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez
  • 24. Why is it important to know grammar? 1) to communicate clearly, meaningfully, and appropriately; 2). to assess and remediate the errors and error patterns of second-language learners; and 3) the points of grammar can be used as the basis for teaching sentence structure and macro skills (speaking, listening, reading, and writing) Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez 30
  • 25. INPUT: What is grammar? It is well to remember that grammar is common speech formulated -Somerset Maugham •  ‘gramma’ meaning ‘letter’ •  Grammar refers to the language patterns that indicate relationships among words in sentences. •  ‘the abstract system of rules in terms of which a person’s mastery of his native language can be explained.’ (CrystaL, 1995) Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez 31
  • 26. INPUT:What is grammar? •  Descriptive Grammar= describes a person’s basic linguistic knowledge. •  Prescriptive Grammar= tell what rules to follow •  Teaching Grammar= used in schools to learn another language; Dr. Elineth Elizabeth L. Suarez 32
  • 27. INPUT: What is grammar? •  •  •  •  •  •  The grammar includes everything speakers know about their language. The sound system= Phonology The system of meanings= Semantics Rules of word formation= Morphology Rules of sentence formation= Syntax Vocabulary of words= Lexicon Language use = Pragmatics Dr. Elineth Elizabeth L. Suarez 33
  • 28. Inductive Deductive Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez 34
  • 29. GRAMMAR RULES Examples in sentences Apply rules to examples Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez 35
  • 30. Examples in sentences Learners develop mental set of strategies to Conclude /identify the rules Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez 36
  • 31. QUESTION: What is a Communicative Classroom? A classroom with activities that engage the learners in more meaningful and authentic language use. Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez 37
  • 32. QUESTION: What is a Communicative Classroom? •  Lessons contain activities where learners communicate (spoken or written) •  tasks are completed by means of interaction with other learners •  Plenty of pair, group and mingling activities •  Emphasis is on completing the task successfully through communication with others Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez 38
  • 33. What Methods Work? Source: National Training Laboratories, Bethel Maine Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez
  • 34. Question: How should grammar be taught in a communicative classroom? Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez 40
  • 35. Approaches to Language Teaching versus analyzing the language Use the language elements to communicate Using the language Use the language in order to acquire it 41
  • 36. •      As communicative language teachers we believe in teaching grammar, BUT we teach it for communicative purposes. •  We do not reject explicit rules, BUT we use them through/in communicative activities. Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez 42
  • 37. Communicative language Teaching (CLT) is based on the notion of communicative competence; asserts that the main objective of a second or foreign language program must be to provide language learners with the information practice and much of the experience needed to meet the communication needs in the second or foreign language (Canale, 1983) Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez 43
  • 38. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) •  focus is being placed on the interpretation, expression, and negotiation of meaning; •  CLT guides language learners beyond memorized patterns and monitored repetitions to take part in meaningful interaction •  i.e. use the target language in a context--the performance learners are required to do outside their language class. Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez 44
  • 39. Teach grammar •  to accomplish defined communication tasks Objective of Communicative Competence Model: grammar for communication's sake Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez 45
  • 40. Models in Planning Lessons How is grammar taught? PPP Model •  Presentation •  Practice •  Production Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez 46
  • 41. Alternative Model Task Teach Task 1.  The learners perform a communicative task the teacher set for them. 2.  Teacher focuses on form to help the students use it to communicate. 3.  The form is practiced before the students re-perform the original / similar task. Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez 47
  • 42. The Pyramidal Strategy in Teaching Grammar Elicitation Highlighting of Form Controlled Practice Free Stage Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez 48
  • 43. Communicative Competence Model by Canale and Swain (1988:73) “In our view, an integrative theory of communicative competence may be regarded as one in which there is •  a synthesis of knowledge of basic grammatical principles, •  knowledge of how language is used in social contexts to perform communicative functions, and •  knowledge of how utterances and communicative functions can be combined according to the principle of discourse” Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez 49
  • 44. Communicative Competence Model •  recognizes that overt grammar instruction helps students acquire the language more efficiently, but •  it incorporates grammar teaching and learning into the larger context of teaching students to use the language. Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez 50
  • 45. •  “By providing instruction that emphasizes both grammatical accuracy and communicative fluency, ESL/EFL teachers will enable learners to have more enriching and meaningful language experiences, which, in turn, will help them become more able and successful language l e a r n e r s a n d users” (WASANASOMSITHI: 1998) Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez 51
  • 46. Focus on grammatical form during communicative interactions rather than form in isolation (Long, 1991 mentioned by Larsen-Freeman, 2006) Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez 52
  • 47. Three-Dimensional Grammar Framework (Larsen-Freeman, 2006) Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez 53
  • 48. FORM/ MEANING/ STRUCTURE SEMANTICS How is it formed? What does it mean? (Accuracy) (Meaningfulness) USE/ PRAGMATICS When /why is it used? (Appropriateness) Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez 54
  • 49. Checklist for a grammar lesson (M.Shahidullah, a Professor from East West University, Bangladesh) 1. grammar should be presented q  in context; q  inductively; 2. there should be authentic tasks or meaningful use of language; and 3. there should be scope for the learners to use grammar, generate their own sentences, for meaningful, real life communication, written or spoken, i.e. there should be a scope for production in a grammar lesson. Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez 55
  • 50. Synthesis: How can we teach grammar? •  Research indicates teaching grammar in isolation does not transfer into real communication •  Grammar is best taught/practiced in communicative contexts •  Supportive feedback is more helpful than overt correction •  Students may need many opportunities to hear, read, practice a new structure before they internalize or produce it– months, years. Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez 56
  • 51. Specific strategies to use •  Use materials and plan activities that feature repeated language patterns •  Use the content of lessons to introduce grammar concepts •  Provide learners with the tools they need to talk about language –  Sentence Building •  Take a long-term view Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez 57
  • 52. End of Presentation Thank You! Dr. Elineth Elizabeth L. Suarez elinethsuarez@yahoo.com Dr. Elineth E. L. Suarez 58