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Kasvatustieteenpäivät EM2012
Kasvatustieteenpäivät EM2012
Kasvatustieteenpäivät EM2012
Kasvatustieteenpäivät EM2012
Kasvatustieteenpäivät EM2012
Kasvatustieteenpäivät EM2012
Kasvatustieteenpäivät EM2012
Kasvatustieteenpäivät EM2012
Kasvatustieteenpäivät EM2012
Kasvatustieteenpäivät EM2012
Kasvatustieteenpäivät EM2012
Kasvatustieteenpäivät EM2012
Kasvatustieteenpäivät EM2012
Kasvatustieteenpäivät EM2012
Kasvatustieteenpäivät EM2012
Kasvatustieteenpäivät EM2012
Kasvatustieteenpäivät EM2012
Kasvatustieteenpäivät EM2012
Kasvatustieteenpäivät EM2012
Kasvatustieteenpäivät EM2012
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Kasvatustieteenpäivät EM2012

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Presentation in FERA 2012 Helsinki

Presentation in FERA 2012 Helsinki

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  • 1. Characteristics of young children’s self-efficacy and confidence in early education classrooms Elina Määttä & Sanna Järvelä Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit University of Oulu, Finland elina.maatta@oulu.fi FERA Conference, Helsinki 22.11.2012
  • 2. Background• Self-efficacy refers to learners’ beliefs in their ability to perform effectively and to succeed in a specific situation (Bandura, 1982, 1997; Zimmerman, 2000 Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2005).• It this study, it is seen as the confidence that young children have in their capability to do the things that they are trying to do in specific learning situations (Pajares, 2003).• This kind of confidence requires the use of self- regulatory procedures that serve as mediators between personal views (e.g., beliefs about success), behaviors (e.g., engaging in a task), contextual characteristics (e.g., teacher feedback and support), and actual learning outcomes (e.g., achievements) (Pintrich, 2004).
  • 3. Background• Self-efficacy refers to learners’ beliefs in their ability to perform effectively and to succeed in a specific situation (Bandura, 1982, 1997; Zimmerman, 2000 Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2005).• It this study, it is seen as the confidence that young children have in their capability to do the things that they are trying to do in specific learning situations (Pajares, 2003).• This kind of confidence requires the use of self- regulatory procedures that serve as mediators between personal views (e.g., beliefs about success), behaviors (e.g., engaging in a task), contextual characteristics (e.g., teacher feedback and support), and actual learning outcomes (e.g., achievements) (Pintrich, 2004).
  • 4. Defining the specific learning situation• The perceptions of the learning context influence learners’ beliefs about themselves and their confidence. In turn, these beliefs and confidence influence the nature and extent of their engagement with learning tasks and situations (Patrick, Ryan, & Kaplan, 2007).• Efficacious interaction refers to individual, child-centered activity that is operationalized by active participation and productive on-task working in different solo and collaborative learning situations (Määttä, Järvenoja, & Järvelä, 2012). – ENGAGEMENT referring to a child’s active participation and productive on-task working – ACHIEVEMENT referring to an actual learning outcome, such as mastering a task – BEHAVIOR referring to actions and positive utterances toward learning activities during the situation
  • 5. Why we need this study?• Teachers tend to reflect on young children’s actions— success and failure—from their own perspective, forgetting that children themselves might attribute their success or failure to entirely different factors.• After all, it is primarily the children’s own experiences of success or failure that guide their actions through different classroom situations and further build their self- efficacy beliefs (Bandura, 1994, 1997).• There is a need for studies that – reach children’s immediate learning experiences in real time. – investigate the factors supporting young children’s learning and confidence.
  • 6. Research questions1. What characterizes efficacious interaction situations in classrooms where young children are perceived to be confident?2. How do young children explain their experiences of confidence and success in efficacious interaction situations?3. Is there a relation between efficacious interaction, confidence, and success?
  • 7. Research designN=24 16 hours of stimulated recall6-8 years old (M=7.375) interviews (n=57, approx. 2 interviews/child, 20elementary school students minutes on average/class) – What happened in the situation?32 hours of video observations – What did you do in the situation described in the video clip?(40 minutes on average/class) – What happened before this – Whole group discussions situation? – Small group activities – What happened after this – Individual work situation? – How confident were you of succeeding in the situation? Why? – How did you succeed in the situation? Why?
  • 8. Data analysis Phase 1 Identifying efficacious interactionepisodes (alpha .927, Classroo m Efficaciou s kappa intercatio .859) intercatio n n
  • 9. Data analysis Phase 1 Phase 2 Identifying Characteristics of efficacious efficacious interaction situations interaction (alpha .883, kappa .795) episodesClassroo m Efficaciou sintercatio n intercatio n Child-task Child-teacher-task Child-child-task
  • 10. Data analysis Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Identifying Characteristics of Experiences of efficacious efficacious confidence and interaction situations success interaction (alpha .979, kappa .881/ episodesClassroo m Efficaciou s Child-task alpha .927, kappa .859)intercatio intercatio n n Child-teacher-task Confidence Success Child-child-task High Well Moderate Poorly Low Task related factors Previous experiences Feelings and emotions Own behavior and actions Feedback and support
  • 11. Data analysis Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Identifying Characteristics of Experiences of efficacious efficacious confidence and interaction situations success interaction episodes Classroo m Efficaciou s Child-task Confidence Success intercatio intercatio n n Child-teacher-task Child-child-task High Well Moderate Poorly Phase 4 LowRelations of efficacious interaction Task related factorscontexts, confidence and success Previous experiences Feelings and emotions Cross-tabulations with χ²-test Own behavior and Effect sizes for χ² with actions Cramer’s V Feedback and support
  • 12. Results• Video observation data contained 434 60 classroom activity episodes, of which f=3 0 31 percent (f = 135) were efficacious 50 interaction episodes.• Three types of interaction contexts 40 were found; 30 – child-teacher-task (C-T-T) occurred f=1 when the teacher was facilitating 5 f=1 20 the child’s task understanding either 2 individually in solo learning 10 situations or in joint learning situations with peers • For example, when a class was starting 0 to work with a new topic, the teacher led C-T-T C-T C-C-T the joint discussion with questions, instructions, and feedback.
  • 13. – child-task (C-T) Example occurred when a child Linda: I would like to draw eyes for the was working with the dragon. [engagement] notebook Anna: Not yet; I have to finish the body • For example, when a first. And I might also want to draw those. child was calculating Linda: Please, please let me do that! sums in the math book. Eeli: Could you both draw a model of the– child-child-task (C-C-T) eye, and we could decide then which one occurred typically in is better for the dragon? collaborative learning Linda: Okay, I can draw this kind of eye. situations [talks while drawing] • For example, when Anna: That looks great. Okay, you can children were creating a draw the eyes. But make them exactly like story of dragons and that. drawing a poster out of it. [Linda draws the eyes on the poster; achievement] Mari: Wow, those look really great. Well done Linda! Linda: Thanks! [she is smiling] I think they look better than the ones I drew before.
  • 14. 2. How do young children explain their experiences of confidence and success in efficacious interaction situations?• Levels of confidence, estimation 9% of success High Moderate 16% 37% Low 38% Not able to name
  • 15. 2. How do young children explain their experiences of confidence and success in efficacious interaction situations?• Levels of confidence, estimation 9% of success High Moderate 16% 37% Low 38% Not able to name 7% Succeede d well Succeede 93% d poorly
  • 16. 2. How do young children explain their experiences of confidence and success in efficacious interaction situations?• Levels of • Reasons for confidence confidence, estimation and success 57 9% of success High Moderate 16% 37% 23 Low 38% 11 Not able to 7 name 2 7% Succeede d well Succeede 93% d poorly
  • 17. 3. Is there a relation between efficacious interaction, confidence, and success?• A statistically significant relation between confidence and success (χ² = 24.338, df = 3, p = 0.000, Cramer’s V = 0.659).• This means that when children experienced high confidence, they also experienced succeeding well. Children who experienced low confidence, more likely experienced succeeding poorly.
  • 18. Conclusions• This study provided an opportunity for young children to describe their learning experiences in their own words.• The results clearly indicate that efficacious students can be identified with this kind of child originated research methods.• It characterized efficacious interaction situations as meaningful learning context for young children to experience and identify their confidence and succeeding.• Efficacious interaction was identified only during 9+ hours (total of 32 hours)
  • 19. • 75 % of the children experienced high or moderate confidence.• 93 % of the children experienced succeeding well.• Further analyses will focus on 1) exploring how efficacious interaction can be supported, 2) identifying children’s self-regulatory behavior and processes in efficacious interaction situations, 3) clarifying the relationship between efficacious interaction and self-efficacy.
  • 20. Thank you! Selected references: Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy. The exercise of control. New York, NY: W.H Freeman & Company. Määttä, E., Järvenoja, H., & Järvelä, S. (2012). Triggers of students’ efficacious interaction in collaborative learning situations. Small Group Research, 43(4), 497–522. Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Self-efficacy: An essential motive to Elina Määttä learn. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 82-91. elina.maatta@oulu.fi

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