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The extremes of the earth

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The extremes of the earth The extremes of the earth Document Transcript

  • THE EXTREMES OF THE EARTH<br />By Marcela Tejada<br />FIVE HIGHEST MOUNTAINS <br />(http://blog.xnepali.com/top-10-highest-peaks-in-the-world/)<br />Mount Everest 8850m (29035ft) Nepal<br />The highest peak in the world, Mount Everest is also called Qomolangma/Chomolungma (Tibetian) and Sagarmatha (Nepali). Chomolungma in Tibetian means “Mother of the Universe” or “Goddess Mother of the Snows” and Sagarmatha in Nepali means “Head of the Sky”. <br />At 29,029 feet (8848 meters), Mt. Everest is famed as the highest peak on earth. And that’s true. It’s also not true. It all depends on how one looks at it. Technically, Mt. Everest’s rocky peak is the highest bit of land from sea level. But because the earth isn’t a perfect sphere, certain lower points are in effect “higher” in space. Mt. Everest is less close to the moon and stars than another mountain which is relatively unknown. And that is Mt. Chimborazo in Ecuador. It’s just over 20,000 feet high, so while it’s not as tall as Mt. Everest, it is actually closer to outer space due to the shape of the earth.<br />K2 (Qogir) 8611m (28250ft) Pakistan / China<br />K2, the second-highest mountain on Earth, is located in the Karakoram segment of the Himalayan range, on the border between the Gilgit-Baltistan region of the Pakistan administered Northern Areas and the Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County of Xinjiang, China. Kangchenjunga 8586m (28169ft) Nepal<br />Kangchenjunga translated means “The Five Treasures of Snows”, as it contains five peaks, four of them over 8,450 metres.<br />Kangchenjunga Main 8,586m (28,169 ft.)<br />Kangchenjunga West (Yalung Kang) 8,505m (27,904 ft.)<br />Kangchenjunga Central (Middle) 8,482m (27,828 ft.)<br />Kangchenjunga South 8,494m (27,867 ft.)<br />Kangbachen 7,903m (25,925 ft.)<br />Lhotse 8501m (27920ft) Nepal<br />This peak is connected to Mount Everest via the South Col. In addition to the main summit at 8,516 metres above sea level, Lhotse Middle (East) is 8,414 metres and Lhotse Shar is 8,383 metres. The rises 3.2 km (1.98 mi) in only 2.25 km (1.4 mi) ofhorizontal distance, making it the steepest face of this size in the world.( HYPERLINK " http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lhotse" " _blank" Wikipedia)<br />Makalu I 8462m (27765ft) Nepal<br />Makalu is located 22 km (14 mi) east of Mount Everest, on the border between Nepal and Tibet. Makalu is an isolated peak whose shape is a four-sided pyramid.<br />MountainLocationHeightFirst to summit (nationality)DateMetersFeet 1. Everest1Nepal/Tibet8,85029,035Edmund Hillary (New Zealander, UK), Tenzing Norgay (Nepalese)May 29, 1953 2. K2 (Godwin Austen)Pakistan/China8,61128,250A. Compagnoni, L. Lacedelli (Italian)July 31, 1954 3. KangchenjungaNepal/India8,58628,169G. Band, J. Brown, N. Hardie, S. Streather (UK)May 25, 1955 4. LhotseNepal/Tibet8,51627,940F. Luchsinger, E. Reiss (Swiss)May 18, 1956 5. MakaluNepal/Tibet8,46327,766J. Couzy, L. Terray, J. Franco, G. Magnone-Gialtsen, J. Bouier, S. Coupé, P. Leroux, A. Vialatte (French)May 15, 1955<br />FIVE TALLEST BUILDINGS <br />(http://skyscraperpage.com/diagrams/?searchID=200)<br />Skyscrapers are about to shoot into the sky to almost twice the height of the current tallest building in the world, which happens to be the Taipei 101 at 508m if you include the spire. I found this out on  HYPERLINK " http://skyscraperpage.com/diagrams/?1178316" o " Skyscraper page" " _blank" Skyscraperpage, an incredible site showing pix and stats for the tallest buildings as of now, those in construction, and those in plan. Save some time at the end of your day to scroll through this diagrammed info. Seems New York and Chicago are no longer vying for the top spots, although New York’s future Freedom Tower and the future Chicago Spire will both be impressive. Many Asian cities are reaching on up there, with Hong Kong and Shanghai both trying to top Taipei. But, if Dubai has anything to say about it, they will dwarf all others by 2010.<br />These pix are here only to entice you to the site, where you get to see everything bigger and in better relation to each other…<br /> Building, cityYearStoriesHeightRankmft1.Burj Khalifa (formerly Burj Dubai), Dubai, The United Arab Emirates20101608282,7162.Taipei 101, Taipei, Taiwan20041015081,6673.World Financial Center, Shanghai, China20081014921,6144.Petronas Tower 1, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia1998884521,4835.Petronas Tower 2, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia1998884521,4836.Greenland Financial Center, Nanjing, China2009664501,4767.Sears Tower, Chicago19741104421,4518.Guangzhou West Tower, Guangzhou, China20091034381,4359.Jin Mao Building, Shanghai, China1999884211,38110.Two International Finance Centre, Hong Kong2003884151,362<br />Burj Khalifa – 2010 – United Arab Emirate Dubai<br />Burj Khalifa is the world’s highest building without any competition. More than just the world’s tallest building, Burj Khalifa is an unprecedented example of international cooperation, symbolic beacon of progress, and an emblem of the new, dynamic and prosperous Middle East. The construction began in 2004 and finished in 2010. At 828 metres (2,716 feet) and more than 160 stories, Burj Khalifa holds many other records such as, tallest free-standing structure in the world and elevator with the longest travel distance in the world. I wasn’t able to find the exact cost of the tower, but according to several resources, 1.5 billion U.S dollars paid to construct this breathtaking living wonder. “Burj Khalifa is the Arab world’s tribute to the art and science of modern engineering and design. Burj Khalifa symbolizes the aesthetic unison of many cultures – from Arabia and the rest of the world.” – Mohamed Alabbar.<br />Taipei 101 – 2004 – Taipei Taiwan<br />in 2004, architecture engineers designed an inspiring tower that had 66 floors. But when construction began, they decided to increase its high and floors to 101. This step was taken to bring the world’s attention to a growing financial district. The name of the tower reflects its floor count and carries symbolic meanings alluding to technology and Asian tradition. At 508m, no words can describe the view. Its just a wonder on earth. The multi-use structure houses retail facilities on Levels 1-4; a fitness center on Levels 5-6; offices on Levels 7-84; restaurants on Levels 86-88; observation decks on Levels 89, 91, and 101; and communication facilities on Levels 92-100. Cost around 1.76 billion U.S dollars.<br />Shanghai World Financial Center – 2008<br />With 101 floors above ground level and soaring to a height of 492m, this project embodies Mori Building’s original “Vertical Garden City” concept and incorporates the company’s vast know-how and experience. Offering office space with cutting-edge specifications and all the functions expected of a world-class international financial center, Shanghai World Financial Center is a hub of culture and information, and boasts state-of-the-art security, standard-setting hospitality and superb urban facilities including world’s highest observatory, sophisticated retail space and elegant conference facilities and a five-star luxury hotel. Cost 1.20 billion U.S dollars and comprises of 101 floors.<br />International Commerce Center – 2010- Hong Kong HK China<br />Elegant, modern and mind blowing skyscraper, shining downtown Hong Kong China. The construction began in 2002 and completed this year 2010. The International Commerce Center is a unique development featuring a cutting-edge commercial space luxury residential development, modern retail and two 6-star hotels in a single location. This is not just a business address, but a destination – offering to Hong Kong a single location in which to live, work and play, within reach of locals and visitors alike by virtue of being located on major rail lines. The observation deck in International Commerce Centre (ICC) will open in the fourth quarter of 2010. The deck will be on the 100th floor of Hong Kong’s tallest building, giving visitors a 360-degree view of the enthralling cityscape. The deck will cost over HK$100 million. The observation deck operator is calling on creative minds around the world to enter an ICC Observation Deck naming contest and come up with a name that reflects the significance of this landmark project. The ICC Tower comprises 118 floors, and reaches 484 m (1,588 ft) in high.<br />Petronas Towers – Malaysia<br />The structure is high-strength concrete, a material familiar to Asian contractors and twice as effective as steel in sway reduction. n both engineering and design, the Petronas Towers succeed at acknowledging Malaysia’s past and future, embracing the country’s heritage while proclaiming its modernization. The end result, says Pelli, is a monument that is not specifically Malaysian, but will forever be identified with Kuala Lumpur. Each tower has 88 floors and costs 1.6 billion U.S dollars. The towers reach 451.9 m in the air, and give an extraordinary view.<br />THE DEEPEST OCEAN<br />The  HYPERLINK " http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2004/CuiMiuChin.shtml" Marianas Trench, off of Guam in the Pacific Ocean, is the deepest point in the world’s oceans. It it over 7 miles – more than 36,000 feet – deep. If Mt. Everest were placed in the trench the summit would be more than a mile under the surface. The pressure at the bottom of the trench is more than 1,000 times stronger than at sea level. The United States Navy sent two naval officers to the bottom in a vessel called the Trieste in 1960. They observed fish, shrimp and other creatures living on the bottom of the sea floor.<br />FIVE BIGGER CITIES<br />http://www.biggest-cities.com/<br />The United States Census Bureau maintains a Population Clock which shows the current world population by minute.<br />Urban Area /City NameCountryEstimatedpopulation (in millions) 1. TokyoJapan34.2 2. Mexico CityMexico22.8 3. SeoulSouth Korea22.3 4. New YorkUSA21.9 5. Sao PauloBrazil20.2<br /> HYPERLINK " http://allwomenstalk.com/20-largest-cities-in-the-world/" o " 20 Largest Cities in The World …" Largest Cities in The World …<br />Tokyo …<br />Country:  HYPERLINK " http://allwomenstalk.com/20-largest-cities-in-the-world/" " undefined" JapanPopulation:28,025,000When was it established?Its history begins in 1457, but it was completely rebuilt after the Second World War.<br />Why go there?<br />Tokyo is a gorgeous city, that is very cultural and welcoming. The scenery is amazing, and I know that I’ve always wanted to go and check out this amazing place. Tokyo is a world commanding " ˜finance center' and is miles ahead with technology, so there will be plenty to see. The locals are welcoming, and the whole place is like a paradise, at least that’s what I’ve heard from my friends who’ve been there last summer!<br />Mexico City …<br />Country: Mexico<br />Population: 18,131,000<br />When was it established? Mexico gained independence in 1821, and since then Mexico City has been growing and expanding throughout the centuries.<br />Why go there?<br />Mexico City is the capital of Mexico, but it has been influenced by many cultures. The buildings have a Paris look to them, and the floating gardens are certainly a landmark that everybody should see. The city has 160 museums, over 100 art galleries and a constant cultural activity that means everyone should visit it!<br />Mumbai …<br />Country: IndiaPopulation: 18,042,000<br />When was it established? While the city has existed since 250BC, its history is plagued with riots and lobbies. The current Mumbai became established in 1950, but riots in 1992 and the bombing of the underground have meant that a lot of buildings have been rebuilt, and Mumbai has a new look once again.<br />Why go there?<br />With a huge cultural influence, a mix of spicy yet rich foods and several big landmarks, Mumbai is a brilliant place to go  HYPERLINK " http://allwomenstalk.com/20-largest-cities-in-the-world/" " undefined" sight seeing. From the famous Chowpatty beach to the Elephant Caves, there is something for everybody, and I know that I will definitely be visiting in the future. For the ultimate Mumbai experience, try and time your trip to include one of the popular festivals.<br />Sao Paulo …<br />Country: Brazil<br />Population: 17, 711, 00<br />When was it established? Sao Paulo officially became a city in 1711, and has flourished since then. However, since the twentieth century, it has been under pressure to out perform Brazils other major city,  HYPERLINK " http://allwomenstalk.com/20-largest-cities-in-the-world/" " undefined" Rio De Janeiro. This has lead to an increase in policing, and a tidy up of the city.<br />Why go there?<br />Sao Paula is another very cultural place, and it also hosts many big events. These include the Sao Paulo fashion week, which is attended by huge fashion names such as Gucci, and the March for Jesus. There are also more controversial events, such as the gay march. The temperatures are high, and there is a site here for everyone, from the famous Museum of Art to the Interlagos grand prix track. I find the culture here fascinating, and the locals are really welcoming too, offering tasters of local food and showing tourists the way of life there.<br />New York City …<br />Country: USA<br />Population: 16,626,000<br />When was it established? It took New York City a long time to become the version we know and love. Before that, back in 1624 it was called New Amsterdam and it had been inhabited by Native Americans. Later on it was owned by the British who then changed it’s name to  HYPERLINK " http://allwomenstalk.com/20-largest-cities-in-the-world/" " undefined" NewYork. But it became America’s largest city in 1790 and held that position ever since!<br />Why go there?<br />New York City is the cultural center of America, buzzing with films, art and music. 47 million tourists visit each year, to see Broadway, Central Park, the Bronx zoo and all of the other amazing attractions on offer. The food there is diverse, with bagels, kebabs, cheesecakes and pizza's being the most common choices. The New York City Hall is worth a viewing, and many of the Universities are housed in very old, gorgeous buildings. I’d definitely recommend visiting this brilliant city!<br />