Framework III Metafiction (process made visible) Linda Hutcheon +Linguistic and narrative structures +The role of Outward the reader Not a focusContemporaryphenomenon Intellectual and Affective Responses Reader as Comparable to Co-creator Life Experiences
Hypothesis 1Because reading is based on a seriesof unconscious cognitive processes,the act of reading is carried out“naturally”, i.e. not realizing how itgets done or, for example how we getto inhabit a text, specially whenreading fiction.
Hypothesis 2Metafictional texts, like any othertext, have the potential to draw usinto their narrative world, butbecause of their specific qualitiesthey can also drastically interrupt thecognitive processes involved inreading and make us realize theartifice of reading in our ownexperience.
Methodology• Literature review: – Theoretical (metafiction, reading cognition, and reader-response theory) – Critical (primary sources)• Experimental tests• Data analysis
Tests• Altered texts –Change some aspects of the text (the ending, or certain words / types of words) to observe their particular effects.• Text check-marking –Readers are asked to check mark moments of the text when they experience a specified variant (a memory, a feeling, etc.)• Post reading questionnaires• Additional use of well established tests such as Author Recognition Test (ART) and Self-Report Measure of Fantasy.
Examples (preliminary) + Elements signaling location, time and disposition +Lack of personal pronouns
Data Analysis• Effects of specific features of the texts.• Location of those effects.• Possible mapping of text structures by measure of devices affecting/triggering cognitive processes.
Preliminary Corpus - Miguel de Unamuno, Niebla - Jorge Luis Borges, El libro de arenaTheoretical and and Ficciones. argumentative - More to add. - Julio Cortázar, “Continuidad de los parques”. Experimental -Benito Pérez Galdós, “La novela en el tranvía”.
Possible conclusions• The study of the effects a metafictional text elicits in our cognitive processes should provide information regarding how they operate.• Give a possible explanation for the “naturalization” of reading.• Highlight characteristics of what we consider conventionally a metafictional text.
Preliminary bibliography• Appleyard, J. A. Becoming a Reader: The Experience of Fiction from Childhood to Adulthood. Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press, 1990. Print.• Berlyne, D. E. Aesthetics and Psychobiology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1971. Print.• Bouson, J. Brooks. The Empathic Reader: A Study of the Narcissistic Character and the Drama of the Self. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1989. Print.• Brandt, Deborah. Literacy as Involvement: The Acts of Writers, Readers, and Texts. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1990. Print.• Burke, Michael. Literary reading, cognition and emotion : an exploration of the oceanic mind. New York: Routledge, 2011. Print.• Cognitive Poetics Goals, Gains and Gaps. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2009. Print. Cognitive Poetics in Practice. London: Routledge, 2003. Print.• Deixis in Narrative: A Cognitive Science Perspective. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1995. Print.• Empirical Approaches to Literature and Aesthetics. Norwood, N.J: Ablex Pub, 1996. Print.• Evolution, Literature, and Film: A Reader. New York: Columbia University Press, 2010. Print.• Evolutionary and Neurocognitive Approaches to Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts. Amityville, N.Y: Baywood Pub, 2007. Print.• Gavins, Joanna. Text world theory : an introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2007. Print.• Hogan, Patrick Colm. Cognitive Science, Literature, and the Arts: A Guide Forhumanists. New York: Routledge, 2003. Print.• Identity of the Literary Text. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1985. Print.• Jackson, Holbrook. The Anatomy of Bibliomania: In Two Volumes. New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1931. Print.• László János. The Science of Stories: An Introduction to Narrative Psychology. London: Routledge, 2008. Print.• Manguel, Alberto. A History of Reading. London: HarperCollins, 1996. Print.• ---. A Reader on Reading. New Haven, [Conn.]: Yale University Press, 2010. Print.• ---. The City of Words. Toronto: House of Anansi Press, 2007. Print.• Miller, J. Hillis. The Ethics of Reading: Kant, De Man, Eliot, Trollope, James, and Benjamin. New York: Columbia University Press, 1987. Print.
Preliminary bibliography• Narrative and Consciousness: Literature, Psychology, Andthe Brain. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. Print.• Neuroaesthetics. Amityville, N.Y: Baywood Pub, 2009. Print.• New Directions in Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts. Amityville, N.Y: Baywood, 2006. Print.• Orejas, Francisco G. La Metaficción En La Novela Española Contemporánea: Entre 1975 Y El Fin De Siglo. Madrid: Arco Libros, 2003. Print.• Proust, Marcel. On Reading. New York: Macmillan, 1971. Print.• Reader Development in Practice: Bringing Literature to Readers. London: Facet, 2008. Print.• Reception Study: From Literary Theory to Cultural Studies. New York: Routledge, 2001. Print.• Rick Gekoski. Reading is overrated | Books | guardian.co.uk. 17 Feb. 2011. Web. 16 Mar. 2011.• Rosenblatt, Louise M. The Reader, the Text, the Poem: The Transactional Theoryof the Literary Work. Paperback ed. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1994. Print.• Saunders, Max. Self Impression: Life-Writing, Autobiografiction, and the Forms of Modern Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.• Sorensen, Diana. The Reader and the Text: Interpretative Strategies for Latin American Literatures. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1986. Print.• Stockwell, Peter. Cognitive Poetics: An Introduction. London: Routledge, 2002. Print.• The Book History Reader. Abingdon, UK: Routledge, 2006. Print.• The Experience of Reading: Louise Rosenblatt and Reader-Response Theory. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook Publishers, 1991. Print.• The Literary Animal: Evolution and the Nature of Narrative. Evanston, Ill: Northwestern University Press, 2005. Print.• The Work of Fiction: Cognition, Culture, and Complexity. Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 2004. Print.• Tsur, Reuven. Toward a Theory of Cognitive Poetics. 2nd ed. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press, 2008. Print.• Wijsen, Louk M. P. T. Cognition and Image Formation in Literature. Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 1980. Print.• Zunshine, Lisa. Why We Read Fiction: Theory of Mind and the Novel. Columbus, OH: Ohio State UP, 2006. Print.• ----. Theory of Mind and Fictions of Embodied Transparency. Narrative 16.1 (2008): 65-92. Print.• Zunshine, Lisa (ed. and introd. ). Introduction to Cognitive Cultural Studies. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins UP, 2010. Print.