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VIRTUAL Eli - Physical Assessment

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  • Prepare the client Explain the procedure to the client Client should empty the bladder Assess from LEAST INVASIVE to MORE INVASIVE Prepare the client Explain the procedure to the client Client should empty the bladder Assess from LEAST INVASIVE to MORE INVASIVE
  • 1. INSPECTION - cephalocaudal: adults - proximo-distal: child
  • 2. PALPATION - light: 1-2 cm - deep: 4-6 cm, not beyond 10 cm
  • 3. PERCUSSION - direct: plexor - indirect: pleximeter and plexor - blunt: wider (kidney punch)
  • Flatness  location: thigh Dullness  liver and heart - thudlike Resonance  normal lung  hollow Hyperresonance  emphyematous lung --. booming Tympanic  stomach
  • Biological weapon na pwede gamitin sa world war 3…lol Kung ang pwet bumubuga ng di kanais-nais…ano nalang kaya ang bunganga? My geed….
  • Muscle size – check atrophy or hypertrophy Contractures – shortening of tendons
  • Confusion – loss of ability to think clearly Disorientation – loss of ability to recognize time, place and person Stupor – deepsleep Coma – no motor response na even deep pain Obtundation – reduced ability to be aroused Aphonia – Inability to understand written and spoken words Agnosia – inability to recognize objects by use of of the 5 senses
  • Ask the patient to walk back and forth across the room. Observe for equality of arm swing , balance and rapidity and ease of turning. Next, ask the patient to walk on his  tiptoes,  then on  heels . Ask the patient to  tandem  walk. Test patient's ability to stand with feet together with eyes open and then closed. (Romberg's test). Reassure patient that you will support him, in case he becomes unsteady. Normal: Patient can walk in balance with the arms swinging at sides and can turn smoothly. They should be able to stand with feet together without falling with eyes open or closed.
  • Transcript

    • 1. PHYSICAL ASSESSMENT www.virtualeli.net
    • 2. PHYSICAL ASSESSMENT
      • Prepare the client
        • Explain the procedure to the client
        • Client should empty the bladder
        • Assess from LEAST INVASIVE to MORE INVASIVE
      • Prepare the client
        • Explain the procedure to the client
        • Client should empty the bladder
        • Assess from LEAST INVASIVE to MORE INVASIVE
    • 3. TYPES OF POSITION
      • Dorsal Recumbent Position
      • Supine (Horizontal recumbent) or Fowler’s position
      • Prone position
      • Lithotomy
      • Sim’s position
      • Orthopneic position
      • Sitting position
    • 4. TYPES OF POSITION
      • Side-lying position
      • High fowler’s position or sitting position
      • Semi-fowler’s position
      • Low-fowler’s position
      • Trendelenburg position
      • Reverse Trendelenburg position
    • 5. METHODS OF EXAMINATION
      • 1. INSPECTION
      • - cephalocaudal: adults
      • - proximo-distal: child
    • 6. METHODS OF EXAMINATION
      • 2. PALPATION
      • - light palpation: 1-2 cm
      • - deep palpation: 4-6 cm, not beyond 10 cm
    • 7. METHODS OF EXAMINATION
      • 3. PERCUSSION
      • - direct: plexor
      • - indirect: pleximeter and plexor
      • - blunt: wider (kidney punch)
    • 8. PERCUSSION SOUNDS/TONES
      • Flatness  location: thigh
      • Dullness  liver and heart - thudlike
      • Resonance  normal lung  hallow
      • Hyperresonance  emphyematous lung --. booming
      • Tympanic  stomach
    • 9. METHODSOF EXAMINATION
      • 4. AUSCULTATION
      • Stethoscope:
      • USE BELL – to assess LOW PITCH SOUND
      • USE DIAPHRAGM – to assess HIGH PITCH SOUND
    • 10. I-P-P-A
      • Inspection
      • Palpation
      • Percussion
      • Auscultation
    • 11. I-AM-PE-PA
      • For abdominal assessment
      • Inspection
      • Auscultation
      • Percussion
      • Palpation
    • 12. skin
      • The largest organ system of the body
      • Pallor
      • Anemia—decreased hematocrit
      • Shock—decreased perfusion, vasoconstriction
      • Local arterial insufficiency
      • Albinism—total absence of pigment melanin
      • Vitiligo—a condition characterized by destruction of the melanocytes in circumscribed areas of the skin
      • (may be localized or widespread)
    • 13. SKIN: CYANOSIS
      • CAUSE:
      • Increased amount of unoxygenated hemoglobin:
      • Central—chronic heart and lung disease
      • cause arterial desaturation
      • Peripheral—exposure to cold, anxiety
    • 14. SKIN: JAUNDICE
      • CAUSE:
      • Increased serum bilirubin concentration (>2–3 mg/100 mL) due to liver dysfunction or hemolysis, as after severe burns or some infections
      • Carotenemia —increased level of serum carotene from ingestion of large amounts of carotene-rich foods
      • Uremia —renal failure causes retained urochrome pigments in the blood
    • 15. SKIN: ERYTHEMA
      • CAUSE:
      • Hyperemia —increased blood flow through engorged arterial vessels, as in inflammation, fever, alcohol intake, blushing
      • Polycythemia vera —increased red blood cells, capillary stasis (Common board question)
      • Carbon monoxide poisoning
      • Venous stasis—decreased
    • 16. SKIN
      • Primary Lesions
      • Macule : Flat, nonpalpable skin color change <1 cm in diameter (e.g., freckle)
      • Patch : Flat, nonpalpable skin color change >1 cm in diameter (e.g., vitiligo, stage 1 of pressure ulcer)
      • Papule : solid, elevated lesion <0.5 cm in diameter (e.g., elevated nevi)
      • Plaque : solid, elevated lesion >0.5 cm in diameter (e.g., psoriasis)
    • 17. SKIN
      • Wheal : Elevated mass with transient borders caused by movement of serous fluid into the dermis (e.g., urticaria, insect bites)
      • Nodule : Elevated, palpable, solid mass; extends deeper into the dermis than a papule, 0.5–2.0 cm (e.g., erythema, cyst)
      • Tumor : >1–2 cm; tumors do not always have sharp borders
    • 18. SKIN
      • Bullae : same as vesicle only >0.5 cm (e.g., contact dermatitis, large second-degree burns, bulbous impetigo, pemphigus)
      • Pustule : pus-filled vesicle or bullae, <0.5 cm in diameter (e.g., acne, impetigo)
      • Cyst : subcutaneous or dermis mass
      • Vesicle : elevated mass containing serous fluid accumulation, <0.5 cm (e.g., herpes simple and zoster, chickenpox, second-degree burns)
    • 19. Skin – secondary lesions
      • Scales : flaking of the skin’s surface (e.g., dandruff, psoriasis)
      • Crust : dried serum, blood, or pus on skin’s surface (e.g., residue after vesicle- herpers)
      • Atroph y: thinning of skin surface and loss of markings (e.g., aged skin)
      • Erosion : loss of epidermis (e.g., ruptured chickenpox vesicle)
    • 20. SKIN-SECONDARY LESIONS
      • Fissure : linear crack in the epidermis that can extend into the dermis (e.g., chapped hands or lips, athlete’s foot)
      • Ulcer: Skin loss extending past epidermis
      • Scar (Cicatrix): Skin mark left after healing of a wound or lesion; Young scars: red or purple; Mature scars: white or glistening
      • Keloid: Hypertrophied scar tissue; Elevated, irregular, red
    • 21. SKIN-SECONDARY LESIONS
      • Lichenification/Callus: Thickening and roughening of the skin; May be secondary to repeated rubbing, irritation, scratching (e.g., contact dermatitis)
    • 22. SKIN- Vascular Lesions
      • Petechia: Round red or purple macule; Small: 1–2 mm Associated with bleeding tendencies or emboli to skin
      • Ecchymosis : Round or irregular macular lesion; Larger than petechia; Color varies and changes: black, yellow, and green hues; Associated with trauma, bleeding tendencies
    • 23. ECCHYMOSIS
    • 24. SKIN- Vascular Lesions
      • Spider Angioma: Red, arteriole lesion; Central body with radiating branches; Noted on face, neck, arms, trunk; Associated with liver disease, pregnancy, Vitamin B deficiency
      • Telangiectasia (Venous Star): Shape varies: spider-like or linear; Color bluish or red; Associated with increased venous pressure states (varicosities)
    • 25.  
    • 26. SPIDER ANGIOMA
    • 27. TELANGIECTASIA
    • 28. HaI r
      • Thick, evenly distributed
      • Except for the palmar and plantar surfaces, lips, nipples, and the glans penis
      • Vellus : Fine, unpigmented hair that covers most of the body
      • Terminal hair : Coarser, darker hair of scalp, eyebrows, and eyelashes; axillary and pubic hair becomes terminal with the onset of puberty
      • Alopecia vs. Hirsutism
      • Thin, brittle hair occurs with hypothyroidism
    • 29.  
    • 30. HIRSUTISM
    • 31. ALOPECIA
    • 32.  
    • 33. NAILS
      • Normal nail : Has an angle of approximately 160° between the fingernail and nail base; nail feels firm when palpated.
    • 34.  
    • 35. NAILS
      • Clubbing : Hypoxia causes an angle greater than 180° between the fingernail and nail base; nail feels springy when palpated.
    • 36. NAILS
      • Koilonychia (Spoon nail) :
      • Characterized by concave curves; associated with iron deficiency anemia.
    • 37. NAILS
      • Beau’s line : Characterized by transverse depression in the nails; associated with injury and severe systemic infections.
    • 38. NAILS
      • Paronychia : Characterized by an inflammation at the nail base (may be swollen, red, or tender); associated with trauma and local infection
    • 39. Face
      • COMMON ABNORMAL FACES
      • Exophthalmos - protrusion or bulging of the eye that results from an increased pressure in the eye’s orbit (Common in HYPERTHYROIDISM)
    • 40. FACE
      • Acromegaly - elongated head with prominent forehead, nose, and lower jaw and enlarged nose, lips, and ears; excessive growth hormone .
    • 41. NAILS
      • Cushing’s syndrome - round or “moon” face with excessive hair growth (mustache and sideburns); excessive production of adrenal hormones or in clients taking adrenal hormone medications.
      • Clients with chronic renal failure have pale, swollen tissue around their eyes.
    • 42. FACE
      • Parkinson’s disease causes decreased facial mobility and expressions, producing a masklike face; results from progressive, degenerative, neurologic disorders
    • 43. Eye
      • COMMON REFRACTIVE ERRORS
      • • Myopia (nearsightedness): elongation of
      • the eyeball or an error of refraction
      • that causes the parallel rays to focus
      • in front of the retina.
    • 44.  
    • 45. EYES
      • Hyperopia (farsightedness): an error of
      • refraction in which rays of light
      • entering the eye are brought into
      • focus behind the retina.
    • 46. EYES
      • • Presbyopia : an error of refraction
      • resulting from a loss of elasticity of
      • the lens of the eye.
    • 47. EYES
      • ASTIGMATISM – abnormal curvature of the lens
    • 48. EYES
      • 20/20 - normal vision
      • 20/200 – LEGALLY BLIND
      • PERRLA (pupils equal, round, reactive to light and accommodation)
      • Pupil should constrict quickly in direct response to light and the opposite pupil should also constrict. Pupils should be equal in size. Pupillary accommodation causes constriction in response to objects that are near, and dilation occurs to accommodate distant.
    • 49. EAR
      • Symmetrica l, with upper attachment at level of eye’s corner (lateral canthus), flesh color.
      • Cerumen , a waxy yellow or brown substance is normal.
      • Ear canal is pinkish and dry.
      • Intact tympanic membrane , translucent or pearly gray.
      • Check for Hearing Loss
    • 50.  
    • 51. EAR – WEBER’s TEST
      • Weber test :
      • (1) Strike tuning fork against your
      • fist or pinch the prongs together.
      • (2) Hold the base of the vibrating
      • fork with your thumb and index
      • finger and place the base of the
      • fork on center of top of client’s
      • head
      • (3) Ask client to describe the sound.
      • (4) Record results. Sound perceived
      • equally in both ears; results
      • indicate a “negative” Weber test.
    • 52. WEBER’s TEST
      • Salient points:
      • lateralization test that comapres the R & L ear
      • NEGATIVE – means the sound is heard in both ears or is localized at the center of the head (NORMAL FINDING)
      • POSITIVE – means ABNORMAL FINDING
        • Sound heard better in IMPAIRED EAR – conductive hearing loss
        • Sound heard better in NORMAL EAR – Sensorineural hearing loss
    • 53. EARS – RINNE’s test
      • Rinne test :
      • (1) Vibrate prongs of tuning fork
      • and place base of fork on mastoid
      • process of ear being tested and
      • note the time on your watch until
      • the client no longer hears sound
      • (2) Move the vibrating fork in front of
      • the ear canal, noting the length of
      • time sound is heard
      • (3) Record results.
      • (4) Repeat test, opposite ear.
      • Sound heard longer in front of the auditory
      • meatus than on the mastoid process
      • because air conduction is twice as long
      • as bone.
    • 54. RINNE’s TEST
      • Salient points:
      • Compare AIR CONDUCTION with BONE CONDUCTION
      • POSITIVE RINNE – means AIR CONDUCTION is greater than BONE CONDUCTION (Normal finding)
      • NEGATIVE RINNE – means BONE CONDUCTION time is equal to or longer than air conduction (Abnormal finding)
      • Sound heard longer in front of the auditory meatus than on the mastoid process because air conduction is twice as long as bone.
    • 55. Nose
      • Located symmetrically, midline of the face and is without swelling, bleeding, lesions, or masses. Patent nares.
      • A small amount of clear watery discharge is normal.
      • Rhinitis , red, swollen mucosa with copious clear, watery
      • discharge occurs with a cold. Discharge becomes purulent
      • if a secondary bacterial infection develops.
    • 56.  
    • 57. NOSE
      • NASAL SINUSES
    • 58. NOSE
      • A normal mucosa with clear, watery nasal discharge that tests positive for glucose following head injury or nasal, sinus, or dental surgery usually indicates the leakage of cerebrospinal fluid. If present, stop the exam and notify the nursing supervisor immediately.
    • 59. MOUTH
      • COMMON ABNORMAL BREATH ODORS
      • Halitosis
      • Acetone breath (“fruity” smell) is common in malnourished or diabetic clients with ketoacidosis.
      • Musty smell is caused by the breakdown of nitrogen and presence of liver disease.
      • Ammonia smell occurs during the end stage of renal failure from a buildup of urea.
    • 60. CAUSE OF ACETONE BREATH
    • 61.  
    • 62. MOUTH
      • COMMON TONGUE ABNORMALITIES
      • Enlarged tongue may indicate glossitis or stomatitis or may occur with myxedema or acromegaly.
      • Deep red, smooth surface occurs with glossitis caused by Vitamin B12, iron, or niacin deficiency or as a side effect from chemotherapy.
      • Thick white coating with red, raw surface is Candidiasis (thrush) indicating immunosuppression.
    • 63. CANDIDIASIS
    • 64. NECK & THROAT
      • Muscles are symmetrical with head in central position. Movement through full range of motion without complaint of discomfort or limitation.
      • Lymph nodes should not be palpable. Small, movable nodes are insignificant.
      • No distention of Jugular veins with head of bed elevated 45 to 60 degrees.
      • Thyroid cannot be visualized. It should be smooth, soft, nontender, and should not be enlarged. ( Common board question)
    • 65. IF JUGULAR VEIN DISTENTIONS NOTED, THESE ARE THE POSSIBLE DIAGNOSIS
    • 66. CHEST
    • 67. CHEST
      • Respirations are quiet, effortless, and regular, 12–20 breaths per minute.
      • Thorax rises and falls in unison with respiratory cycle.
      • Ribs slope across and down, without movement or bulging in the intercostal spaces.
    • 68. CHEST
      • BARREL CHEST
      • PIGEON CHEST
      • FUNNEL CHEST
      • KYPHOSIS
      • SCOLIOSIS
    • 69. PIGEON CHEST
    • 70. FUNNEL CHEST
    • 71. BARREL CHEST: Due to loss of elasticity of the alveoli cause by smoking – common in emphysema
    • 72. KYPHOSIS: USUALLY CAUSE BY AGING
    • 73. SCOLIOSIS
    • 74. SCOLIOTIC
    • 75. MILHUAWKEE BRACE : WORN 23 hours and 1 hour for BATHING (FOR SCOLIOTIC PATIENT)
    • 76. CHEST (LUNGS)
      • Cheyne-Stokes - regular cycle where the rate and depth of breathing increase, then decrease until apnea (usually about 20 seconds) occurs
      • Biot's respiration- periods of normal breathing (3-4 breaths) followed by a varying period of apnea (usually 10 seconds to 1 minute)
    • 77. CHEST (LUNGS)
      • Abnormal (Adventitious) Breath Sounds
      • Crackles/Rales : fluid or mucus
      • Rhonchi/Gurgles : loud, harsh sound with snoring or moaning quality; narrowed air passages (tumor, secretions, swelling)
      • Stridor
      • Wheezes
      • Pleural friction rub : grating
    • 78. BREAST
    • 79. BREAST
    • 80. BREAST
      • Palpate breast: Using the palmar surfaces of the fingers, palpate the breast by gently compressing the mammary tissues against the chest wall. Palpation may be performed from the periphery to the nipple, in either concentric circles or in wedge sections
    • 81. BREAST
      • BSE performed monthly by women age 20 years and older.
      • From ages 20 to 40, examination every 3 years by a
      • practitioner and yearly after 40 years of age.
      • Regardless of age, women with a family history
      • should have a yearly examination by a practitioner.
      • A baseline mammogram should be performed for
      • women aged 35 to 39 . The frequency of diagnostic
      • mammograms is determined by family history and
      • symptoms: yearly for women 35 years of age with a
      • family history and yearly for all women over 40 years
      • of age
    • 82. MAMMOGRAM at the age 40 (ANNUALLY)
    • 83. Abdominal
    • 84. ABDOMEN
      • Empty the bladder
      • Flex the knees – to relax the abdominal muscles
      • Use warm hands and stethoscope
      • Employ a slow approach
      • NOTE:
      • I-Am-Pe-Pa are the sequence of assessment
      • Men breathe ABDOMINALLY while women breathe more COASTALLY
    • 85. ABDOMEN - Inspection
      • Check SKIN :
        • Note scars, stretch marks (striae gravidarum) , dilated veins (varicose veins) bruises and color changes
      • Check UMBILICUS :
        • Signs of distention and hernia
      • Check CONTOUR:
        • Flat, rounded, protuberant, bulging flanks (ascites)
      • Check SYMMETRY:
        • Asymmetrical may indicates pathological conditions
    • 86. ALCOHOLIC PATIENT MAY LEAD TO LIVER CIRRHOSIS
    • 87. ABDOMEN - AUSCULATION
      • Check BOWEL SOUNDS
        • Frequency of sound: 5to 35 minutes (listen for 5 minutes before indicating (-) bowel sound)
        • Listen in all four quadrants
        • Best time to auscultate: BETWEEN MEALS
      • Check BORBORYGMI SOUND
        • HYPERACTIVE “gnawing” sound or gurgles
      • Check BRUITS
        • Vascular sounds at abdominal aorta – REPORT THIS IMMEDIATELY.
    • 88. ABDOMEN - PERCUSSION
      • Orientation to the abdomen
      • Measurement of liver and spleen
      • Identify ascitic fluid, solid, air-filled masses, and ir in the stomach
      • Determining kidney tenderness – posterior Costovertebral ANGLE (Common board question)
    • 89. PERCUSSING THE KIDNEY in COSTOVERTEBRAL ANGLE (Common BOARD QUESTION)
    • 90. ABDOMEN - PALPATION
      • Light palpation – notes areas of tenderness of pain, note muscle guarding by depressing palm 1 cm in depth
      • Deep palpation – note masses and structure by depressing palm 3-6 inches
    • 91. ABDOMEN
      • Example:
      • Contour is flat or rounded and bilaterally symmetrical. Umbilicus is depressed and beneath the abdominal surface. Abdomen rises with inspirations and falls with expirations, free from respiratory retractions. Tympanic heard over the stomach. Dullness noted at RUQ.
      • Tympany is heard because of air in the stomach and intestines.
      • Dullness is heard over organs (e.g., the liver).
    • 92. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
    • 93. CARDIOVASCULAR
      • CARDIAC CYCLE
      • From INFERIOR VENA CAVA  RIGHT ATRIUM  (TRICUSPID VALVE)  RIGHT VENTRICLE  (PULMONIC VALVE)  PULMONARY ARTERY  LUNG CAPILLARY  PULMONARY VEIN  LEFT ATRIUM  (MITRAL VALVE)  LEFT VENTRICLE  (AORTIC VALVE)  AORTA  SYSYTEM
    • 94.  
    • 95. CARDIOVASCULAR SOUNDS
      • “ LUB”  CLOSURE OF ATRIOVENTRICULAR VALVE
      • ( TRICUSPID and MITRAL VALVE)
      • “ DUB”  CLOSURE OF SEMILUNAR VALVES
      • (PULMONIC AND AORTIC VALVE)
    • 96. VALVES
    • 97.  
    • 98. CARDIOVASCULAR
      • Cardiac abnormalities
        • STENOSIS
        • MITRAL REGURGITATION
        • ANEURYSM
        • SHUNTING
    • 99. STENOSIS: NARROWING OF THE OPENING
    • 100. REGURGITATION: WEAKENING OF THE VALVES
    • 101. SHUNTING: AN ABNORMAL OPENING
    • 102. CARDIO ABNORMAL: ANEURYSM
    • 103.  
    • 104. CEREBRAL ANEURYSM
    • 105. ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSM: AVOID PALPATION (Common board question)
    • 106. MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM
      • Check muscle size
      • Check contractures
      • Check muscle tone
      • Check Muscle strength
      • Check fasciculation
      • Check tremor
    • 107.  
    • 108. CONTRACTURES – Common in BURNED patient (Mgt: FREQUENT MOBILITY)
    • 109. MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM
      • TYPES OF JOINT MOVEMENTS
      • Abduction
      • Adduction
      • Rotation
      • Circumduction
      • Eversion
      • Inversion
      • Pronation
      • Supination
      • Flexion
      • Extension
      • Hyperextension
    • 110.  
    • 111. MUSCULOSKEETAL SYSTEM
      • Abnormal Spinal Curvature
      • LORDOSIS
      • KYPHOSIS
      • SCOLIOSIS
      • GIBBUS
    • 112.  
    • 113.  
    • 114. GIBBUS
    • 115. LORDOSIS – the pride of pregnancy
    • 116. NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • Check mental status by using GLASGOW COMA SCALE
      • Check confusion
      • Check Disorientation
      • Check Lethargy
      • Check Obtundation
      • Check Stupor
      • Check Coma
      • Check Aphasia
      • Check Agnosia
    • 117. DEFINITIONAL CHALLENGE
      • Confusion – loss of ability to think clearly
      • Disorientation – loss of ability to recognize time, place and person
      • Stupor – deepsleep
      • Coma – no motor response na even deep pain
      • Obtundation – reduced ability to be aroused
      • Aphonia – Inability to understand written and spoken words
      • Agnosia – inability to recognize objects by use of of the 5 senses
    • 118. NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • Check sensory functions
      • Check Reflexes
      • Check motor functions
      • Check Cerbral functions
    • 119. NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • Check SENSORY FUNCTIONS
      • Pain – use pin
      • Temperature – use test tubes
      • Light touch – wisp of cotton
      • Vibration – tuning fork
      • Position – U & D toe
      • Discriminating sensation
    • 120. NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • Check reflexes: Reflexes are graded on a scale of 0 to 4:
      • 0 No response
      • 1+ Diminished (hypoactive)
      • 2+ Normal
      • 3+ Increased (may be interpreted as normal)
      • 4+ Hyperactive (hyperreflexia)
    • 121. NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • Check MOTOR FUNCTIONS
      • 0 – no muscular contraction
      • 1 – barely detectable
      • 2 – active movement of the body
      • 3 – active movement of body against gravity
      • 4 – active movement against gravity and some resistance
      • 5 – active movement against full resistance without fatigue
    • 122. NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • Check CEREBELLAR FUNCTIONS
      • Posture and gait – tandem walking (walking heel-to-toe in straight line)
      • Smooth & coordinated movements – finger to nose test
      • Equilibrium – ROMBERG TEST (positive when patient losses balance when eyes are closed)
    • 123.
      • ROMBERG TEST
    • 124.  
    • 125. GENITOURINARY SYSTEM
      • PATTERNS of URINATION
      • POLYURIA
      • OLIGURIA
      • ANURIA
      • FREQUENCY
      • NOCTURIA
      • DYSURIA
      • ENURESIS
      • INCONTINENCE
      • RETENTION
    • 126. GENITOURINARY SYSTEM
      • POLYURIA  production of abnormal large amount of urine by the kidneys (>2000 mL in 24 hours)
      • OLIGURIA  low urine output, <500ml/day or 30 ml/hr
      • Frequency  voiding at frequent intervals
      • NOCTURIA  voiding 2 or more times at night
      • URGENCY  Feeling that the person must void
      • DYSURIA  Voiding that is either painful or difficult
    • 127. GENITOURINARY SYSTEM
      • ENURESIS  involuntary urination in children beyond the age when voluntary bladder control is acquired (4-5 yo)
      • INCONTINENCE  involuntary urination
      • RETENTION  impaired bladder emptying and urine accumulates and bladder becomes overdistended
    • 128. 12 cranial nerves
      • O
      • O
      • O
      • T
      • T
      • A
      • F
      • V
      • G
      • V
      • A
      • H
      • YOU ANSWER! A simple effort do count much. Scan your books. Let’s work together.
    • 129. CRANIAL NERVES
      • To remember whether the CN is motor, sensory or both..try this
      • SOME
      • SAYS
      • MARRY
      • MONEY
      • BUT
      • MY
      • BROTHER
      • SAYS
      • BAD
      • BUSINESS MAKE MONEY
    • 130. END. THANK YOU.
      • REVIEW the salient points emphasized in this presentations. This will help you enough to understand the situation in the board exam.