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Virtual Eli - Nursing Research
 

Virtual Eli - Nursing Research

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  • To know, refine and expand body of knowledge. To describe  what  descriptive research (understand) To explain  why is and how can  correlational research To predict/control  what will be  experimental  what will happen to us on october 21, 2011 or december 21, 2012. dahil gusto kung malaman – I maid sa simple research In nursing: To improve skills and quality of service to adopt evidence based practice in making patient care decision
  • It is the integration of best research evidence to clinical research or investigation. Kung baga na experience Example:
  • Noon ganito mukha mo-  dahil sa syensya  ganito kana Noon mukha kang hayop  dahil sa syensya  ngayon hayop pa rin Kung pangit sa iyong tingin  ganun din sa aking tingin. Noon ang cellphone singlaki ng room  ngayon sing liit ng palad nalang
  • To improve performance: F ocus on an oppurtunity for improvement Organize a team Clarify the current process Understand the degree of change Select a solution for improvement  PLAN-DO-STUDY-ACT  which means a two concepts of finding solution.
  • Scientific process that validate and refine existing knowledge in relation to phenomena or problem. Kasi kung wlang phenomeno wlang mgkaka interes mg research eh. Oh example bakit common ang TB sa Philippines  my ngstudy  dahil sa overcrowded na tau/proximity. Bakit common ang hepa B at AIDS sa mga call center agent  oh my ng research  ang sabi common kasi ang mga homosexuals ngtatrabaho sa bpo indutry  kaya ang mga kahayupan na yan ngyayari. Sa interview pa lang tinatanong na  what is the the biggest mistake that you ever swallowed? Hehehe joke lang. My point is  if der’s a problem or a phenomena  der’s research
  • An occurrence or a circumstance that is observed, something that impress the observer as extraordinary , or a thing that appears to and is constructed by the mind
  • Hypothesis  educated guess 
  • Informed consent  voluntariness, sound mind, at least 18 years old Functions of IC: PROTECTIVE (safeguard the client’s integrity) and PARTICIPATIVE (involve in decision making) RIGHT to full disclosure  veracity  honesty Non malifecence  do no harm 3 types of harm: PHYSICAL - negligence MENTAL  assualt and battery MORAL  salnder and libel
  • Right for self- determination Right to make decision In research- the right to join or not join
  • Problem identification  Statement of the Problem – has “How, Will, Is there and What”
  • Usually contains “Is there, What, Will and How”
  • INTEROGTIVE sentence
  • G- general applicability and use Re – researchable F – feasible and measurable F – factors of feasible research (TIME, MONEY, EXPERIENCE, INSTRUMENT, POPULATION) I – Importance N – novelty or originality S – Significance to nursing
  • G- general applicability and use Re – researchable F – feasible and measurable F – factors of feasible research (TIME, MONEY, EXPERIENCE, INSTRUMENT, POPULATION) I – Importance N – novelty or originality S – Significance to nursing
  • Limitations  cannot controlled Lack of time truthfulness of the subject
  • research reports, which are descriptions of studies written by the researchers who conducted them
  • prepared by someone other than the original researcher
  • Relationship of two or more variables.
  • Theoretical framework  adopted from the book Conceptual framework  you made it
  • Sensitivity  the refinement of instrument use to measure the data Example 1-3  mild 4-6  moderate 7-10  severe pain
  • According to purpose: basic and applied According to approach: Experimental and non experimental According to data: Quanti and quali
  • Basic  to know Applied  to find solution
  • Basic
  • Applied
  • Applied
  • applied
  • Applied
  • Quanti  exploratory  deductive  hard science  NUMBERS  CONCISE Quali  explanatory  inductive  soft science (complicated)  ESSAY  BROAD
  • QUALITATIVE: Phenomenological Historical Ethnographic Grounded
  • Think of codex-q
  • Developmental  longitudinal and cross sectional Content  retrospective and prospective
  • De facto De juri
  • Random  probability Non-random  non probability
  • Interview  structure and unstructured Questionnaire  close ended and open ended
  • Interval  IQ dina 100 / IQ ron 70 /IQ Randy below sea level  Dina has a higher IQ than Ron with 30 interval. Range  fat of Dina 50g / fat of Ron 100 g  2:1 ratio Levels of measurements NOMINAL – cannot be arranged  age, gender, religion ORDINAL - can be arranged  poor, good, excellent, very satsifactory
  • T-test H-test F-test Z-test Chi square

Virtual Eli - Nursing Research Virtual Eli - Nursing Research Presentation Transcript

  • Elizalde Bana CMT,RN www.virtualeli.net
    • “ There must be a better way…”
    • In nursing:
    • To improve skills and quality of service
    • to adopt evidence based practice in making patient care decision
    • It is the integration of best research evidence to clinical research or investigation.
  • Previously
    • Now INTROCAN B-Braun
    • NOW  STATLOCK
    • It is the integration of best research evidence to clinical research or investigation.
    • (June 2007 NLE Question)
    • To improve performance:
    • F ocus on an oppurtunity for improvement
    • O rganize a team
    • C larify the current process
    • U nderstand the degree of change
    • Select a solution for improvement  PLAN-DO-STUDY-ACT  which means a two concepts of finding solution
  •  
  • The systematic, empirical, controlled and critical investigation of a hypothetical proposition in relation to a natural phenomena/problem.
    • An occurrence that impress the observer as extraordinary ,
    • or a thing that appears to and is constructed by the mind
    • Phenomenon + hypothesis = research problem
    • NOTE: without hypothesis there is no research problem, only a problem
  •  
    • 1. to generate new knowledge
    • 2. to develop new gadget and techniques
    • 3. to evaluate a program or a technique
    • 4. to generate or validate theories
    • Problem solver
    • Data collector
    • Subject
    • Evaluator
    • Client’s advocate
    • Consumer
    • Informed consent
            • At least 18 years old
            • AUTONOMY
            • COMPETENCE or Sound mind
            • VOLUNTARINESS
            • FULL DISCLOSURE
            • NON-MALIFECENCE
            • Emancipated minors
            • > married before 18 years old
            • >earning for living
            • NOTE: SIGNATURE  for final execution.
    • Informed consent  needs to be voluntary, with sound mind, at least 18 years old
    • Functions of Informed Consent :
    • PROTECTIVE (safeguard the client’s integrity) and PARTICIPATIVE (involve in decision making)
    • Non-malifecence  do no harm
    • Right for self- determination
    • Right to make decision
    • In research- the right to join or not join
    • 1. Interviewee has communicable disease (safety first rather than confidential
    • 2. When there is a risk or threat to national safety
    • 3. When the Patient is SUICIDAL
    • 4. Ehen the patient permits or give the permission to reveal his information
    • Introduction
    • Review of Related Literature
    • Methodology
    • Presentation , Analysis and Interpretation of data
    • Summary of findings, conclusions and recommendations
    • Conceptual
    • Design and Planning
    • Empirical
    • Analytical
    • Dissemination
    • Problem identification - Conceptual
    • Review of Related Literature - Conceptual
    • Theoretical framework - Conceptual
    • Formulation and testing hypothesis - Conceptual
    • Research methodology – Design & Planning
    • Data collection - Empirical
    • Analysis and interpretation data - Analytical
    • Summary, conclusion and recommendations - Dissemination
    • Data gathering
    • Interpretation of data
    • Review of related literature
    • Definition of terms
    • Hypothesis
    • significance of the study
    • Developing a time table
    • budgeting
    • Communication of findings
    • Includes:
    • Problem identification
    • Review of Related Literature
    • Theoretical framework
    • Formulation and testing hypothesis
    • A. Scope and delimitations
    • B. Define terms
          • Conceptual definition
          • Operational definition
    • C. Review of related literature
  • PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
    • Example : What is the Effect of memory plus supplements in passing the NLE on nursing graduates who Undergone review program?
    • RESEARCH PROBLEM is interrogative form; (ends with a question mark { ? })
    • TITLE and HYPOTHESIS : Declarative form
    • 87. Nurse Belinda is a research about the effect of massage to lessen the pain in cancer patients. What would be an appropriate nursing research problem statement
    • The effect of massage on pain in cancer patients
    • To determine the effect of massage on pain in cancer patients
    • The effect of massage therapy on pain in patients with cancer.
    • What is the effect of massage on pain in cancer patients?
    • Significance of the problem
    • Problem research ability
    • Feasibility of the problem
    • Interest of the researcher
    • Novelty and originality
    • Experience and clinical field
    • Nursing literature
    • Social issues
    • Theory
    • Ideas form external sources
    • Must be specific (who, what, where, when)
    • Words must not be more than 15 words
    • Study population and focus of the study should be indicated
    • Independent and dependent variables must be stated
    • Advised / encouraged to omit unnecessary words as possible , example : “ A study of “, “Report of“, “an investigation “
    • G – general applicability & use
    • Re - Researchable
    • F – Feasible & measurable
    • F – Factors or feasible research (TIME, MONEY, EXPERIENCE, INSTRUMENT)
    • I - Importance
    • N – Novelty or originality
    • S – Significance to nursing
    • Scope
    • the COVERAGE (who, what , where, when)
    • Limitation
    • Aspect / phase of the study which may adversely affect the result but the research has no control
    • - the researcher has no control
  • REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
    • Prevent duplication
    • To be oriented on what is known and unknown (CBQ 2008 NLE)
    • to establish the conceptual context of the study
    • To check the feasibility of the study
        • To be informed on research approach / research design
    • research reports, which are descriptions of studies written by the researchers who conducted them.
    PRIMARY SOURCE
    • prepared by someone other than the original researcher
    SECONDARY SOURCE
  • FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS
    • An educated guess, intellectual guess that needs to be tested
    • A statement of the supposed/ expected between the Independent and dependent that needs to be tested
    • Belief that are considered true but they have not been scientifically tested
    • Eg.“In the NLE, all long answers are likely to be correct”
    • CONCEPT
    • – a term that abstractly describes and name an object or phenomenon
    • The Board Examination may give a series of easy question. GRAB ALL THAT YOU CAN GET... According to their framework there are at least 50 research and management questions
    • An Example of which ...
    • Question: Nurse Betty is assigned to the Standards and Research department. Which of the following would nurse Betty consider as a valid nursing research hypothesis.
    • The e ffects of preoperative massage therapy on relieving postoperative anxiety in 105 female subjects who had a laparoscopic gynecologic surgery procedure done.
    • The effects massage on the intra- and postoperative anxiety in laparoscopic gynecologic.
    • There is no difference between Lagundi cough syrup and a commercial anti-tussive medication in preventing episodes of coughing in patients with increased ICP.
    • There is a difference between acupuncture and massage therapy in relieving pain.
    • Board Examination – TIP TO IDENTIFY A HYPOTHESIS (it contains)
    • 1. V ariables (IV and DV)
    • 2. P opulation
    • 3. O utcome (Result of the testing done)
    • The e ffects of preoperative massage therapy on relieving postoperative anxiety in 105 female subjects who had a laparoscopic gynecologic surgery procedure done.
    • The effects massage on the intra- and postoperative anxiety in laparoscopic gynecologic.
    • There is no difference between Lagundi cough syrup and a commercial anti-tussive medication in preventing episodes of coughing in patients with increased ICP.
    • There is a difference between acupuncture and massage therapy in relieving pain.
    • RA NS
    Research Hypothesis Alternative Hypothesis statistical Hypothesis Null Hypothesis
    • Simple Hypothesis – a simple hypothesis predicts a relationships between one independent variable and one dependent variable
    • Eg. Satisfactory performance of Sta. Monica College of Nursing is related to the success of NLE
    Hypothesis IV DV
    • Complex Hypothesis – predicts relationship between two or more variables
    • Eg. Hereditary, environment and quality instruction are related intelligence, motivation and performance in school
    IV IV IV DV IV
    • Directional/Predictive Hypothesis – predictive hypothesis specifies the direction between the variables
    • Eg. People who drink alcohol are more prone to have cancer of the liver
    IV DV
    • Non-Directional Hypothesis – A non-directional hypothesis predicts the relation but does not specify the what it is
    • Eg. There is a difference in the level of anxiety of pre-op pts. Who receive pre-op instruction than those who do not receive such instruction
    ? IV DV
    • Null Hypothesis (H 0 ) – is an assumption that there is no difference between the studied variables. Sometimes called WORKING HYPOTHESIS
    • There is no difference between students of UST and Dominican College with regards to their performance in the NLE
    = IV IV DV
    • N
    U L L Hypothesis “ no significance” “ no difference” “ has the same”
    • If you reject the NULL HYPOTHESIS , the Hypothesis is ALTERNATE HYPOTHESIS OR RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS it is denoted by the symbol Ha.
    • Therefore
    • > the rejection of Ho means acceptance of Ha
    • > the acceptance of Ha means rejection of Ho
  • Let’s Assimilate
    • The hypothesis that there is no difference between NCLEX and CGFNS in term of level of difficulty. What type of hypothesis
    • Null Hypothesis
    • Directional Hypothesis
    • Complex hypothesis
    • Simple Hypothesis
  • Let’s Assimilate
    • The hypothesis that Homosexuality on Cebu is a product of genes, nurture, culture and sexual evolution
    • Null Hypothesis
    • Directional Hypothesis
    • Complex hypothesis
    • Simple Hypothesis
    • The hypothesis that failure to control the population of the Philippines will lead to starvation.
    • Non-Directional Hypothesis
    • Predictive Hypothesis
    • Simple hypothesis
    • Complex Hypothesis
  •  
  • Conceptual Framework – Concept that are put together because of their relevance to a common theme Chose “B” “ Long Choices are correct”mentality Patient-focused Answers Educated Guess Theory – Process of Elimination
    • Conceptual Framework
    • Theoretical Framework
    Is a structure of concepts and/or theories pulled together as a map for the study NOTE: CONSTRUCTED PRIMARILY BY THE RESEARCHER himself Is a structure of concepts that exists in the literature, a ready-made map for the study (Adaptation of a previous design/map) [ CONSTRUCTED BY ANOTHER RESEARCHER] Eg. In a research you adapted Maslow’s hierarchy of Needs
  •  
    • 3 criteria in choosing design
      • 1. RELIABILITY – consistency of the data
      • 2. VALIDITY – when it measures what it intends to measure
      • 3. SENSITIVITY - ability to detect fine differences
    • According to purpose: Basic and Applied
    • According to approach: Experimental and non experimental
    • According to data: Quanti and Quali
    • Basic research
            • PURE/ library research
            • To understand the research
            • No action is undertaken
    • Applied research
            • Action research
            • Solves a problem
    • A research conducted in the 1970s and 1980s to prove that nurse’s cap are potential carriers of bacteria and disease-causing pathogens .
    • Basic
    • Applied
    What is your PRIMARY MOTIVE for research? Is it for knowledge sake or clinical application The PRIMARY MOTIVE of the researcher is to know if the nurse’s cap carriers bacteria and pathogen. SECONDARY MOTIVE clinical practice
    • Let’s Assimilate …
    • A research proved that scrubs are appropriate to replace the traditional nurse’s apron and cap to minimize the cross-contamination of pathogens in the hospital .
    • Basic
    • Applied
    In this case there is an application in the clinical setting. The PRIMARY MOTIVE is the patient’s safety
    • Researchers want to prove the relationship of smoking and the production of catecholamine in the body. This type of research is;
    • Basic
    • Applied
    • Research proves that smoking should be avoided by patients with diabetes mellitus because cigarette smoking increases the production catecholamine in the body. This type of research is,
    • Basic
    • Applied
    • A research proves that patients with myocardial diseases can utilize both showing bathing and basin bathing because both of techniques in bathing shows the same physiologic cost. This type of research is,
    • A. APPLIED
    • B. PURE
    • Dr. Dimayakyak studied the relationship of anesthesia and ways to prevent the increasing number of patients suffering from depression following a CABG Surgery. What type of research is this;
    • Applied
    • Basic
    • Current investigations in the laboratory of Victoria Herrera, MD are focused on the exacerbation of atherosclerosis by hypertension.
    • Basic
    • Applied
    • Quantitative
        • Research findings uses numbers
        • Objective (measurable)
        • Example:
          • surveys, feasibility studies
    • Qualitative
        • Insights and understanding
        • Subjective
        • Example:
        • historical studies, ethnographic studies
    • Common Board Questions
    • Quanti  exploratory  deductive  hard science  NUMBERS  CONCISE
    • Quali  explanatory  inductive  soft science (complicated)  ESSAY  BROAD
    • SPECIFIC TO GENERAL - Inductive
    • GENERAL TO SPECIFIC - Deductive
    • All BED SHEETS that I've seen are white .All BED SHEETS must be white - Inductive
    • All syringes are metal, I have a syringe in my bag, I conclude that there is a metal in my bag - Deductive
    • Phenomenological
    • Historical
    • Ethnographic
    • Grounded
    Quantitative Research
    • CODeX-Q
    • 1. Co rrelation
    • 2. D escriptive
    • 3. Ex perimental
    • 4. Q uasi-Experimental
    Qualitative Research
    • Nurse Timothy, a head nurse in the Standards and Research Department of San Juan De Dios Hospital, He want to conduct a research to determine if the staff nurse are satisfied with functional nursing employed by the hospital. He prefer to use a quantitative research design. Which of the following can he utilize.
    • 1. Phenomenological Research Design
    • 2. Historical Research Design
    • 3. Ground theory research design
    • 4. Ethnological Research
    • 123 c. None of the above
    • 2 only d. 23
    • Non experimental (who, what, where, when) experimental (why, how)
    • Historical ethnographic descriptive True Quasi
    • longitudinal Developmentstudies
    • cross-sectional Feasibility study
    • case study
    • trend analysis
    • survey
    • correlational survey
    • content analysis
    • The Nursing Department conducts a research on the prevention of extravasations of IV medications and fluids using warm and cold compress. The appropriate design is experimental research, which of the following is an experimental research design
    • 1. Descriptive Research
    • 2. Correlational Research
    • 3. Ex Post Fact
    • 4. Quasi Experimental
    • 4 only c. 1 and 4
    • 2 and 4 only d. 3 and 4
    • Can we combine QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH?
  • QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
    • 2 general types
    CRITERIA EXPERIMENTAL NON-EXPERIMENTAL Manipulation of variables PRESENT ABSENT Condition CONTROLLED/ IDEAL REALISTIC
    • Manipulation
    • Control
    • Randomization
    • Lacks 1 or more of the properties of the TRUE experimental group
    • Lack of control group
    • Absence of randomization
  • In Experimental Research
    • The subjects who receive the experimental treatment or intervention.
    Experimental Group/Manipulation Control Group Subjects in an experiment who do not receive the experimental treatment and whose performance provides a baseline against which the effects of the treatment can be measured
  • In Pure/True Experimental
    • There is randomization..
    • So do randomization works
    • This is to avoid systematic bias (focusing in a particular group that may affect the dependent variable)
  • RANDOMIZATION the assignment of subjects to treatment conditions in a random manner Control Group
  • In quasi experimental
    • There is no randomization..
  • Treatment Group Comparison group
    • CONTROL
    Same age bracket 40-50 y.o Writing a prescription to produce the desired outcome in practice. eliminations extraneous variables EG. Homogeneity Diverse age of subjects Accurate Desired RESULTS
    • MANIPULATION
    An intervention or treatment introduced by the researcher in an experimental or quasi-experimental study to assess its impact on the dependent variable . Organism INDEPENDENT VARIABLE/STIMULUS Eg. Massage Therapy Manipulate DESIRED RESPONSE/ Dependent Variable
  • In Experimental Research
    • 10 guinea pigs are being experimented to determine the carcinogenicity of tar on sqaumous epithelial cells. Five ( 5) of the are exposed to tar and the other five (5) did not have the exposure to tar. The five (5) guinea pigs with exposure to tar is the
    • A. control group
    • B. experimental group
    • Development studies
    • Feasibility study
    • case study
    • trend analysis
    • survey
    • correlational survey
    • content analysis
    • Progression / anything about growth and development
    Subjects Duration L ongitudinal Same Long period of time Extended period of time C ross sectional Different One time only One point in time
    • Practicability
    • Viability
    • Possibility of success
    • The processes and causes behind a phenomenon
    • Estimate, predict, project and forecast the future
    • LINE GRAPH - most common graph used in trend analysis
    • TIME – usual label of X axis in the line graph
    • Describing characteristics without giving explanation
    • General, describing characteristics , population and explanation
    • 2 forms
        • Census ( complete enumeration) - ENTIRE
        • Sample survey (simple survey) - PORTION
    • Quality of information found in the document
    • examples
        • The extent to which Filipino values are included on the books
        • The reliability of the book intended for elementary studies
    • Direction and extent of relationship
    • 2 measures:
        • POSITIVE
            • Same direction
            • Directly proportional
        • NEGATIVE
            • Opposite direction
            • Inversely proportional
    • CORRELATIONAL Research
    • Involves the systematic investigation of relationship between or among variables.
    • What is Positive (+) Correlation ↑IV = ↑DV
    Cigarette Smoking Risk of having Dependent Variable Death Lung cancer Lung Disease Prolong coughing Independent Variable 20 & above pack years 20 pack years 15 pack years 10 pack years
    • What is Negative (+) Correlation  IV = ↑DV
    • ↑ IV =  DV
    Eating Foods Risk of having Dependent Variable Certain diseases Cancer Independent Variable Free from bad cholesterol Rich in resveratrol Rich in lycopene Rich in Fiber
    • Correlational with Retrospective Design (EX POST FACTO – Linking the present situation with the past
    • Descriptive Correlational Design –
    • Describing the relationship of variables that exists in the present situation
    • Correlational with Prospective Design –
    • Presuming a cause and then researcher will wait for the presumed effect.
    • What is Hawthorne and Halo effect
    • HAWTHORNE EFFECT – the subject changed their behavior because they are aware of being observed
    • The solution: What is Blind Experiment – subjects do not know if they are in the experimental or control group
    • HALO EFFECT – the observer may have tendency to rate a certain subject a consistently high or low because of the overall impression the subject gives
    • The solution: What is Double Blind – an experimental approach in which neither the subject nor the researcher is aware of who is in the experimental and control group
  • DECIPHERING RESEARCH ACCORDING TO TIME Types of research Focuses on what particular time Historical Research Past Ex Post Facto - Correlation Research with Retrospective Design (linked to past) [ex post facto] Past Present Descriptive Research Present Descriptive Correlational Research Present Experimental (Quasi and True) Future Correlation Research with Prospective Design Present Future
  • Let’s Assimilate
    • The research to determine the most preferred hospital or state in the US by a NCLEX and CGFNS passer Filipino R.N.
    a. Historical Research Design b. Experimental Research Design c. Quasi-Experimental Research Design d. Descriptive Research Design
  • Let’s Assimilate
    • A study has shown that an increase in exercise activity decreases the chance of having primary hypertension. The research design used for t hi s study is;
    a. Historical Research Design b. Case Study d. Quasi-Experimental Research Design c. Correlational Research Design
  • Let’s Assimilate
    • To determine the effect of warm versus cold applications on the pain intensity and the speed of resolution of the extravasation of a variety of commonly used intravenous solutions. The design used for the study is ;
    a. Historical Research Design b. Case Study d. Quasi-Experimental Research Design c. Correlational Research Design
  • Let’s Assimilate
    • There is a relationship of Person-centeredness and age in nursing ; what type of research design is appropriate for the study.
    a. Historical Research Design b. Case Study d. Quasi-Experimental Research Design c. Correlational Research Design
  • Let’s Assimilate
    • The quality of nursing education in the Philippines 15 years ago. What type of research design is used in this study
    a. Historical Research Design b. Case Study d. Quasi-Experimental Research Design c. Correlational Research Design
  • Input Output Cause Effect Treatment / intervention Outcome/ Result
  • Pavlovian Theory , Ivan Pavlov s O R
    • Is a stimulus or activity that is MANIPULATED or varied by the researcher to create an effect on the dependent variable
    • Is the outcome or response that the researcher wants to predict or explain
    DEPENDENT VARIABLE (criterion variable)
    • It exist in all studies and can interfere with obtaining a clear understanding of the relationships among the study variables
    • Age, Sex, Religion, Educational Attainment, Tenure, Skills of the Health Worker and Experience
    CONFOUNDING VARIABLE or Extraneous Variable / Uncontrolled Variable
    • The effect of pre-operative health teaching on preventing post-operative complications in
    • surgical patients of Makati Medicial Hospital
    Extraneous Variables in this study are the expertise of the nurse who will give the pre-op teaching, level of understanding of the client Target Population (Organism)
  • Characteristics of Variables
    • 1. Di chotomous Variable – 2 choice – variables
    • e.g. Female gender or Male gender
    • 2. Poly chotomous Variable – Several Variables
    • e.g. The Therapeutic Effect of Massage [IV] in relieving Pain [DV]
    • What type of pain? Somatic Pain, Referred Pain, Acute Pain etc.
  • The method for controlling EXTRANEOUS variables
    • 1. HOMOGENEITY
    • 2. MATCHING
    • 3. A.N.C.O.V.A (statistical tx)
  • Homogeneity
    • In which only subjects who are homogenous with respect to extraneous variables are included in the study
    Matching
    • Involves using information about a subject characteristic to form comparison groups.
    • Operational Definition:
    • Is a specification of the operations that researcher must perform to collect the required information . (DENOTATIVE OR DICTIONARY DEFINITION)
    • E.g. Sicchasia - An inclination to vomit or nausea
    • Conceptual Definition:
    • Definition that provide the researcher the connotative (theoretical, abstract and comprehensive) meaning. (CONNOTATIVE DEFINITION)
    • “ Toxic” to nurses means “busy”
  • Let’s Assimilate
    • There is a difference in the level of post-op pain experienced by of pre-surgical patients who received preoperative instruction and patients who did not receive such instructions. Which one is the dependent variable
    a. Surgical Patients b. Presence or absence pre-op instruction c. Level of post-op pain of the patient d. Patients receiving pre-operative instructions Target Population Independent Variable
    • Mastery Drill (You answer the following questions…do something)
    • The Effectiveness of Modified Ritgens Maneuver in Preventing Laceration. What is the independent variable
    • A. Laceration
    • B. Preventing Laceration
    • C. Modified Ritgens Manuever
    • D. Primigravida Mothers
    • The Quality of Education given by Jeana Aquo University, College of Nursing in Hiring 2005 NLE Board Topnotchers and Former Board of Nursing (BON) as professors. What is the independent variable?
    • Quality of Education
    • Former Board of Nursing
    • The quality of professors being hired
    • NLE Board Topnotchers
    • The Impact of Computers on the studying habits of Mater Dei - College of Nursing Students. What is the independent variable?
    • A. Mater Dei Nursing Students
    • B. Computers
    • C. Studying habits
    • D. College of Nursing
    • Ongoing armed conflicts and poor economic conditions are daily increasing the ranks of the homeless in the world through the creation of refugees and immigrants. What is the dependent variable?
    • Homelessness
    • Presence of Armed conflicts and poor economic conditions
    • Ongoing armed conflicts
    • Refugees and immigrants
    • Ongoing armed conflicts and poor economic conditions are daily increasing the ranks of the homeless in the world through the creation of refugees and immigrants. What is the independent variable?
    • Homelessness
    • Presence of Armed conflicts and poor economic conditions
    • Ongoing armed conflicts
    • Refugees and immigrants
    • The rise in homelessness over the past 20 years: the growing shortage of housing for the poor. The independent variable is;
    • Growing shortage of Housing
    • Poverty
    • Homelessness
    • Housing for the poor
    • The rise in homelessness over the past 20 years: the growing shortage of housing for the poor. The Dependent variable is;
    • Growing shortage of Housing
    • Poverty
    • Homelessness
    • Housing for the poor
    • Health disparity is related to both inequalities, or differences, and also inequities, differences that imply unfairness or injustices. The independent variable in this research
    • Health disparity
    • The presence of both inequity and inquality
    • Social injustice and unfairness
    • Unfairness related to disparity
    • In the research, The effectiveness of home health systems in supporting care of the sick in the home. The Criterion variable is
    • Sick in the home
    • Support Caring for the Sick
    • Home health system
    • Health system effectiveness
    • The Role of Good Parenting in Motivating 4 th Year Nursing Students to Achieve Higher Grades. What is the independent variable ?
    • Motivation
    • Good Parenting
    • Higher Grades
    • 4 th year Nursing Students
    • The Effectiveness of Pre-operative Health Teaching on the recovery of Post-Surgery Patients of VMMC. What is the Independent Variable
    • Pre-op Health Teaching
    • Recovery
    • Post-Surgery Patients
    • Surgical Patients
    • The work efficiency of a nurse is related to her/his home management skills. The independent variable is?
    • A. work efficiency
    • B. home management skills
    • C. Nursing skills
    • D. Home
    • Now you mastered the one of the most common question in the BOARD EXAMINATION
    • INDEPENDEND VARIABLE AND DEPENDENT VARIABLE
    • Let go in-depth with research design…
  • Cluster, snowballing, Sloven’s Etc. Sample will represent the target population
  • Sample
    • Is a subset or a representative of a population
    • Sampling
    • Is the process of obtaining a sample from an infinite or very large population
    • Random  probability
    • Non-random  non probability
    • Accidental/ incidental/ convenience
    • Purposive
    • Quota Sampling
    • Snowball sampling
    • Any available subjects without much effort
    • Sets several criteria or qualifications
    • Also known as JUDGEMENT SAMPLING
    • Need to reach a certain quota
    • 1 st step: random type
        • Stratified – according to stratum of subjects with homogenous characteristics
    • 2 nd step: non-random type
        • Convenience – allows the use of any available group
    • Referral sampling
    • Chain sampling
    • Networking sampling
    • __________________aka Network or Chain Sampling
    • ________________________ aka Judgmental Sampling
    • ________________________aka Accidental Sampling
    • ________________________researcher identifies population strata (subpopulation) and determines how many participants are needed from each stratum
    • _____________________________researcher decides to purposely select subjects who are judged to be typical of the population or particularly knowledgeable about the issues under study
    • _______________________every sample identifies and refers other persons who meet the inclusion (eligibility) criteria
    • ___________________________using most conveniently available people as participants
    • Simple random sampling (drawing of lots)
    • Systematic sampling (with pattern)
    • Stratified random sampling
    • Cluster sampling
  • Probability Sampling : ____________ Researcher selects Kth case from a list (where, k = population divided by desired sample size), where K is the sampling interval (standard distance between the elements)
    • ________________________researcher establishes sampling frame (listing of elements), then numbering all elements, then selecting sample elements
  • _______________________researcher selects random samples successively, from larger to smaller units by either simple or stratified random methods
  • _____________________researcher divides the population into homogenous subgroups from which elements are selected at random
  • Let Assimilate
    • In studying the performance of nurses in Metro Manila toward their work, a small sample from each hospital will be taken. The this type of sampling is
    • a. Systemic Sampling
    • b. Snowballing
    • c. Judgmental sampling
    • d. Cluster sampling
  • Let Assimilate…
    • This is a kind of convenience sampling that involves the subjects suggesting other subjects who meet the researcher’s eligibility criteria
    • Accidental sampling
    • Judgmental Sampling
    • Snowballing
    • Random Sampling
  • FOURTH STEP
    • COLLECTION OF DATA
  •  
    • Descriptive Analysis
    • Inferential Analysis
    • Group data
      • Interval – upper class limit and lower class limit of the same row
      • Range = high value- lower value
      • Classmark – midpoint of each interval
    • Ungroup data
      • Mode - most frequency occuring figure
      • Median – midpoint among the arranged data
      • Mean  average
    • RANGE
    • PERCENTILE
    • STANDARD DEVIATION
  • Standard Deviation
    • is the most common measure of statistical dispersion , measuring how widely spread the values in a data set are
    • Most frequently used for the degree of variability in a set of scores.
    • Best statistical Method to measure distribution of scores
  • See the Standard Deviations The board examination has a s.d of .20
    • T-test
    • H-test
    • F-test
    • Z-test
    • Chi square = 2 or more variables
    • (Common Board Question)
  • SIXTH STEP
    • COMMUNICATE THE RESEARCH FINDINGS /DISSEMINATION
    • (last step in research) = CBQ