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Virtual Eli - Leadership & Management
 

Virtual Eli - Leadership & Management

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  • Communication skills: - exchange of information either verbal or nonverbal. ACTIVE listening – is the key in maintaining a good nurse-client relationship  pay close attention Responding – noverbal affirmation or verbal affirmation Clarifying  restating, questioning, focusing
  • Culture – the philippines is rich in culture diversities. – rituals, taboos, habits, practices Emotions – prevents people in listening actively and speaking effectively anger – blow by blow – putang ina mo blaming – finding fault with anothers action conceding or placating - ex “I wam always wrong, you’re right” Gender Speaking style – male talks faster, speak less  pag sobrang bungangera na ang lalaki o boyfriend mo ay naku mag ingat ka na the baka hindi lalaki ang partner mo. How to check if straight ba xa o hindi. spoken message content – females describe more, clarify more, use questions managing conflict – men disagree, women cooperates realting to others  male respond more to superiors, female respond more to subordinates NOTE: ANDROGYNOUS  combination of male and femal traits in communication CONFLICT Stress – state of tension (happy (eustress) or sad (distress))  sabi nga nila donot decide when your heart is happy or when your heart is sad.  regret is the worst or the sad part of the story. In the end, you will realized that you blown up not in the right place, and not in the right circumstances. stereotyping  generalizing  ex all women are emotional. So they are not good in decision making. Inattention
  • Downward- memorandum, policies, rules, regulations, performance appraisal
  • Upward- complaint (initial outburst), grievance letter (unheard complaint), incident reports, written reports
  • Horizontal/ Lateral- transfer of pt to another unit, endorsements
  • Downward- memorandum Upward- complaint (initial outburst), grievance letter (unheard complaint) Horizontal/ Lateral- transfer of pt to another unit Diagonal- Grapevine- rumor mongering
  • Grapevine- rumor mongering
  • Competitive conflict – victory of one side and loss for the other side (Healthy competition) Disruptive conflict - filled with fear, anger, stress (Unhealthy competition)  it’s a different side of the story
  • Maximax approach  most opimistic  select alternatives for all possible outcome  recruit and retain the best possible staff even though the procedure may change in the future. Maximin approach  most pessimistic  choose the worst possible outcome  decide that complex procedure will become obsolete and stop providing any staff support or training for the procedure.
  • Consensus building  live and support the decision  2. Nominal group technique 3. Delphi group technique
  • PERT  program evaluation and review technique  time and sequence of events to complete the project Decision trees  show pros and cons of a decision Gantt charts  graphical illustration from start to finish
  • Days to utilize before proposal defense Weeks to utilize before comprehensive exams Months to utilize before blow by blow requirements with deadlines Year to utilize before board exams (JULY 2012)  you’re free and start working Have you ever done to figure out your career 1 year from now?  others may think this is a stupid thing to think about. Look sir I still have problems on my academics, say for example my research papers, completion of duties, major exams, your stupid requirements and subjects…..  do you think sir I still have time to think fo my future 1 year from now? …ou nga naman noh…but just try , I know no matter how busy you are I know you can spend an hour thinking of who you are in the next 2 years? Ok …..I’ll give you enough time to make a career pathway…1 week. You are materially materially wise…. It’s been a long and winding journey… I wanna be a billionaire so freaking bad… So I give you one week to think about…
  • 20% of focused efforts results in 80% of outcomes 80% of unfocused efforts results in 20 % of outcomes The key is to focus effort on the activities that will get the maximum results Example: CRAMMING – oriented students 
  • 30%  direct patient care 25 %  indirect care 25%  charting 20%%  communications and miscellaneous actions Pero sa pinas: 60% charting 30% direct patient care 10% chika (tawa diri, libak didto)
  • You are working in a larger situations  Mommy I’m in a big picture so don’t expect me to get early at home. Use brainstorming  to breaks down goals into smaller and reasonable goald daily – short term goals and monthly  long term goals
  • Later studies revealed that traits and character can be learned and experienced
  • Leader member relations- confidence and loyalty of members to their leaders Task structure- correct solutions given to a situational dilemma Position of Power- amount of organizational support
  • President JOHN F KENNEDY by appearing on television MIKE VELARDE
  • Autocratic- directive behaviors, decision-making alone, task accomplishment rather than people performing task Democratic- leader as organizer of teamwork, members have team freedom, members satisfied Permissive- leaders no established goals, permissiveness with no central direction or control, minimal participation of manager in decsisionmaking, subordinates decide,
  • Likert scal model  5 scale model to determine the level of agreement and disagreement of a respondent 5 – strongly disagree 4 - disagree 3 – neither agree or disagree 2 - agree 1 – strongly agree Organizational design model  Exploitative- Authoritative  no discussion, just follow me Benevolent – Authoritative  slight discussion still follow me Cosuntative – Authoritative  fair and open for discussion but with occasional punishment Participative  FULL involvement
  • Anong servant first  pera perahan ngayon teh  this wont work on the status quo. I have the money, power, and position. Y should I go down below sea level? Hehehe According to Robert Greenleaf.
  • Transactional  material benefits Transformational  intellectual stimulation
  • Self centered “I”
  • People-oriented “We”
  • Permissive “you”
  • Formal  recognized as leader Informal  chosen by the group itself not appointed
  • S hy Q uiet U ninvolved A pologistic R egressive E asily manipulated by others
  • L oud I nappropriate C onfronting H ostile E goistic S arcastic Self-enhancing at the expense of others, Expressive Puts down others Chooses for others Achieves desired goal by hurting others
  • F acial expression appropriate E ye contact W ell modulate voice R espect others I deal on all situation G estures appropriate H onest T ruthful situations S pontaneous response Self- enhancing (self and others) Expressive Feels good about self Chooses for self Achieves desired goal
  • Power- ability to impose the will of the person
  • This includes POSDCon
  • 1. Top manager  chief nurse 2. Middle manager  nurse supervisor 3. Low manager (first line manager)  head nurse
  • Credible Attractive Realistic future.
  • Devt of a true science of mgt so that the best method for performing task will be determined Scientific selection of personnel, application of scientific concepts, cooperation bet mgt and staff Focus: best ways and methods to increase efficiency and productivity of workers Selection of best man training of best man
  • Two sets of assumptions of human nature
  • Achieve customer’s satisfaction TOTAL  entire organization , product life cycle QUALITY  the efficiency and refined productivity MANAGEMENT  the system of managing (POSDCon)
  • Division of labor- more specialized, more efficient Authority- ability to give orders Discipline- obey rules Unity of command- one leader Unity of direction- one goal Remuneration- compensation- compensation for work done is fair for workers and employers Centralization- decreaseing role of members in decision making Heirarchy- group of persons arranged by rank (bureaucracy- admin of departments supervised by officials) Line of authority- formal chain of command, Staff authority- advisory, special service given by other people directly supervising the staff
  • Division of labor- more specialized, more efficient Authority- ability to give orders Discipline- obey rules Unity of command- one leader Unity of direction- one goal Remuneration- compensation- compensation for work done is fair for workers and employers Centralization- decreaseing role of members in decision making Heirarchy- group of persons arranged by rank (bureaucracy- admin of departments supervised by officials) Line of authority- formal chain of command, Staff authority- advisory, special service given by other people directly supervising the staff
  • Division of labor- more specialized, more efficient Authority- ability to give orders Discipline- obey rules Unity of command- one leader Unity of direction- one goal Remuneration- compensation- compensation for work done is fair for workers and employers Centralization- decreaseing role of members in decision making Heirarchy- group of persons arranged by rank (bureaucracy- admin of departments supervised by officials) Line of authority- formal chain of command, Staff authority- advisory, special service given by other people directly supervising the staff
  • Division of labor- more specialized, more efficient Authority- ability to give orders Discipline- obey rules Unity of command- one leader Unity of direction- one goal Remuneration- compensation- compensation for work done is fair for workers and employers Centralization- decreaseing role of members in decision making Heirarchy- group of persons arranged by rank (bureaucracy- admin of departments supervised by officials) Line of authority- formal chain of command, Staff authority- advisory, special service given by other people directly supervising the staff
  • The father of
  • Based on focused on: -specialization of tasks, appointment by merit, authority, formal addresses
  • People are more productive when they feel being appreciated or when watched.
  • Unfreezing-breaking down of old habits, behaviors, attitudes Changing- compliance, identification with role model, internalization Refreezing- integrationof desirable behavior to one’s personal system Force Field Analysis is a planning tool for predetermining and forecasting activities in an organization from an action point of view Forced field analysis  pros and cons or I should say for and against or shall I say driving force and restraining force FFA  check and balance
  • A recent Wall Street Journal report gives an example of “SURVIVORS” of corporate downsizing. These people’s esteem, belonging and even security needs can quickly become unsatisfied even though they retain their jobs. You can have very meaningful work but still, as you see your co-workers fired, worry “am I next to go?” that’s a question about your basic security needs.
  • Hygiene means maintenance factors
  • Suyod best Lusot worst
  • 1.long range or strategic planning -extends from 3-5 years into the future 2. short range or operational planning -deals with day to day maintenance activities.
  • Develop, compare, rate risk, select
  • DOH Mission: Guarantee accessible, sustainable, and quality health for all Filipinos especially the poor and shall lead the quest for excellence in health Vision: The DOH is the leader staunch advocate and model in promoting health for all in the philippines Goal: HSRA Framewrok for implementationof HSRA (fourmula one for health) NOH 2005-2010: Roadmap for all stakeholders in health
  • DOH Mission: Guarantee accessible, sustainable, and quality health for all Filipinos especially the poor and shall lead the quest for excellence in health Vision: The DOH is the leader staunch advocate and model in promoting health for all in the philippines Goal: HSRA Framewrok for implementationof HSRA (fourmula one for health) NOH 2005-2010: Roadmap for all stakeholders in health
  • Levels of Care Level Self Care or Minimal Care 1.50 – 5:45 Level II Moderate or Intermediate Care 3.0 – 60:40 Level III Total or Intensive Care 4.5 – 65:35 Level IV Highly Specialized or Critical Care 6.0 or 7 higher – 70:30 or 80:20
  • PERCENTAGE OF PATIENTS IN VARIOUS LEVELS OF CARE Type of Hospital Primary Hospital 70% – 25% – 5% - 0 Secondary Hospital 65 – 30 -5 – 0 Tertiary Hospital 30 – 45 – 15 -10 Special Tertiary Hospital 10 – 25 – 45 -20
  • Rights and Privileges given each personnel per year 40 hours/week 48 hours/week 1. Vacation Leave 15 – 15 2. Sick Leave 15 - 15 3. Legal Holidays 10 - 10 4. Special Holidays 2 - 2 5. Special privileges 3 - 3 6. Off-duties as per R.A. 5901 104 - 52 7. Continuing Professional Education 3 - 3 TOTAL NON-WORKING DAYS PER YEAR 152 - 100 TOTAL WORKING DAYS PER YEAR 213 - 265 TOTAL WORKING HOURS PER YEAR 1,704 – 2,120
  • Night diff: not less than 10 % OT: 25 % (30% if on sp holiday or rest day) Sp holiday: 30% Legal holiday: 100%
  • Delegator Authority Accountable and responsible Delegatee Possesses skills that relate to work setting Task Client or situation
  • individual performance (70%) , personal traits (30%) Phaneuf audit- evaluates nursing process Benedikter audit- evaluates nursing performance of dependent and independent functions

Virtual Eli - Leadership & Management Virtual Eli - Leadership & Management Presentation Transcript

  • In seeking knowledge, the first step is silence, the second listening, the third remembering , the fourth practicing and the fifth teaching others Quote for the day :
  • Salient points in NURSING LEADERSHIP
  • For this morning…
    • Communication skills
    • Conflict resolution
    • Decision making process
    • Nursing Leadership – Mastery drill
  • Communication
    • Transfer of information
  • COMMUNICATION
    • Communication skills: - exchange of information either verbal or nonverbal.
    • ACTIVE listening – is the key in maintaining a good nurse-client relationship  pay close attention
    • Responding – noverbal affirmation or verbal affirmation
    • Clarifying  restating, questioning, focusing
  • COMMUNICATION
    • Barriers to communication
  • BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
    • 1. Culture – the Philippines is rich in culture diversities. – rituals, taboos, habits, practices
    • 2. Emotions – prevents people in listening actively and speaking effectively
      • anger – blow by blow – putang ina mo
      • blaming – finding fault with another’s action
      • conceding or placating - ex “I am always wrong, you’re right”
  • BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
    • Gender
      • Speaking style – male talks faster, speak less
      • spoken message content – females describe more, clarify more, use questions
      • managing conflict – men disagree, women cooperates
      • relating to others - male respond more to superiors, female respond more to subordinates
  • BARRIERS TO CUMMUNICATION
    • CONFLICT
    • Stress – state of tension (happy (eustress) or sad (distress)
    • stereotyping  generalizing  ex. all women are emotional. So they are not good in decision making.
    • Inattention
  • TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
    • Downward
    • Upward
    • Lateral/Horizontal
    • Diagonal
    • Grapevine
  • Communication Systems
    • Downward
      • from upper levels of mgt to lower levels of mgt
    Chief Nurse HN (OB Ward) HN (MS Ward) HN (Pedia Ward) Staff Nurse Staff Nurse Staff Nurse
  • Communication Systems
    • Upward
      • from lower levels of mgt to upper levels of mgt
    Chief Nurse HN (OB Ward) HN (MS Ward) HN (Pedia Ward) Staff Nurse Staff Nurse Staff Nurse
  • Communication Systems
    • Lateral/ Horizontal
      • same department/ level of heirarchy
    Chief Nurse HN (OB Ward) HN (MS Ward) HN (Pedia Ward) Staff Nurse Staff Nurse Staff Nurse Staff Nurse Staff Nurse Staff Nurse
  • Communication Systems
    • Diagonal
      • different departments/ levels of heirarchy
    Chief Nurse HN (OB Ward) HN (MS Ward) HN (Pedia Ward) Staff Nurse Staff Nurse Staff Nurse
  • Communication Systems
    • Grapevine- garbled and confusing; informal
  • MASTERY DRILL
    • Downward communication
    • Upward communication
    • Horizontal communication
    • Grapevine communication
  • Let’s assimilate (You answer)
    • Complaints
    • OR head nurse to DR head nurse
    • Memorandum
    • Resignation letter
    • Suspension Letter
    • Request
  • CRITICAL PATHWAY
    • A head nurse in OB ward wants to make a new policy regarding the universal protocol in admitting a patient in all wards/department. She decided to schedule a meeting with all of the head nurses in all department. In so doing, what kind of communication will she used?
    • “ He who knows not and knows not he knows not: he is a fool - shun him. 
    • He who knows not and knows he knows not: he is humble - teach him. 
    • He who knows and knows not he knows: he is asleep - wake him.
    •   He who knows and knows he knows: he is wise - follow him.”
  • CONFLICT
    • Is a consequence of different perceptions in values, ideas, attitudes, beliefs, feelings and actions.
  • CONFLICT
    • SOURCES:
    • Disagreements
    • Competition
    • Confrontation
    • Stress
  • CONFLICT
    • 2 main types of conflict:
    • Competitive conflict – victory of one side and loss for the other side (Healthy competition)
    • Disruptive conflict - filled with fear, anger, stress (Unhealthy competition)  it’s a different side of the story
  • CONFLICT RESOLUTION
    • Avoidance – reduce tension
    • Compromise/ Bargaining - both seek acceptable solution
    • Smoothing- appeal using conscience, self sacrifice
    • Withdrawing – one party is removed
    • Forcing/ restriction – use of coercion or force to end conflict
    • Negotiation – give and take
    • Confrontation – brought out in open and attempts to block conflict from the start
  • SUMMARY of CONFLICT RESOLUTION
    • Competing, forcing or dominating – win-lose
    • Avoiding, withdrawing – lose-lose
    • Accommodating, smoothing or obliging – lose-win
    • Compromise or sharing – no-win/no-lose
    • Collaboration or problem solving - win-win
  • Mastery Drill
    • Majority rule or competition
    • Smoothing
    • Collaboration
    • Avoidance
    • Compromise
  • MASTERY DRILL
    • Win – win ________________
    • Lose –Win ________________
    • Win –Lose ________________
    • Lose – Lose _______________
    • In this conflict resolution method, a person ignores his or her own feelings about an issue in order to agree with the other side.
    • A. Collaborating
    • B. Confronting
    • C. Accomodating
    • D. Withdrawing
    • With this method of conflict resolution, each side gives up something as well as gets something.
    • A. Negotiating
    • B. Competing
    • C. Avoiding
    • D. Compromising
  • DECISION MAKING PROCESS
    • Is the process in making a responsible course of action.
    • is a critical thinking process, just like in problem solving.
  • STEPS in decision making:
    • 1. Identify the need for decision
    • 2. Determine the desired goal
    • 3. Identify the PROS and CONS
    • 4. Implementation
    • 5. Evaluation of action
  • 2 approaches in decision making
    • MAXIMAX APPROACH
    • MAXIMIN APPROACH
  • MAXIMAX APPROACH
    •  most optimistic  select alternatives for all possible outcome
    •  recruit and retain the best possible staff even though the procedure may change in the future.
  • MAXIMIN APPROACH
    • most pessimistic  choose the worst possible outcome
    •  decide that complex procedure will become obsolete and stop providing any staff support or training for the procedure.
  • METHODS OF GROUP DECISION MAKING
    • 1. Consensus building
    • - can live and support the decision
    • - not everyone agrees but they can live on it.
  • METHODS OF GROUP DECISION MAKING
    • 2. Nominal group technique
    • - present pros and cons  discuss  vote  highest vote WINS
  • METHODS OF GROUP DECISION MAKING
    • 3 . Delphi group technique
    • - group members will receive QUESTIONNAIRES (no face to face meeting)
    • - result will be release then a consensus validation is needed
    • - NOTE: less conflict method
  • TOOLS IN DECISION-MAKING
    • 1. PERT flowcharts  program evaluation and review technique  time and sequence of events to complete the project
  • TOOLS IN DECISION-MAKING
    • 2. Decision trees  show pros and cons of a decision
    • 3. Gantt charts  graphical illustration from start to finish
  • TIME-MANAGEMENT SKILLS
    • Using time more effectively and efficiently.
  • KEY CONCEPT of time management
    • PARETO PRINCIPLE
    • 20% of focused efforts results in 80% of outcomes
    • 80% of unfocused efforts results in 20 % of outcomes
    • The key is to focus effort on the activities that will get the maximum results
  • TECHNIQUES IN TIME MGT
    • Use results rather than task  to measure effectiveness
    • Break long-term goals into substantial short-term goals
    • The ability to change if the goals is unrealistic
  • NURSES’ TIME USAGE
    • 30%  direct patient care
    • 25 %  indirect care
    • 25%  charting
    • 20%%  communications and miscellaneous actions
    • Pero sa Pinas:
    • 60% charting
    • 30% direct patient care
    • 10% chika (tawa diri, libak didto)
  • BASIC TECHNIQUES IN MANAGING TIME
    • 1. Use a “big picture” perspective
    • 2. Use brainstorming  think out of the box
    • 3. Prioritize (Critical, intermediate, nonurgent)
    • 4. LEARN to say “NO”
    • 5. Have a “closed door” time in office
    • 6. Try to use daily and monthly calendars
  • BASIC TECHNIQUES IN MANAGING TIME
    • 7. Develop a “high-peak” and “low-peak” activities
      • HIGH-PEAK  most essential
      • LOW-PEAK  routine activities
    • 8. Use electronic organizer  more updates and will remind you ahead.
    • 9. Use downtime moments for “mental breaks”,
    • 10. Do what you can do today. Do not wait for tomorrow.
    • A visual decision-making tool that graphically illustrates a project from start to finish is called:
    • A. Decision tree
    • B. PERT flowchart
    • C. Gantt chart
    • D. Electronic organizer
    • In group decision making, consensus means
    • A. all group members can live and support the decision
    • B. members are not required to meet face to face
    • C. All members agree
    • D. The group uses the Delphi technique
    • Which of the following is a strategy for using downtime effectively?
    • A. Arrive 10 minutes early for all appointments
    • B. call ahead to verify appointments
    • C. avoid carrying reading materials around as they are heavy and slow down
    • D. return phone calls only from the privacy of your office
  • RECAP.......
    • Leadership:
    • - is a learned behavior involving influence and role modeling that inspires people to achieve personal and group goals.
  • Different Types of Leadership theories:
        • 1. TRAIT THEORY- believes that a leader must possess certain traits to be effective.
    • Examples:
    • initiative, maturity, creativity, good communication skills.
    • * basis for different leadership styles
    • 2. GREAT MAN THEORY- highly influential individuals are considered effective leaders in any situation.
    • * unattractive since it supports the premise that leaders are born not made.
    • 3. SITUATIONAL THEORY- traits required of a leader vary in different situations
        • 4.Contingency Model (Fred Fiedler, 1967)
    • -this model highlights the need for flexibility in leadership behaviors.
    • - focus is on:
      • 1. Person doing task
      • 2. Task executed
      • 3. Extent of participation in decision making
    • 5. CHARISMATIC THEORY- leader inspires others by obtaining emotional commitment from followers and by arousing strong feelings of loyalty and enthusiasm.
        • 6. Path Goal Theory(Robert House, 1971)
    • -the leader directs followers to the path of attaining the goals
    • -this is done through structuring the work, planning, organizing, directing and controlling
    • -concerned with motivation and productivity
    • 7. BEHAVIORAL THEORY- focus on different styles of leadership
    • 8. Rensis Likert
    • 9. Servant leadership
    • True servant leader is a servant first.
  • TRANSACTIONAL vs TRANSFORMATIONAL
    • Competitive
    • Task focus
    • Inspire through rewards
    • Set goals for employers
    • Focus on day-to-day operations
    • Cooperative
    • Process focus
    • Inspire through optimism
    • Individualize goal-setting
    • Provide sense of direction
  • MASTERY DRILL
    • Leader born and not made
    • matalino, masipag, matangkad
    • minimize obstruction to increase productivity eventually reaching goals
    • Country club, impoverished, team mgt, autocratic and middle of the road
    • Selling, telling, participating and directing
  • MASTERY DRILL
    • Exploitative, Benevolent, Consultative, Participative
    • DOING the things right
    • Doing the right thing
    • true leader is a servant first
  • Different leadership styles:
    • 1. Autocratic/Authoritarian
    • -leaders exert total control over members
    • -task oriented
    • -uses coercive power
    • -downward communication
    • -restriction (conflict resolution)
    • 2.Democratic/
    • Participative/ Benevolent
    • -leader shares control with group members
    • -people-oriented
    • -reward power
    • -upward communication
    • -smoothing (conflict resolution)
    • 3. Laissez-faire/Permissive
    • -leader relinquishes control to group members.
    • -there is total freedom in a highly permissive atmosphere.
    • - avoidance (conflict resolution)
  • TYPES OF LEADER
    • 1. Formal- appointed from a higher heirarchy
    • 2. Informal- appointed by an equal level
  • Behaviors of Leaders (Melody Chenevert)
    • Passive (S-Q-U-A-R-E)
    • S hy
    • Q uiet
    • U ninvolved
    • A pologistic
    • R egressive
    • E asily manipulated by others
  • Behaviors of Leaders (Melody Chenevert)
    • Aggressive (L-I-C-H-E-S)
    • L oud
    • I nappropriate
    • C onfronting
    • H ostile
    • E goistic
    • S arcastic
  • Behaviors of Leaders (Melody Chenevert)
    • Assertive
    • F acial expression appropriate
    • E ye contact
    • W ell modulate voice
    • R espect others
    • I deal on all situation
    • G estures appropriate
    • H onest
    • T ruthful situations
    • S pontaneous response
  • Different forms of Power
        • 1. Legitimate power
    • -given to a manager by virtue of his position in the organization.
    • Ex. head nurse
        • 2. Reward power
    • -based on the ability of the manager to administer rewards to others
        • 3. Coercive Power
        • – founded on the managers ability to use punishment on others for non compliance with order.
    • 4. Expert Power
    • -derived from some special ability, skill or knowledge demonstrated by the individual
    • 5. Referent power
    • -based on attractiveness or appeal of one person to another
  • Management
    • -process of coordinating and supervising personnel and resources to accomplish organizational goals.
  • NURSING MANAGEMENT
    • Is the process of working through staff members to be able to provide a comprehensive care to the patient.
  • NSG PROCESS vs. NSG MGT
    • A (assessment)
    • D (diagnosis)
    • P (planning)
    • I (Implementation)
    • E (evaluation)
    • P
    • O
    • S
    • D
    • Con
  • ADMIN vs ORGANIZATION
    • a POLICY-MAKING BODY
    • 1. Top manager
    • 2. Middle manager
    • 3. Low manager (first-level)
    • Arrangement of people
    • line of authority
    • channel of communication
    • relationships of the people
  • VISION vs MISSION
    • Futuristic
    • Dream
    • Something we strive for
    • The reason why the organization exist
    • SOUL of the organization
  • GOAL vs OBJECTIVES
    • Broader aspirations
    • Ex: I want to become financially independent.
    • Specific and concrete
    • stepping stones
    • Ex:
    • get out of debt
    • improve savings
    • start a business
  • PHILOSOPHY
    • Belief of the organization
  • THEORIES OF MANAGEMENT
    • SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT THEORY
      • Frederick Taylor (Father of Scientific Mgt)
      • Standardized working conditions and methods to attain maximum production
      • Involve right person, training, and tools
        • 2. Theory X and Theory Y(Douglas Mc Gregor, 1960 )
    • - Theory X assumes that people dislike work and must be directed and controlled. Organizational goals are emphasized.
    • - Theory Y assumes that people are self directed and will seek responsibility under favorable conditions. Individual goals are emphasized.
  • THEORY X vs THEORY Y
    • Lazy worker
    • unmotivated
    • unintelligent
    • Dislikes work
    • Responsible worker
    • Motivated
    • creative and problem solver
    • Likes to work
  • MASTERY DRILL
    • Diligent worker
    • self-directed worker
    • problem solver worker
    • dislikes work
    • lazy worker
    • Motivated worker
    • self-possessed
        • 3.Theory Z (William Ouchi, 1981)
    • -promotes a relationship-oriented, democratic leadership style
    • 1. C oncensus decision making
    • 2. L ong term employment
    • 3. I ndirect supervision
    • 4. S lower promotion
    • 5. H olistic concern
    • 4. THEORY A  American theory
  • THEORY Z vs THEORY A
    • Slow promotion
    • Long-term employment
    • Indirect supervision
    • Fast promotion
    • Short-term employment
    • Direct supervision
  • MASTERY DRILL (you answer)
    • Fast promotion ______________
    • Long-term employment __________
    • slow promotion ______________
    • Short-term employment __________
    • 4. Deming’s Total Quality Mgt Theory
    • - administration of two quality services
    • 5. Classical Organization Theory
    • Henri Fayol’s Principle of Mgt (Father of Management Process School)
    • - Specialization increases efficiency
    • - Centralization through levels of authority
    • - Unity of command and direction is emphasized
  • PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT
    • Unity of Command- one leader per group
    • Unity of Direction- one goal as a group
    • Subordination of personal interest - to the interest of majority
    • Division of Labor- equally dividing tasks
    • Esprit de corps- team spirit
    • Respondeat superior- command responsibility
  • PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT
    • 7. Centralization- authority flow is from top to bottom
    • 8. Tenure- term of office
    • 9. Authority- basis of a leader to issue tasks, responsibilities, and obligations
    • 10. Justice and Equity- fair and equal treatment of members (no favoritism)
    • 11. Span of Control – number of subordinates
  • PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT
    • 12. Remuneration – fair salary for the services
    • 13. Channel of communication
    • 14. Heirarchy- group of persons arranged by rank
    • 15. Line of Authority/ Scalar Chain/Chain of command- line of authority through which orders are passed
  • MASTERY DRILL (you answer)
    • Fair salary
    • ability to give orders
    • one leader to follow
    • one goal as a group
    • decisions are made from top to bottom
    • no favoritism
  • What principle is this?
    • All subordinate should receive orders and be accountable to only one superior ____________.
  • What principle is this?
    • ONE PERSON/ONE GOAL + ONE GOAL
    • ______________
    • ONE PERSON = ONE COMMAND
    • ______________
  • What principle is this?
    • There should be a clear line of authority in an organization from the top to bottom
    • ______________
  • What principle is this?
    • The flow of information in an organization
    • The number of subordinates that reports to a manager
    • _______ the father of Management process
    • 6. Classical Organization Theory
    • Max Weber’s Organization Theory (Father of Organization Theory)
    • - emphasized bureaucracy (heirarchic centralized organizational structure)
    • 7. Behavioral Theory
    • Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
    • William Ouchi’s Theory Z
    • 8. Human Relations Theory
    • Elton Mayo’s Hawthorne Effect
    • - people will respond to the fact that they are being studied
    • 9. Human Relations Theory
    • Kurt Lewin
    • - Change Process:
    • Unfreezing
    • Changing
    • Refreezing
    • -Force Field Analysis
    • (method for listing, discussing, and evaluating the various forces for and against a proposed change)
  • KURT LEWIN’s THEORY
    • Unfreezing -breaking down of old habits, behaviors, attitudes
    • Changing - compliance, identification with role model, internalization
    • Refreezing - integrationof desirable behavior to one’s personal system
    • Force Field Analysis is a planning tool for predetermining and forecasting activities in an organization from an action point of view
    • 9. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs
    • 10. Herzberg HYGIENE and MOTIVATIONAL factors
  • Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Canteen, Toilet and Rest day allocation Fire Exit, Tenure, Building Structure Social amelioration, Xmas Party Promotion and advancement Chance to be the Chief Nurse
  • DRILL (Maslow)
    • Toilet ________________
    • Tenure ________________
    • Xmas-Party ________________
    • Chance to be a chief nurse _________
    • Senior citizens ________________
    • Social amelioration ________________
    • Fire exit ________________
  • Critical pathway: Common Board Question
    •   In terms of progressing up in this hierarchy, is there any possibility or circumstances that dictates to move down the hierarchy?
  • Critical pathway: Common Board Question
    • A recent “Philstar” news report gives an example of “SURVIVORS” of corporate downsizing. These people’s esteem, belonging and even security needs can quickly become unsatisfied even though they retain their jobs.
    • You can have very meaningful work but still, as you see your co-workers fired, worry “am I next to go?” that’s a question about your basic security needs.
  • Herzberg Motivational Theory + =
  • HYGIENE OR MOTIVATIONAL FACTOR
    • Reward _________________
    • Achievement _________________
    • Recognition _________________
    • Salary _________________
    • Good relationship to employee
    • Good work conditions __________
  • Collective Bargaining
    • Consists of a set of procedures by which employee representatives and employer representatives negotiate to obtain a signed agreement (contract) that spells out;
    • Wages
    • Hours
    • Conditions of employment
    • that are acceptable to both parties; It’s a negotiation between parties
  • An arbitrator is technically defined as a person chosen by agreement of both parties to decide a dispute between them. Perhaps the most commonly used method of seeking agreement between parties whennegotiating has not been successful is through mediation and arbitration.
    • 10. Pinoy Management Theory
    • - Tomas Andres
    • Styles of Pinoy Mgt:
    • 1. Mgt by Kayod (Realism Mgt)
    • - workers with commitment and desires to complete task
    • 2. Mgt by Libro (Idealism Mgt)
    • - “gut-feeling” or flushes of intuitions
    • -meticulous thinker and decision maker
    • -good planner, organizer, scheduler
    • -wide reader
    • 3. Mgt by Suyod (Contingency Mgt)
    • - combination of Libro and Kayod
    • 4. Mgt by Lusot (Opportunism Mgt)
    • - workers are carefree, time conscious, and loves to be bribed
  • Attributes of an effective manager:
        • 1. V ision to plan for the future of the organization
        • 2. I ncreased trust
        • 3. S ound communication
        • 4. I ncreased decision making ability
        • 5. O rganizational skills
        • 6. N eutral (ability to balance)
  • Nursing management process:
    • 1. P lanning
    • 2. O rganizing
    • 3. S taffing
    • 4. D irecting
    • 5. C ontrolling
  • PLANNING
    • - forecasting of events (future)
    • - decisions are made
    • - goals and objectives (SMART) are set and prioritized
    • - policies and standards are developed
    • “ FAILURE TO PLAN IS ACTUALLY PLANNING TO FAIL”
    How The most critical management activity, involves carefully evaluating the situation, setting goals, establishing priorities, and identifying necessary resources. PLAN What When Where Who Why Can
  • Different types of planning:
    • 1.long range or strategic planning
    • -extends from 3-5 years into the future
    • 2. short range or operational planning
    • -deals with day to day maintenance activities.
  • Purposes of Planning:
    • D -irects the organization
    • I -mproves efficiency
    • R -esources are maximized
    • E -stablish reference for managerial decisions
    • C -ost effective measures are identified
    • T -otal enhancement of communication and coordination
  • BUDGETING:
    • -planning and controlling resources that affect the organization
    • -involves examining resources, anticipating costs and predicting gains and shortfalls.
  • Types of Budget
    • 1. Capital Expenditure Budget
    • --intended for purchase of major equipments and properties
    • 2. Zero-based Budget
    • -budget with justification of allocated expenses in comparison with old one to determine profit or loss
    • 3. INCREMENTAL BUDGET
      • uses past budget as starting point
  • BUDGETS MAY BE INCREMENTAL OR ZERO BASED
    • ZERO-BASED BUDGET
    • INCREMENTAL BUDGET
    • Zero-based budgeting may produce a more precise estimate of costs
    • takes much longer and frequently much longer and frequently
    • A reduction in budget may result.
    • Incremental budgeting uses the prior year’s budget as starting point and adds more costs based on projections .
    • Simple and Easy to Accomplish
    • Generally more accepted by staff.
  • Incremental P 1 Million + Budget 2007 Proposed Budget 2008 Additional Projected Expeditures For the Year Budget 2008
  • Zero Based P 1 Million + Php O.OO Budget 2007 Proposed Budget 2008 Estimated Expenditures For the Year Budget 2008 Back to Zero
  • Types of Budget
    • 3. Personnel/ Manpower Budget
    • -budget intended for the employees salaries and fringe benefits
    • 4. Operational Budget
    • -budget intended for the purchase of everyday supplies
  • Types of Budget
    • 5. Fixed-ceiling Budget
    • -financial plan with the uppermost spending limit determined by the organization
    • 6. Open-ended Budget
    • -budget with no specific amount
  • Types of Budget
    • 7. Sunset Budget
    • -self-destructing budget that terminates at a specific period of time
    • 8. Contingency Budget
    • -emergency budget, if not used can be part of savings
  • Lighter side
  •  
  •  
  • DECISION MAKING
    • Five step process:
    • D efinition of problem – what and why
    • A nalysis - objective
    • D evelop alternative solution
    • S election of solution - weighing
    • I mplementation and follow up
  • ORGANIZING
    • -structuring the agency to accomplish the tasks necessary to meet the agency goals.
    • PHILOSOPHY:
    • -is a statement of belief that influences nursing practice
    • MISSION:
    • -describes and reflects an organizations core value and what the organization wants to achieve
    • VISION:
    • -provides an image of the desired future.
    • GOAL- specific statements of what the organization wants to achieve but broader than objectives
    • OBJECTIVE- aim derived from goals
  • ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
    • * Must be compatible with philosophy and goals of the organization.
  • TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
    • Bureaucratic
    • – line structure or staff organization
    • - general authority over the lower positions in the heirarchy.
    • - Advantage: authority and responsibility are clearly defined
    • - Disadvantage: downward comm, monotonous, alienates workers
    • 2. AD HOC
    • – organizational structure used on a temporary basis to complete a specific project
    • - Advantage: allows professionals to handle increasing amount of available information
    • -Disadvantage: decrease strength in formal chain of command and loyalty to present organization
    • 3. MATRIX
    • -organizational structure that is focused on both product and function giving emphasis on the tasks and the result of such function
    • - Advantage: Centralization, Less formal, Fewer levels of heirarchy
    • - Disadvantage: slow decision making
  • Organizational Charts
    • Graphic representation of the chain of authority in an organization
    • Can be: vertical, horizontal, circular
  • Vertical
  • Horizontal
  • Circular
    • LINE OF AUTHORITY
    • represents the path of authority and accountability from individuals at the top of the organization to those at the base of the organization.
    • It is often referred to as the organizational hierarchy.
    • DIVISION OF LABOR
    • Each box represents individual or sub-unit responsibility for a given task
    • TYPE OF WORKED PERFORMED
    • Labels and description of
    • Work for each box
  • NURSE SUPERVISOR OF Nursing Education Division NURSE INSTRUCTOR TRAINEES CLINICAL COORDINATOR (College of Nursing) CLINICAL INSTRUCTOR AFFILIATES Solid Lines – Direct Relationship (Line Position) Broken Lines – Coordinating Relationship (Staff position)
  • FORMS OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE Centralized Vs. Decentralized
    • Centralized-
    • Decentralized
  • ORGANIZING PRINCIPLE
    • Unity of Command
    • Responsible for 1 superior
  • ORGANIZING PRINCIPLE
    • Scalar Principle or Chain of Command
    • Responsibility should flow from top to bottom
  • ORGANIZING PRINCIPLE
    • Span of Control
    • which refers to the number of employees supervised by a manager.
  • STAFFING
    • -refers to the required number and mix of nursing personnel in a nursing unit
    • Main purpose of Staffing:
    • -to provide safe, quality care.
  • ACCEPTING A PERSONNEL
    • Recruitment- use of ads, job fairs, literatures
    • Screening- reviewing of credentials
    • Interviewing- method of selecting employees
    • Selection- selecting the personnel based on his/ her qualifications
    • Placement- confirmation of applicant’s acceptance in writing
    • Indoctrination- induction, orientation, socialization of employees
  • Determinants of Staffing:
        • 1. Number of personnel
        • 2. Mix of personnel
        • 3. Number of patients
        • 4. Type of patient care delivery system
        • 5. Classification of patients
  • Table 1. Categories or levels of care of patients, nursing care hours needed per patient per day and ratio of professionals to non-professionals. Levels of Care Nursing care hours per patient per day Ratio of Prof. to Non-prof Level Self Care or Minimal Care 1.50 5:45 Level II Moderate or Intermediate Care 3.0 60:40 Level III Total or Intensive Care 4.5 65:35 Level IV Highly Specialized or Critical Care 6 or 7.0 70:30 or 80:20
  • Table 2. Percentage of patients at various levels of care per type of Hospital PERCENTAGE OF PATIENTS IN VARIOUS LEVELS OF CARE Type of Hospital Minimal Care Moderate Care Intensive Care Highly Specialized Care Primary Hospital 70% 25% 5% 0 Secondary Hospital 65% 30% 5% 0 Tertiary Hospital 30% 45% 15% 10% Special Tertiary Hospital 10% 25% 45% 20%
  • Table 3 Total number of working and non-working days and hours of nursing personnel per year. Rights and Privileges given each personnel per year 40 hours/week 48 hours/week 1. Vacation Leave 15 15 2. Sick Leave 15 15 3. Legal Holidays 10 10 4. Special Holidays 2 2 5. Special privileges 3 3 6. Off-duties as per R.A. 5901 104 52 7. Continuing Professional Education 3 3 TOTAL NON-WORKING DAYS PER YEAR 152 100 TOTAL WORKING DAYS PER YEAR 213 265 TOTAL WORKING HOURS PER YEAR 1,704 2,120
  • SWOT ANALYSIS
    • S - strengths
    • W - weakness
    • O - opportunities
    • T - threats
  • Types of Staffing:
        • 1. Centralized staffing - chief nurse
    • -assignment of personnel is made by the nurse manager at the organizational level.
        • 2. Decentralized staffing - head nurse
    • -allocation of nursing personnel at the unit level.
        • 3. Cyclical Staffing – covers a designated number of weeks called the cycle length and is repeated thereon.
  • Staffing schedule
    • Traditional
      • 8 hours/day; 5 days/week (40 hours/week)
    • Ten-hour shift
      • 10 hours/day; 4 days/week (40 hours/week)
    • Baylor plan
      • Composed of 2 shifts
      • Mon-Fri: traditional, weekends: 12-hour shift
  • Methods of Patient Care Delivery
    • 1. Case Method/Total Patient Care
    • -oldest approach
    • -a nurse is responsible for all the care required for a particular patient
    • -usually used in critical care units
        • 2. Functional Nursing
          • - task-oriented
          • - a nurse performs specific tasks and procedures according to schedule
        • 3. Team Nursing
          • - based on group approach
          • - staff members work as a team
        • 4. Modular
        • Nursing
          • - use of non- nursing members of health care team
          • - utilize smaller teams for patients grouped geographically
        • 5. Primary Nursing
          • - involves comprehensive care of patients
          • - the primary nurse has a 24-hour responsibility for the assigned patients.
          • -Total patient care to 4-6 patients
  • PATIENT CARE CLASSIFICATION
    • Level 1. Self care or minimal care
    • Ex: for discharge
    • non emergency
    • no unusual symptoms
    • Level 2. Moderate care
    • Needs assistance in ambulating, dressing, hygiene or feeding
    • Level 3. Total/ Maximum care
    • Complex treatment and medications
    • Needs closer supervision
    • Level 4. Intensive care
    • Highly dependent to the nurse
    • Requires intensive nursing care
    • needs continuous treatment and observation for unstable condition
  • DIRECTING
    • - Is the issuance of assignment, orders and instructions that permit the worker to understand what is expected of him or her
    • - guidance and overseeing (supervision) of the worker so that he or she can contribute effectively and efficiently to the attainment of organizational goals.
  • DELEGATION
    • Getting work done by directing the performance of other people to achieve the goals of the organization
    • Frequent mistakes in Delegating:
      • Under delegation
      • Over delegation
      • Improper delegation
    • Rights in delegation:
      • Task
      • Person
      • Communication
      • feedback
  • SUPERVISION
    • -refers to overseeing, guiding, and facilitating the activities of others.
    • Different Purposes of Supervision
    • 1. I nspect, evaluate and improve worker’s performance
    • 2. P rovide suitable working conditions for the staff
    • 3. O rient, train, and guide the individual staff member
  • CONTROLLING
    • -process of checking to make sure that things are done as intended.
    • -a process by which managers attempt to see that actual activities conform to planned activities.
  • Evaluation Tools
    • Checklist – collection of all nursing performances expected of a worker
    • Forced Choice Comparison– the evaluator is asked to choose the statement that best describes the evaluated nurse.
    • Essay – The appraiser writes a paragraph or more about the strengths, weakness and potential
    • Rating Scale – A rating scale includes a series of items representing the different task.
    • Anecdotal Recording- describes the nurse’s experience with a group or a person.
  • QUALITY ASSURANCE
    • Patient Care Audits – a review of the patient charts while the patients are still confined in the hospital, observation of the staff as patient care is given and inspection of patients and/or observation of the effects of patient care
    • Peer Review – Audits may be done by peers
    • Utilization of Results – Nursing staff in the unit is given a feedback on the results of the quality assurance study
    • Quality Circles – nurses who have homogenous work meet regularly to solve work-related problems
  • Control measures
    • Standards
      • Predetermined level of excellence
    • Performance appraisal
      • Evaluates performance based on set standards
  • BENCHMARKING
    • The nurse manager can select the best example of a nurse’s performance and apply that example as a standard to improve performance and this is known as “benchmarking”.