Romanticism was followed by positivism.
The rise of photography and the 19th century art
photography was competition for painting because painting used to be the only
means of imagery.
William Henry Fox Talbot, The
open door plate vi. 1844
He wanted to achieve information. It’s about
representation of how the woman is. The artist has to
ability to put extra information into the picture (before
photoshop was made) whereas pictures couldn’t.
Children in photos always moved and messed up the picture, so the children either
had to sleep or be dead.
James Clerk Maxwell, Tartan Ribbon
Movement began for pictures
Made political charicitures and studied
photography since the beginning. He never
was a painter. He began as an engraver
swallowing gold from the people.
Daumier stopped making cartoons
because the politician saw the cartoon and threatened Daumier.
Daumier, Council of War
Great expression is shown without it being a
painting. It shows what is in real life.
Daumier also did sculpture, but none of his work was taken seriously, not even his
political drawings. lithography- political drawings
Daumier, Rue Transnonain
Shows an actual event that happened.
The displacement of the traveling acrobats
Shows common people that no one else cares
Shows the struggle of the laundry woman and
her child. Damaged skin, lungs, back, and
The third class carriage
The people are poor. Because the
husband is not shown, rather a
grandma is shown, explains that
the father of the child may not be
there at all. Shows the difficulty
of the third class.
First person to show the under class.
Recognized as a painter
Millet, The Winnowner
Shows a peasant shaking the grain. It’s
backbreaking labor and shows that lower class
people do hard labor.
We’ll see people perform a labor in Millet’s
painting and pictures, not portraits.
Millet, The sower
The artist is trying to distinguish a painting
from a picture. the painting shows movement
unlike a picture.
Shows that people in the
background have done %99 of
the work but the lowest of the
low working pick at what’s left and very hard to get. A very backbreaking,
physically demanding. It doesn’t show beauty, it shows reality.
Courbet, After dinner at
Uninteresting. Just another
dinner that has peasants.
the stone breakers
He’s showing what people
don’t want to see in a
painting, It’s undesirable.The
faces aren’t important
because they’re just people in
a life where they live and die
only to break stones hence the younger boy and the older man. The rocks are just
as important as the people which helps define realism. We see someone sitting just
as much as we see the chair they are sitting on. A painting would take away from
the image to focus on the main subject. realists engage the viewers with what is
there and real, romanticists engage the viewers to see the mythology and only the
ideals. There is no triangle structure, no artificial structure, no item is placed
anywhere specific to make the image look better.
A Burial at Ornans
The painting itself has
about fifty life-size
people. Never did a
scene in painting have
average people attend
a funeral. It’s a
normal scene, but he
chooses to enlarge it to say that these people are real people although they’re
unimportant. It’s a big transition from religious paintings. Arrangement of the
figures is different. Order in the painting doesn’t matter. Originally, important
people were up in front and genders may have even been separated but, in this
painting, it doesn’t matter. They’re all over the place. One off thing is that the dog
is up in front of the crowd. It’s new to people (of that time) but it is also modern.
The artist’s studio
At the time, a painting this size
(gigantic) was unheard of
without it looking ridiculous.
The painter’s friends are on one
side and on the other there is
the ‘people who made a living
from debt’. It is socialists to
throw critics, friends, models, painters, pets, and the poor into the same area.
(Moving on from Realism) Impressionism (visionary
Is the object in front of us always the same? Do other people see it differently than
I see it?
Not the same as what he really looks like.
Un Coin Du Salon
New painters would present their paintings
in the ‘salon’. Manet submitted works
many more times throughout his career
The spanish singer
It is different from Velasquez, Three musicians
where the singers are sitting in an ideal place
and the spanish singer has a cigarette bud on
the floor (trash) and an onion. People criticized
his paintings negatively. People were mad that Manet chose to paint a spanish
singer rather than a beautiful man. Manet is showing realism by not painting the
ideal person. The guitar is strum for right handed people but the singer is playing
The old musician
People are shown in real life
randomly, not posed. It shows how
people are not connected. People in
a big crowd don’t look at each
Music in the tuileries
The painting is full but we
should notice the random
quality of the composition.
Manet is going for the 360
degree effect. He is showing
that art isn’t something that
we think of. It’s something we
live with. He puts chairs in the front and it’s a trick of leaving them there to make
the viewers feel like they’re a part of the painting.
Luncheon on the grass
critics were mad about the dressed
men and the undressed women. The
painter is looking into the history of
art in how naked women are
outside. He’s painting a
contemporary version of the nude
the dead christ with angels
What the painter is doing is bringing forth
what is actually happening.
The most scandal painting of
the 19th century. She is
‘erotically undressed’. Not fully undressed, necklace on, shoes, bracelet, and hair
piece. She is full-on looking at the viewer. It is very ‘in your face’. The model isn’t
diverting her gaze. The black cat symbolizes something more sinister. The model
was well known around Paris as a prostitute. Manet submitted the painting to the
salon and a lot of people recognized her. Totally scandal. The prostitute you slept
with is now in a painting starring back at you.
The sound a flute makes is very high and sharp, so
for the background he choses a color that matches
(Japanesse artist)The great wave
Japan starts getting involved.
The art from Japan goes against
everything that European artists
have been taught.
The races at long champ
It shows the view from the
race man's point of view.
Everything gets blurred as
you go faster.
luncheon in the studio
Manet, A cafe, ink
Manet takes the reality that
interests him, not what a typical
realist does. A typical realist
makes works about what everyone
sees in reality.
contemporaneous- contemporary to the other
Manet, the balcony
Shows people in a daily circumstance. Manet
chooses to show people he knows in different
Manet, in the garden
Usually, people in the garden in
paintings don’t look at the viewer, this
painting has the girl gazing at the
Manet, Le Repos
It is a modern condition. In a modern world,
people are beginning to ‘tune-out’.
Artists begin to consider the lighting in the painting an element of its own.
Manet, in the arcachon
Manet, a bar at the folies-bergeres
In this restaurant in the painting,
different classes mixed. It was a
new invent of ‘music halls’. People
began to mix. Now men could take
their women out to a public place
like this. The way she’s opening up
her arms his suggestive as well as
her bored face expression. some of
the objects are modern so it relates
to modernism with a modern set-
up. Manet makes you feel like you’re in the painting (visionary realism).
Birth of impressionism (1874)(remember the date)
Motif- A subject that you paint repeatedly
Art is no longer aimed at
representation. No deep meaning
Claude Monet, impression, sunrise
Started the impressionist
Critics argue that it doesn’t look
finished. ‘Looks like a child
Artists try to get rid of the grout.
Starts showing individual
Manet, monet working in
Manet is a realist and monet
is younger (different type of
Monet is the main
In the painting, monet is in
his boat painting because impressionists were obsessed with lighting.
Impressionists don’t use grout to make their paintings light and instead they put
pigments next to each other so that the viewer’s eye mixes the colors. They didn’t
use pure grey. It always had some other color with it.
He died partially blind because of constantly
looking at the sun (hence him being an
Made paintings during specific times
of the day and went back later when
the lighting changed.
Monet, La Grenouillere
public spaces are now open in
France to the public.
Impressionism is about
individual vision from the artist.
The pointing is showing
different aspects of a scene
Monet, la japonaise
Shows the impression that Japanese art left on
western european artists.
the impressionists were going straight
out of the tube for painting. They did
not mix colors.
The plus for being an impressionist
painter is being able to carry around
the canvas and not having to mix the
paints in jars, rather they were
already in tubes
Monet, Boating at argenteuil
Paint brush strokes were loose and
Impressionism: Renoir, Bazille, Sisley, Cailebotte, Pissarro,
Pierre- Auguste Renoir
He was a porcelain painter and was French
Renoir, Dance at the moulin de la
We know who each person is in
the painting. He is showing
modern Paris. Uses Impressionist
style which is sketch like.Very
much like Manet’s painting. Scale
is also impressive
Renoir, girl gathering flowers
He’s showing his impression of the field.
renoir, the gust of wind
He is trying convey the sense
of touch and feel through an
image. He wants to show the
wind and its power. He shows
it by the moving grass and
renoir, study torso sunlight effect
Renoir was best with representation with light
and representation of women
Renoir, luncheon of the boating
They’re on a boat acting casual
at a dinner. He sketched it
Father figure for the impressionists.
Pissarro, the house of monsieur
Manipulates the horizon line by
manipulating the road.
Pissarro, the vegetable garden with
trees in blossom
Singular brush strokes
Pissarro, Boulevard des italiens
It is an impression since a street
can’t be just three colors
Landscape painter known for lighting
Caillebotte, Le Pont de l’Europe
Sees a steel bridge and paints it as it
is. Very depressing and boring with
three men that dress darkly.
Caillebotte, Paris, a rainy day
competes with picture images
Morisot (female painter)
She goes beyond using people as motifs and
uses a psychological strategy
Impressionism: Series and
Cycles- painting something over
and over again at different times
of the day
Monet, The pond at Montegron
Paints the scene in different lights
Monet did well at painting cycles
Bridge between realism and impressionism
She is wearing a light dress that generates
light and the man wears a tux that generates
He began painting before the impressionist
movement but showed signs of the transition
between realism and impressionism
Degas, Dance class
Degas is interested in painting
people. People were the perfect
motifs because they showed
perfect physical motion.
Degas, Dance class at the opera
He begins using space like Monet,
putting chairs in the corner. Degas is
known for doing dancers.
Degas, a cotton office in New
As time goes on, his paintings get
more complicated. He, over time,
removes the narrative elements in
his works. The advantages is that he
gets to show what he wants.
Degas, the dance
Degas, the little fourteen year old dancer
Mixed media. Made with bronze cast and fabric.
He is investigating the figure. This was his way of
looking outside of painting
He seems to be peeling off the layers
of reality. He observes things that
are not normally displayed. He
shows women in a way where it isn’t
desirable. (non-instagram like)
END OF IMPRESSIONISM
Neo- Impressionism (Divisionism,
Divisionism- dividing the pigments
Pointillism- pigments are being put in a pattern
Science coming together with
painting. There was a rise with
scientific uprise in books, art,
experiment (19th century).
There’s a development in artists
developing in their subject’s
actual looks (not changing it at
all). The color wheel is made
Seurat, Bathing at Asnieres
Nothing is a plain color. All are mixed. The
artist uses the motifs (people) to show shapes
and color. He isn’t trying to show an impressionist scene, rather just experiment
with shape and color. His objective is to make the viewer exercise optically
because no pigments are mixed. The viewers are standing far enough away to
make the pigments look
Seurat, sunday afternoon on the
island of grande Jatte
It is a “monumental” painting.
It’s complete fabrication as long
as 3 meters that experiments
with shape and color. He places
the people in groups of two or
three. It’s a modern painting
because classes are all sitting
together on the same turf. He’s experimenting. It’s completely constructed because
it is different than Monet’s painting of the same landscape. He did multiple
sketches that were impressionistic. For composition’s sake, he changes around
people’s looks to fit the
composition, posture, color, and
Vincent Van Gogh
Began working after impressionism and
slightly in neoimpressionism
Lived in poverty. Made 900 paintings
but only sold 1 to a friend. Had
malnutrition, blood disorder, and ate
paint thinking it looked appetizing when
he was extremely poor.
Van Gough, At eternity’s gate
Began with black and white waiting to master it
Van Gough, the potato eater
He tries to convey the fact that
the peasants use the same hands
that they use to undig the
potatoes. Tries to represent hard
Van Gough, skull of a skeleton with a
Van Gough practicing
Van Gough, skull
He discovers impressionist painting and his style of
painting completely changes
His brush strokes become an individual figure in the
Van Gough, self portrait with a straw hat
experimenting with brush strokes. The brush
strokes are very prominent
Van Gough, the flowering orchard
He is very influenced by japanese art. He is
poor so he likes lifeless figures that he doesn’t
have to pay.
It has middle ground, background, and the tree
to flatten it. All inspired by Japanese art.
He moves to Arles
Van Gough, Orleanders
Inspired by Japanese art and takes still
life to make it something else. He’s
using impressionism to show what he
wants to shows (the orange outlines).
Van Gough, shoes
The shoes stands in for the artist himself. the
shoes define van gough, rough, beaten up,
poor condition. The shoe’s shadow is
colored blue which is van gough’s pictorial
decision but is odd.
Van Gough, the sower
different point of view, the sun looks like a
head of cheese and van gough uses specific
paint strokes to focus on the sun
Van Gough, Sower at sunset
It’s representation and
Van Gough, the artist’s bedroom
He is showing how happy he is in
this bedroom. He’s describing the
scene like food because he hasn’t
had any for a while. It’s about
Van Gough, the night cafe
It’s a place where people go after
everything is closed. He tries to
express the powers of darkness.
Lamps look like eyes, it’s late, people
are falling asleep, the yellow is sharp.
It may be visually offensive.
Van Gough paints things as he feels
His paintings are intense because of how he feels about each place he paints about,
thus he becomes the father of expressionism.
Van Gough, self portrait with bandaged ear
He cut off part of his ear and was unstable at
the time. This painting shows how he was
feeling at the time
Van Gough, the dance hall in arles
Usually lush and thick with paint,
his paintings but changes because
he’s painting next to a friend.
Van Gough was a slob and had
personality differences. He at the
time started developing
He wanted to send part of his ear to
a woman he loved (a prostitute).
She was upset about it and Van
Gough went on to check into a
metal institute to try and heal himself
Van Gough, woman rocking a cradle
He wanted to sing a lullaby in colors. Two colors that
don’t work together, red and green.
It is about creating a sensation based on color. It’s
Van Gough, olive orchard
Painted while he was in an asylum.
The paintings become more and
more agitated while he himself
Van Gough, wheat fields with
He tries to show a metaphor of life
and death cycles. He saw wheat as a
metaphor for life. The clouds are
interpretations of his mood.
Van Gough, the starry night
His vision is his fear of death but the
feeling of immortality.
We start seeing paintings as paintings
Van Gough, painter on the road
Van Gough, wheat field
The painter represents
how he’s feeling. He’s not
doing well and he’s dying.
He died with a gun shot
wound that was shot by a
teenage boy. He lied though and said he’ll take the blame and say he committed
suicide. The skies are dark blue and brush strokes are weak which represents his
Started primitivism. Wasn’t a happy person and
included impressionism in some of his work but
tried to make it something totally different.
Gauguin, portrait of a child
He’s an amateur and starts painting after
having a family and paints landscapes.
He’s a student of pissaro and is accepted
into the salon.
Gauguin ,suzanne sewing
He’s trying to find himself as an artist and is
incorporating similar features from other
Gauguin, Mette gauguin in an evening
Market crash happens and chooses to give
up his family to paint
Gauguin, self portrait
Becomes an independent artist
Gauguin, still life with profile of laval
When he hatches as an artist and grows a
new style. It goes against the impressionism
movement and doctrine
Gauguin, a seashore II
Gauguin becomes sick with his
friend. The paintings show
progression and is unusual for an
impressionist. He’s playing with
the painting by breaking it off
into sections and patterns and
He invents synthetism. Bringing two together. Painting becomes something of its
own. An image within itself
Begins teaching others
Says look at nature but to not copy it. He wants rather to deconstruct it and make it
Gauguin, the vision after the
sermon-jacob wrestling with the
This a combination of fiction and
Painting is no longer representing
In impressionism they paint from
light and being there to see and
paint. Realism is painting
something as it is objectively and expressionism is no longer representing or
Gauguin, tribute to van
Tries to cheer up van
gough by painting
yellow, his favorite
Gauguin, self portrait
GOOD LUCK ON THE TEST! :)