AL-QUDS J ER USALEM   Thermometer of Muslim’s Honor
Topics              ‫عناصر‬• Introduction        ‫• مقدمة‬• History             ‫• تارٌخ‬• Why AL-Quds    ‫• لماذا القدس‬•...
Location                                              ‫موقعها‬On a plateau in Khaleel             ‫• وسط فلسطٌن، على هضبة‬...
‫منظر لبلدة القدس القدٌمة من جبل المشارف.‬   ‫‪The Outlook from a Nearby‬‬            ‫.‪Mountain‬‬
Name                                                                          ‫اسمها‬Urusalim is the first name.          ...
Why Mainly Palestine?                 ‫لماذا فلسطٌن‬Islam doesnt distinguish               ‫• اإلسالم ال‬  between people ...
Why Mainly Palestine?           ‫لماذا فلسطٌن‬a- Because of what this land    ‫• لما تعنٌه القدس‬  means to us Muslims.   ...
Blessed and Holy                             ‫مباركة ومقدسة‬“Glorified be He Who took His slave          :‫وصفها هللا بؤنه...
In It there is al-Aqsaa                                             ‫فٌها األقصى‬• Abu Dharr said: we were discussing, in ...
Protected from ad-Dajjal                       ‫محفوظة من الدجال‬The Dajjaal will not enter it:                      ‫• ال...
The First Qiblah                ‫قبلة المسلمٌن األولى‬• Al-Baraa’: the Messenger of   ‫• عن البراء أن رسول هللا‬  Allaah p...
Cradle of Wahy, and               ‫مهبط الوحً وموطن‬homeland of Prophets.                      .‫األنبٌاء‬• The Messenger ...
Al-Aqsa is one of the                          ُ                                  ‫تشد الرحال إلى‬three mosques towhich pe...
Al-Masjid al-Aqsa                                          ‫المسجد األقصى‬•Rebuilt by Sulaymaan, as stated in Sunan al-   ...
Location and Borders of al-Aqsa ‫مكان المسجد وحده‬•Al-Mawsoo’ah al-Filasteeniyyah (4/203): “The          ‫• الموسوعة الفلس...
This concurrs with what                         ‫ٌؤكد هذا ما قاله شٌخ‬Shaykh al-Islam Ibn                                ‫...
Why Mainly Palestine?                  ‫لماذا فلسطٌن‬                                           ‫• بسبب حجم‬b- Because of ...
Ticking Clock
Population: 1870-1946            2,000,000                                                         1,237,000            1,...
Population %: 1870-19461946                                          35%                         65%1940193519301925192019...
How Do They Do It? 1- Extra Judicial Killings
Expropriation and Destruction of Land          Demolition of houses• Since 1967, Israel expropriated 79% of WB.  (Betselem...
I m p r i s o n m e n t & To r t u r e• Since 1967, over 600,000 Palestinians have been held in  Israeli jails for periods...
Destruction of economyMovement                      More than•   Checkpoints &Road blocks 11,000 olive•   Control Towers  ...
Water• 80% water aquifers in West Bank.• Illegal settlements placed on top of water aquifers & mountains and   get priorit...
Why Mainly Palestine?                        ‫لماذا فلسطٌن‬c- Because of the type of enemy.             ‫• طغٌان األعداء‬ ...
Jewish … Arrive at airport & be a citizen!1948: Resolution 194: ".. refugees wishing to return totheir homes and live at p...
Why Mainly Palestine?                  ‫لماذا فلسطٌن‬e- Because of the rapid                                .‫• لسرعة تطور...
The Separation Wall
1.Surrounds 100,000 people in 42 towns2.Reduces water supply by 1 billion gallons3.Confiscates hundreds of thousands of ac...
Settlements
Why Mainly Palestine?             ‫لماذا فلسطٌن‬                                   ‫• تقطٌع أوصال‬f- The interruption of t...
‫‪Why Not Maccah‬‬                    ‫لماذا القدس ولٌس مكة‬‫‪• Because of its significance‬‬      ‫• تعتبر القدس مدٌنة مق...
Why History                                            ‫التارٌخ لماذا‬“Indeed in their stories, there   ٌ‫(لَقد كان فً قصص...
Timeline of the History of al -Quds
Jebusites                                                     ‫الٌبوسٌون‬• According to the Bible, the Jebusites         ‫...
‫‪Jebusites‬‬                                                       ‫الٌبوسٌون‬‫‪• According to some‬‬               ‫استق...
‫‪ú-ru-sa-lim‬‬    ‫نقشششششش السششششششم‬‫,‪inscription‬‬   ‫أورسششششالم فششششً‬‫‪Amarna‬‬         ‫إحشششدس رسشششا ل‬‫‪lett...
Unified Kingdom                                    ‫المملكة الموحدة‬• Later, according to the biblical          40 ‫حكم دا...
Babylonians                                             ‫البابلٌون‬• Jerusalem was capital of Judah for 400         ‫• 785...
Cyrus II of Persia                          ‫الكبٌر‬       ‫المل قور‬• After several decades of captivity in        ‫• 835...
Alexander the Great                  ‫اإلسكندر األكبر‬• 333 B.C. Alexander the                               ‫• 333 ق.م فق...
Greek era (312–164 BC)                              ‫اإلغرٌق‬• following Alexanders death,                                ...
Hasmonean Kingdom                                         ‫المملكة‬  (164 BC – 35 BC)                                   ‫ا...
Herodian Dynasty (35 BC – 96 AD)                          ‫الحٌرودٌون‬• The Romans installed Herod as a Jewish          ً ...
Roman rule (6 AD –                                   6( ً‫الحكم الرومان‬  638 AD)                                         ...
Sack of Jerusalem                             ‫تدمٌر القدس‬• Inside wall from the Arch of     ً‫• نقش على قوس تٌتوس ف‬  Ti...
More Rebellion                                                               ‫تمرد آخر‬• In 130 Roman Emperor Hadrian rebu...
Roman/ Byzantine Rule                            ً‫الحكم الرومانً/ البٌزنط‬• For the next 150 years, the city remained a  ...
The Persians Again                                               ‫فارس ثانٌة‬The Jews joined Sassanid Persia in the invasi...
‫فً عهد عمر، أًرسل عمرو بن العاص وأبا‬                           ‫عبٌدة لفتح فلسطٌن، لكن القدس عصٌت‬                      ...
Caliphates (638–1300s)                             )+1300–638( ‫الخالفة‬• The city was one of the Arab Caliphates first   ...
Caliphates (638–1300s) )+1300–638( ‫الخالفة‬• Sixty years later the Dome of the          ‫• عبد الملك بن‬  Rock was built ...
Caliphates (638–1300s) )+1300–638( ‫الخالفة‬• Under the early centuries of Muslim rule,                   ‫• اهتم األموٌون...
‫‪Weakness and Division‬‬                  ‫ضعف الدولة وتفككها‬ ‫‪• The early Arab period was‬‬                           ...
Crusaders                                                 ‫الصلٌبٌون‬The crusaders besieged Jerusalem for a               ...
Crusaders                                       ‫الصلٌبٌون‬• Jerusalem became the capital of the     ‫•قامت فً القدس منذ‬ ...
Ayyubides                                        ‫األٌوبٌون‬                                      ‫• استطاع صالح الدٌن‬• T...
‫‪Ayyubides‬‬                                                   ‫األٌوبٌون‬‫‪• In 1229, by treaty with Egypts‬‬    ‫ولكن ا...
‫‪Mamluks‬‬                                  ‫العهد المملوكً‬‫‪• The Khwarezmian Tatars took‬‬         ‫4421 تعرضت المدٌنة...
Muslim Tolerance or Collection of Abominations1482, visiting Dominican priest Felix Fabri described Jerusalem:“.. dwelling...
‫)7191–7151( ‪Ottomans‬‬               ‫العثمانٌون (7151-7191)‬‫‪• In 1517, it was taken over by‬‬        ‫• 7151دخل العثم...
Ottomans (1517–1917)                                   )1917-1517( ‫العثمانٌون‬•   Renewal and peace under Suleiman the Ma...
‫)7191–7151( ‪Ottomans‬‬              ‫العثمانٌون (7151-7191)‬ ‫-‪• Modern utilities came to al‬‬     ‫تطوّ رت الحٌاة المق...
Ottomans (1517–1917)               )1917-1517( ‫العثمانٌون‬ 4 major communities: Jewish, Christian, Muslim, and   Armenian...
Old picture of Jerusalem                         from the mount of olivesJews in Jerusalem 1895
‫)!‪Egyptian Rule (Albanian‬‬                    ‫الحكم المصري (األلبانً!)‬                                               ...
Back under the Ottomans ً‫عودة إلى الحكم العثمان‬• The Egyptians were defeated by the combined             ‫بعد هزٌمة المص...
British Mandate period (1917–1948) ً‫االنتداب البرٌطان‬ The British were victorious over the   ً‫الفرٌق أول إدموند ألنب‬  ...
Jewish Legion soldiers                        at the Western Wall after                        taking part in 1917        ...
Under the Mandate                                               ‫تحت االنتداب‬• Arab resentment at British rule and the in...
• On November 29, 1947, the United Nations General  Assembly approved a plan which partitioned the British  Mandate of Pal...
International Jerusalem?                                                            ‫تدوٌل؟‬              ‫أحٌلت قضٌة القد...
Main residential areas of Jerusalem in 1947
‫‪• Following the 1948 Arab-Israeli‬‬     ‫قُسمت القدس إلى: الجزء الغربً الخاضع‬       ‫•‬                                ...
• The comparatively populous Arab village of Lifta (today within the bounds   of Jerusalem) was captured by Israeli troops...
• East Jerusalem was captured.                           ‫قامت إسرا ٌل بالسٌطرة على القدس‬      •                         ...
‫ّافات إس ائيمية تزيل ركام ة المغاربة‬         ‫حار‬              ‫ر‬       ‫جر‬      ‫بعد هدمها في يوليو 7691‬
‫‪"Judaization" of East‬‬                                                                    ‫تهوٌد القدس‬‫‪Jerusalem‬‬   ...
East JerusalemStatistics on land expropriation in East Jerusalem from   1967 to 2002:• Amount of land taken (in dunams): 2...
Timeline of the History of al -Quds
Lessons from            ‫دروس من‬ the Crusades   ‫الحروب الصلٌبٌة‬
The Opposite View SurvivesThe Catholic Encyclopedia:Knight, K. Volume IV, Online ed. 2003• “The Crusades were expeditions ...
The Opposite View Survives Thomas F. Madden: “Whether we admire the Crusaders or  not, it is a fact that the world we know...
Impartiality!?
Not Only the Muslims• “The wars waged by the Spaniards against the Moors  constituted a continual crusade from the elevent...
The Claim• “The Council of Clermont  convoked by Urban II on  November 18, 1095, was  attended largely by bishops  of sout...
Intolerance  In the Preaching of Islam by Thomas Arnold pp 54,55:• " Michael the Elder, Jacobite Patriarch of Antioch, wri...
Intolerance• “ And if in truth, we have suffered some loss, because the catholic  churches, that had been taken a way from...
Intolerance• “When the Muslim army reached the valley of the Jordan and Adu  Ubaygah pitched his camp at Fihl, the Christi...
Intolerance• “Such was the state of feeling in Syria during the campa pf 633 – 639 in which the   Arabs gradually drove th...
What Made My Ancestors Accept The Religion Of The Conquerors• The Columbia History of The World, 1st Ed., pp. 264:   “For ...
What Made My Ancestors Accept The Religion Of The Conquerors“Umar left these communities undistributed except for the paym...
Who were the early Muslims fighting?
Do They Care?• Britannica: “On October 2 Jerusalem, then defended by  only a handful under the command of Balian of Ibelin...
Stages• “After Philip returned to France, he preyed upon Richards  lands; Richard … had been in constant communication wit...
We Keep the Peace• Encyclopædia Britannica: “Forced by the  Crusaders to convert or die, many Jews  chose death. There are...
Intolerance of Own• “Antioch had not been returned to the emperor, and  Bohemond had consolidated his position there. The ...
Intolerance• “Tancred and Raymond entered, and the Muslim governor  surrendered to the latter in the Tower of David. The g...
Which Version is Closer to the Truth?• The pillage of Jerusalem according to Raymond dAguilers:   “ Now that our men had p...
“But these were small matters compared with what happened inthe Temple of Solomon, a place where religious services arenor...
Intolerance• “In the midst of near civil war, Reginald of Châtillon,  lord of Kerak and Montréal, broke the truce with the...
Intolerance• “When Saladin failed to pay the first installment of the  ransom for the prisoners on schedule, Richard flew ...
Intolerance• “Most mosques were appropriated during the conquest, but some were restored, and no attempt was made to restr...
Does It End?• King Peter I of Cyprus finally organized an expedition  that in 1365 succeeded in the temporary occupation  ...
Expansion of The Muslim State & The Protection of Pilgrims• The Seljuq Turks, one of several tribes on the  northeastern f...
Expansion of Muslim State & Protection of Pilgrims• ‘By the middle of the 11th century, the Seljuq Turks had  wrested poli...
Different Map, Isn’t It?
The Most Fanatic Can Still Be Deterred• Encyclopædia Britannica: “The situation seemed so  hopeless [i.e.,the siege of Ant...
WHO WERE THE CRUSADERS?• “Moreover, by 1304 rumours (probably false) of  irreligious practices and blasphemies committed b...
Where Does It Stop?• Encyclopædia Britannica: “King Louis once again took  up the cross, but his second venture, the Eight...
Motives: Diverting Problems from Europe!• Encyclopædia Britannica: “… he apparently stressed  the plight of Eastern Christ...
Motives: Population Growth in Europe• Encyclopædia Britannica: “Although still backward  when compared with the other civi...
Apocalyptic Motives!• Encyclopædia Britannica: “Yet another element in the popular  religious consciousness of the 11th ce...
Apocalyptic Motives!• “After having allegedly received divine instruction, Nicholas set  out to rescue Jerusalem from the ...
Apocalyptic Motives!• Encyclopædia Britannica: “ ... Nicholas himself arrived with a  large gathering at Genoa on August 2...
Some Were Sincere, but Misguided.• Extract from a letter sent during the siege [of Antioch] by Stephen,  Count of Blois, t...
Crusades Vs. Islamic Expansion• Britannica: “European settlers in  the Crusader states, however,  were only a small minori...
They Were Convinced the Inhabitants of the Land Don’t             Deserve Better Treatment• 1: Samuel, 18-27: “David and h...
Think!• Crusaders  accepting  the  surrender of  Arabs.(Notice the  sizes)
THE WORK OF THE MEDIA• Muslim soldiers  besieging  Crusaders in a  tower.All the sudden  Muslims are much  bigger.
• Latin View of  The Saracens
Not About Talking Only - Short Term:1) Do not do anything hasty and irresponsible.2) Visit the masjids; be around your bre...
Not About Talking Only – Long Term:   We must feel angry at ourselves     without acquitting the     victimizers of their ...
Al Quds Thermometer of Our Honor
Al Quds Thermometer of Our Honor
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Al Quds Thermometer of Our Honor

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Al Quds Thermometer of Our Honor

  1. 1. AL-QUDS J ER USALEM Thermometer of Muslim’s Honor
  2. 2. Topics ‫عناصر‬• Introduction ‫• مقدمة‬• History ‫• تارٌخ‬• Why AL-Quds ‫• لماذا القدس‬• Conclusion ‫• خاتمة‬
  3. 3. Location ‫موقعها‬On a plateau in Khaleel ‫• وسط فلسطٌن، على هضبة‬ Mountains. .‫من هضاب جبال الخلٌل‬Neighboring towns: Bethlehem ‫• البلدات المجاورة: بٌت لحم‬ and Beit Jala to the south, Abu ‫وبٌت جاال جنوبًا، أبو دٌس‬ Dis and Maale Adumim ‫ومستوطنة معالٌه أدومٌم‬ settlement to the east, ً ‫شرقا، مڤاسرت صهٌون‬ Mevaseret Zion to the west, ‫غربًا، ورام هللا ومستوطنة‬ and Ramallah and Givat Zeev .ً‫گفعات زئٌف شماال‬ settlement to the north.
  4. 4. ‫منظر لبلدة القدس القدٌمة من جبل المشارف.‬ ‫‪The Outlook from a Nearby‬‬ ‫.‪Mountain‬‬
  5. 5. Name ‫اسمها‬Urusalim is the first name. "‫أوّ ل اسم "أورسالم‬Also Jebus. ً ."‫ثم وفقا للتوراة، "ٌبوس‬Yerushalayim (Jerusalem) first appears in book ‫ثم "أورشلٌم” وأطلق العبرانٌون على‬ of Joshua. Israelites named settled ”‫األقسام المؤهولة "مدٌنة داود‬ neighborhood “City of David”. "Zion" .‫و"صهٌون" ثم صارت ألقابا‬ referred to part of the city, later signified the "‫خالل العصر الهٌلٌنً: "هٌروسلٌما‬ whole. ."‫سماها الرومان "إٌلٌا الكاپٌتولٌنٌّة‬In Greek transliterated Hierosolym ‫فً العهدة العمرٌة تذكر باسم‬Renamed Aelia Capitolina by the Romans. ."‫"إلٌاء‬In Arabic, al-Quds "The Holy“. .“‫ثم "بٌت المقدس” و“القدس‬
  6. 6. Why Mainly Palestine? ‫لماذا فلسطٌن‬Islam doesnt distinguish ‫• اإلسالم ال‬ between people based on their ‫ٌفرق بٌن‬ ethnic, racial or national .‫الناس‬ background. ‫• لٌست فلسطٌن‬Palestine is not the only bleeding .‫وحدها تنزف‬ wound in our body.
  7. 7. Why Mainly Palestine? ‫لماذا فلسطٌن‬a- Because of what this land ‫• لما تعنٌه القدس‬ means to us Muslims. .‫ونواحٌها لنا‬• Ceuta and Melilla are two Moroccan cities that are occupied by Spain. Have you ever heard about them?
  8. 8. Blessed and Holy ‫مباركة ومقدسة‬“Glorified be He Who took His slave :‫وصفها هللا بؤنها مباركة‬ for a journey by night from Al- ‫(سبحان الذي أسرى بعبده‬ Masjid Al-Haraam to Al-Masjid Al- ‫لٌالً من المسجد الحرام إلى‬ Aqsaa, the neighborhood whereof ‫المسجد األقصى الذي باركنا‬ We have blessed…” *al-Israa’ 17:1]. )1/‫حوله) (اإلسراء‬ ‫وأنها مقدسة (على لسان‬Moses: “O my people! Enter the holy ‫موسى): (ٌا قوم ادخلوا‬ ِ land which Allah assigned to ‫األرض المقدسة التً كتب‬ you”*al-Ma’idah 5:21] ) 21/ ‫هللا لكم) (المائدة‬
  9. 9. In It there is al-Aqsaa ‫فٌها األقصى‬• Abu Dharr said: we were discussing, in the ‫عن أبً ذر: تذاكرنا ونحن عند‬ • presence of the Prophet, which of them was ‫رسول هللا أٌهما أفضل مسجد‬ more virtuous, the mosque of the Messenger or ‫رسول هللا أم بٌت المقدس؟ فقال‬ Bayt al-Maqdis. The Messenger of Allah said: One ‫رسول هللا: صالة فً مسجدي‬ prayer in my mosque is better than four prayers ‫أفضل من أربع صلوات فٌه ولنعم‬ there, but it is still a great place of prayer. Soon ‫المصلى هو، ولٌوشكن أن ٌكون‬ there will come a time when if a man has a spot ‫للرجل م ْثل شطن فرسه من‬ َ ِ of land as big as his horse’s rope from which he ‫األرض حٌث ٌَرى منه بٌت‬ can see Bayt al-Maqdis, that will be better for him "ً ‫المقدس خٌر له من الدنٌا جمٌعا‬ than the whole world. Narrated & classed saheeh .‫رواه الحاكم وصححه‬ by al-Haakim.
  10. 10. Protected from ad-Dajjal ‫محفوظة من الدجال‬The Dajjaal will not enter it: ‫• الدجال ال ٌدخلها: "وإنه‬“He will prevail over all the earth, apart ‫سٌظهر على األرض كلها إال‬ from al-Haram [in Makkah] and Bayt al- ‫الحرم وبٌت المقدس" رواه‬ Maqdis.” [Saheeh. Narrated by Ahmad.] ‫أحمد وصححه ابن خزٌمة‬The Dajjaal will be killed close to al-Quds: ‫• وٌقتل قرٌبا ً من هناك: " ٌَقتل‬“The son of Maryam will kill the Dajjaal at "‫ابنُ مرٌم الدجال بباب لُد‬ ّ َ the gates of Ludd.” (Muslim, from al- .‫مسلم عن النواس بن سمعان‬ Nawwaas ibn Sam’aan). Ludd (Lod): town ّ .‫و"لد" قرب بٌت المقدس‬ near al-Quds.
  11. 11. The First Qiblah ‫قبلة المسلمٌن األولى‬• Al-Baraa’: the Messenger of ‫• عن البراء أن رسول هللا‬ Allaah prayed toward Bayt ‫صلى إلى بٌت المقدس‬ al-Maqdis for sixteen or ‫ستة عشر شهراً أو سبعة‬ seventeen months. (Ag). )‫عشر شهراً. )ق‬
  12. 12. Cradle of Wahy, and ‫مهبط الوحً وموطن‬homeland of Prophets. .‫األنبٌاء‬• The Messenger led the ً‫• أم الرسول األنبٌاء فٌه ف‬ ّ Prophets in it: “Then the ‫صالة واحدة: ".. فحانت‬ time for prayer came, and I ‫الصالة فؤممتهم " مسلم‬ led them in prayer.” (M from .‫عن أبً هرٌرة‬ Abu Hurayrah).
  13. 13. Al-Aqsa is one of the ُ ‫تشد الرحال إلى‬three mosques towhich people travel. ‫األقصى‬• Abu Hurayrah: the Prophet: ‫• عن أبً هرٌرة عن‬ “No journey should be ‫النبً: " ال تشد الرحال‬ made except to three ‫إال إلى ثالثة مساجد‬ mosques, al-Masjid al- ‫المسجد الحرام ومسجد‬ Haraam, Masjid al-Rasool, ‫الرسول ومسجد األقصى‬ Masjid al-Aqsaa.” (Ag) )‫". )ق‬
  14. 14. Al-Masjid al-Aqsa ‫المسجد األقصى‬•Rebuilt by Sulaymaan, as stated in Sunan al- ‫بناه سلٌمان، كما ثبت فً سنن‬ Nasaa’I, however existed before him based on ‫النسائً، وكان موجوداً قبله علٌه‬ ‫السالم وبناء سلٌمان له كان‬ al-Saheehayn from Abu Dharr: “I said, ‘O ً‫تجدٌداً ففً الصحٌحٌن عن أب‬ Messenger of Allaah, which mosque was built ‫ذر: قلت ٌا رسول هللا أي مسجد‬ on earth first?’ He said, ‘Al-Masjid al-Haraam .’ I :‫وضع فً األرض أول؟ قال‬ said, ‘Then which?’ He said, ‘Al-Masjid al-Aqsa.’ I ‫المسجد الحرام قال قلت ثم أي؟‬ said, ‘How much time was there between ‫قال المسجد األقصى قلت كم كان‬ them?’ He said, ‘Forty years. So wherever you ‫بٌنهما؟ قال أربعون سنة ثم أٌنما‬ are when the time for prayer comes, pray, for ‫أدركتك الصالة بعد فصله فإن‬ "‫الفضل فٌه‬ that is the best thing to do.’
  15. 15. Location and Borders of al-Aqsa ‫مكان المسجد وحده‬•Al-Mawsoo’ah al-Filasteeniyyah (4/203): “The ‫• الموسوعة الفلسطٌنٌة 302/4 (كان‬ name al-Masjid al-Aqsa was historically applied ‫اسم المسجد األقصى ٌطلق على‬ to the entire sanctuary and the buildings in it, ‫الحرم القدسً الشرٌف كله وما فٌه‬ most important of which is the Dome of the ً‫من منشآت أهمها قبة الصخرة الت‬ Rock built by ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Marwaan in 72 72 ‫بناها عبد الملك بن مروان سنة‬ AH/691 CE. Today the name is applied to the ‫هـ/196م. وأما الٌوم فٌطلق على‬ great mosque in the southern part of the .)‫المسجد الكبٌر جنوبً ساحة الحرم‬ sanctuary.” Also (3/23): “The Dome of the Rock ‫وفٌها أٌضا (32/3): (قبة الصخرة‬ is in the middle of the plateau of al-Aqsa, which ً‫فً وسط ساحة المسجد األقصى، ف‬ is in the southeastern part of the city of al-Quds. )‫القسم الجنوبً الشرقً من القدس‬
  16. 16. This concurrs with what ‫ٌؤكد هذا ما قاله شٌخ‬Shaykh al-Islam Ibn ‫اإلسالم ابن تٌمٌة‬Taymiyah said• “Al-Masjid al-Aqsa is the name for the ‫• “فالمسجد األقصى اسم لجمٌع‬ whole of the place of worship built by ‫المسجد الذي بناه سلٌمان علٌه‬ ‫السالم، وقد صار بعض الناس‬ Sulaymaan (peace be upon him). ‫ٌسمً األقصى المصلى الذي‬• Some people started to give the name of ً‫بناه عمر بن الخطاب ف‬ al-Aqsa to the prayer-place built by ‘Umar ‫مقدمته... والصالة فً هذا‬ ibn al-Khattab in front of it… ‫المصلى الذي بناه عمر‬• Praying in this place which ‘Umar built for ً‫للمسلمٌن أفضل من الصالة ف‬ the Muslims is better than praying in the ”.‫سائر المسجد‬ rest of the mosque”
  17. 17. Why Mainly Palestine? ‫لماذا فلسطٌن‬ ‫• بسبب حجم‬b- Because of the magnitude and .‫الجرٌمة ومدتها‬ the duration of the crime. This is not a simple occupation; this is a crime of erasing a nation off the map and denying a people their identity.
  18. 18. Ticking Clock
  19. 19. Population: 1870-1946 2,000,000 1,237,000 1,800,000 1,600,000 1,400,000 1,200,000 1,000,000 800,000 608,000 600,000 367,224 400,000 Arabs 200,000 Jews 7,000 0 1870 1893 1912 1920 1925 1930 1935 1940 1946June 2002 Al-Awda and American Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC-SF) 19
  20. 20. Population %: 1870-19461946 35% 65%19401935193019251920191218931870 2% 98% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% Arabs Jews Al-Awda and American Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC-SF) - June 2002
  21. 21. How Do They Do It? 1- Extra Judicial Killings
  22. 22. Expropriation and Destruction of Land Demolition of houses• Since 1967, Israel expropriated 79% of WB. (Betselem, 2002)• From October 2001 to January 2005, Israel demolished 675 homes in the Occupied Territories as punishment. Betselem• 3000 houses destroyed by Israel during current intifada – (Haaretz, Aug, 2003) Al-Awda and American Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC-SF) - June 2002
  23. 23. I m p r i s o n m e n t & To r t u r e• Since 1967, over 600,000 Palestinians have been held in Israeli jails for periods ranging from one week to life. (Palestine times, no. 83, May 1998)• During the first Intifada Israel arrested 175,000 Palestinians – (Passia)• Minors in detention (January 2005): 382 Betselem• Torture: 85% of detainees tortured during interrogation Betselem / Passia Al-Awda and American Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC-SF) - June 2002
  24. 24. Destruction of economyMovement More than• Checkpoints &Road blocks 11,000 olive• Control Towers trees• Forbidden Roads [decades to• Permits mature] have• Closures & Sieges• Curfew been• No Airports uprooted Al-Awda and American Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC-SF) - June 2002
  25. 25. Water• 80% water aquifers in West Bank.• Illegal settlements placed on top of water aquifers & mountains and get priority access.• Settlers attack Palestinians water supply, severing pipes and switching off valves.• They dump sewage on Palestinian land, polluting wells and aquifers.• Israeli army routinely destroyed water supplies, a war crime. Al-Awda and American Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC-SF) - June 2002
  26. 26. Why Mainly Palestine? ‫لماذا فلسطٌن‬c- Because of the type of enemy. ‫• طغٌان األعداء‬ .‫وتآمرهم‬• UN resolutions from the G.A., like 194, practically meaningless.• Whenever the S.C. decides to pass a resolution, like 242 or 338, it is under chapter XI, not XII, ‘non-enforceable’!
  27. 27. Jewish … Arrive at airport & be a citizen!1948: Resolution 194: ".. refugees wishing to return totheir homes and live at peace with their neighbors shouldbe permitted to do so at the earliest practicable date.."1974: Resolution 3236: "the inalienable right of thePalestinians to return to their homes and property …"1997: UN Resolution 52/62: “Reaffirms that the PalestineArab refugees are entitled to their property ...."Reaffirmed 110 times with universal consensus, except for Israel & U.S. June 2002 Al-Awda and American Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC-SF)
  28. 28. Why Mainly Palestine? ‫لماذا فلسطٌن‬e- Because of the rapid .‫• لسرعة تطور األحداث‬ progress of the case.• Israel continues to build settlements and annex land.
  29. 29. The Separation Wall
  30. 30. 1.Surrounds 100,000 people in 42 towns2.Reduces water supply by 1 billion gallons3.Confiscates hundreds of thousands of acres4.Harshly limits travel to jobs hospitals & schools5.Adversely affects 4 out of 10 Palestinians Al-Awda and American Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC-SF) - June 2002
  31. 31. Settlements
  32. 32. Why Mainly Palestine? ‫لماذا فلسطٌن‬ ‫• تقطٌع أوصال‬f- The interruption of the land ‫األمة‬ continuity of this ummah. ‫• خنجر فً قلبها‬An enemy within the heartland with easy access to many regions, including the sacred precincts.
  33. 33. ‫‪Why Not Maccah‬‬ ‫لماذا القدس ولٌس مكة‬‫‪• Because of its significance‬‬ ‫• تعتبر القدس مدٌنة مقدسة‬ ‫‪to Judaism, Christianity, and‬‬ ‫عند أتباع الدٌانات‬ ‫.‪Islam‬‬ ‫السماوٌة الثالث:‬‫‪• Because Allah is most‬‬ ‫الٌهودٌة، المسٌحٌة،‬ ‫.‪merciful‬‬ ‫واإلسالم.‬ ‫• رحمة من هللا بنا.‬
  34. 34. Why History ‫التارٌخ لماذا‬“Indeed in their stories, there ٌ‫(لَقد كان فً قصصهم عبْرة‬ َ ِ ْ ِ ِ َ َ ِ َ َ َْ is a lesson for men of ).‫ألُولًِ األَ ْل َباب‬ ِ ْ ِ understanding.” )111:‫(ٌوسف‬
  35. 35. Timeline of the History of al -Quds
  36. 36. Jebusites ‫الٌبوسٌون‬• According to the Bible, the Jebusites ‫عرب من الكنعانٌٌن نزحوا من‬ were a Canaanite tribe. ‫شبة الجزٌرة إلى الشام خالل‬• They built Jerusalem prior to its conquest .‫األلف الثالث ق.م‬ by Prophet David. ‫استقروا فً منطقة القدس وسائر‬• Melchisedech, in the Old Testament, was king and priest, connected with .‫الكنعانٌٌن عند الساحل‬ Jerusalem, revered by Abraham. "‫بنوا القدس بقٌادة "ملكً صادق‬• Books of Kings state that Jerusalem was ‫وأسموها "شالٌم" وكانت‬ known as Jebus prior to this event. .”‫تسمى أٌضا "ٌبوس‬
  37. 37. ‫‪Jebusites‬‬ ‫الٌبوسٌون‬‫‪• According to some‬‬ ‫استقروا فً المنطقة حتى استولى اإلسرائٌلٌون‬ ‫على المدٌنة فً القرن الثانً عشر ق.م.‬ ‫,‪Biblical chronologies‬‬ ‫بقٌادة نبً هللا داود.‬ ‫‪the city was conquered‬‬ ‫3001 ‪by King David in‬‬ ‫‪BC, or according to‬‬ ‫.‪other sources 869 BC‬‬ ‫أحذ الجذران الحجرية الضخمة لمذينة يبىس قبل وصىل داود إليها.‬
  38. 38. ‫‪ú-ru-sa-lim‬‬ ‫نقشششششش السششششششم‬‫,‪inscription‬‬ ‫أورسششششالم فششششً‬‫‪Amarna‬‬ ‫إحشششدس رسشششا ل‬‫‪letters, by‬‬ ‫تشششل العمارنشششة‬‫‪King of the‬‬ ‫بٌشششششششششد ملششششششششش‬‫‪city, Abdi‬‬ ‫المدٌنشششة "عبشششد‬‫‪Heba, 14th‬‬ ‫هبات" الرابع‬‫‪century BCE‬‬ ‫عشر ق.م.‬
  39. 39. Unified Kingdom ‫المملكة الموحدة‬• Later, according to the biblical 40 ‫حكم داود علٌه السالم إسرائٌل‬ • .‫عامًا حتى 079 ق.م‬ narrative, King Solomon built a more ‫خلفه سلٌمان 33 عامًا، وفً عهده‬ • substantive temple, the Temple of ،‫تم تشٌٌد هٌكل سلٌمان الشهٌر‬ ّ Solomon. ‫الذي ٌمثل المستودع الذي حُفظ فٌه‬ ً .‫تابوت العهد وفقا للمعتقد الٌهودي‬• When the Kingdom of Judah split from ‫بعد وفاة سلٌمان انقسمت المملكة‬ • the larger Kingdom of Israel (which the ً‫إلى قسمٌن. سُمً القسم الجنوب‬ Bible places near the end of the reign ‫مملكة ٌهوذا، وأصبحت القدس‬ of Solomon, Jerusalem became the ‫عاصمة لها تحت قٌادة رحبعام بن‬ capital of the Kingdom of Judah. .‫سلٌمان‬
  40. 40. Babylonians ‫البابلٌون‬• Jerusalem was capital of Judah for 400 ‫• 785 ق.م، احتل‬ years. It survived an Assyrian siege in ‫الملك البابلً "نبوخذ‬ 701 BC by Sennacherib, unlike Samaria, ‫نصّر الثانً" القدس‬ the capital of the northern Kingdom. ‫ونقل من فٌها من‬• The siege of 597 BC led to the city being ‫الٌهود أسرى إلى‬ overcome by the Babylonians, who took ‫بابل ودمر هٌكل‬ the young King and aristocracy into captivity … burnt the temple, destroyed ‫سلٌمان، مما أنهى‬ the citys walls. ."‫"عهد الهٌكل األول‬
  41. 41. Cyrus II of Persia ‫الكبٌر‬ ‫المل قور‬• After several decades of captivity in ‫• 835 ق.م وبعد 05 سنة من‬ ً‫السبً، سمح الملك الفارس‬ Babylon and the Persian conquest of ‫قورش الكبٌر لمن أراد من‬ Babylonia, Cyrus II of Persia allowed the ،‫الٌهود بالعودة وبناء الهٌكل‬ Jews to return to Judah and rebuild the ‫فعاد عدد وشرعوا ببناء‬ Temple. The construction was finished in ‫الهٌكل الثانً، وانتهوا سنة‬ 516 BC. .‫615 ق.م‬• Jerusalem was once again the capital of ‫• استمرت المدٌنة عاصمة‬ ‫لمملكة ٌهوذا طٌلة العقود‬ Judah, and the center of Jewish worship. .‫التً تلت‬
  42. 42. Alexander the Great ‫اإلسكندر األكبر‬• 333 B.C. Alexander the ‫• 333 ق.م فقدت فارس‬ Great conquered the ‫القدس لإلسكندر األكبر‬ Persian Empire, Jerusalem ‫وبعد وفاته حكمها‬ and Judea fell under Greek ‫خلفاإه المقدونٌون‬ control and Hellenic .‫والبطالمة‬ influence.
  43. 43. Greek era (312–164 BC) ‫اإلغرٌق‬• following Alexanders death, ‫• 323 ق.م استولى علٌها‬ Jerusalem and Judea fell under ‫بطلٌموس األول وضمها مع‬ Ptolemaic control under ً‫فلسطٌن إلى مملكته ف‬ Ptolemy I. .‫مصر‬• In 198 BC, as a result of the ‫• 891 ق.م، خسر بطلٌموس‬ Battle of Panium, Ptolemy V ‫الخامس مملكة ٌهوذا‬ lost Jerusalem and Judea to the ‫للسلوقٌٌن فً سورٌا، بقٌادة‬ Seleucids under Antiochus the .‫أنطٌوخوس الثالث الكبٌر‬ Great.
  44. 44. Hasmonean Kingdom ‫المملكة‬ (164 BC – 35 BC) ‫الحشمونا ٌمٌة‬• Under the Seleucids many Jews became ‫• 861 ق.م. قام المكابٌون‬ Hellenized, culminating in the Maccabean ‫بثورة على الحاكم‬ rebellion by Matisyahu the High Priest and ‫أنطٌوخوس الرابع، ونجحوا‬ his five sons. As a result, Jerusalem ‫بتؤسٌس المملكة‬ became capital of independent ‫الحشمونائٌمٌة وعاصمتها‬ Hasmonean Kingdom which lasted 103 .‫القدس سنة 251 ق.م‬ years; the only independent Jewish state in the four centuries after the Kingdom of ‫• استولى الرومان على القدس‬ Judah was destroyed. .‫عام 36 ق.م‬
  45. 45. Herodian Dynasty (35 BC – 96 AD) ‫الحٌرودٌون‬• The Romans installed Herod as a Jewish ً ‫نصب الرومان حٌرود األول ملكا‬ • ‫على الٌهود، فكرّ س حٌرود عهده‬ client king around 19 BC. ،‫لتجمٌل المدٌنة وتطوٌر مرافقها‬• As king of the Province of Judea, Herod .ً‫وبنى المعبد الثان‬ ‫بعد وفاة حٌرود األول، خلفه حٌرود‬ • rebuilt the Second Temple. ‫الثانً فً حكم القدس من عام 4 قبل‬• After Herods death in 4 BC, Judea and the ‫المٌالد حتى 6 بعده وعندها أخضع‬ city of Jerusalem came under direct Roman ‫الرومان مملكة ٌهوذا للحكم‬ ُ ‫الرومانً المباشر، فؤصبحت تعرف‬ rule in 6 AD through Roman prefects, ‫بمقاطعة الٌهودٌة، على الرغم من‬ procurators, and legates but Herods ‫أن خلفاء حٌرود األول استمروا‬ ‫بحكم المناطق المجاورة بوصفهم‬ descendants were nominal kings of Judaea .96 ‫ملوك تابعٌن لروما حتى‬ Province until 96.
  46. 46. Roman rule (6 AD – 6( ً‫الحكم الرومان‬ 638 AD) ).638 – .‫ق.م‬• In 66 AD the Jewish population rebelled against the ‫شهد الحكم الرومانً للقدس‬ • Roman Empire in what is now known as the First ‫حوادث كثٌرة، أولها الثورة‬ Jewish–Roman War. Roman legions under future ‫الٌهودٌة الكبرى، من سنة‬ emperor Titus re-conquered and subsequently ‫66 إلى 07م، وقمعها‬ destroyed much of Jerusalem and the Second "‫الحاكم الرومانً "تٌطس‬ Temple in 70 AD. The Second Temple was burnt and ً‫فؤحرق المدٌنة وأسر كثٌرا‬ all that remained was the great external (retaining) ُ ‫من الٌهود ودمّر المعبد‬ walls supporting the Esplanade on which the Temple ‫للمرة الثانٌة، وعادت‬ had stood, a portion of which has become known as .‫األمور إلى طبٌعتها‬ the Western Wall; also known as the Wailing Wall.
  47. 47. Sack of Jerusalem ‫تدمٌر القدس‬• Inside wall from the Arch of ً‫• نقش على قوس تٌتوس ف‬ Titus, Rome. The Menorah ‫روما ٌُظهر الجنود الرومان‬ from the Temple is seen being ً ‫وهم ٌحملون كنوزا غنموها‬ carried in the victory procession. .‫بعد تدمٌرهم القدس‬
  48. 48. More Rebellion ‫تمرد آخر‬• In 130 Roman Emperor Hadrian rebuilt the city, ،132 ‫عاود الٌهود التمرد فً 511 و‬ • renaming it Aelia Capitolina. ‫واألخٌرة عُرفت بثورة شمعون بن‬ ‫كوكبة، وتمكنوا من السٌطرة على‬• Built a large temple to the goddess Venus, "‫المدٌنة، إال أن اإلمبراطور "هادرٌان‬ later, Church of the Holy Sepulcher. ‫تعامل مع الثوّ ار بعنف ودمر القدس‬• Restrictions on some Jewish practices caused a ّ ‫للمرة الثانٌة، وأخرج الٌهود، ومن شدة‬ ‫نقمته علٌهم غٌر اسم المدٌنة إلى‬ revolt led by Simon Bar Kokhba. ‫"مستعمرة إٌلٌا الكاپٌتولٌنٌّة" واشترط‬• Hadrian killed about a half million. Jews were ‫أال ٌسكنها ٌهودي، بل جعل اسم‬ forbidden from the city but for a single day of ‫مقاطعة الٌهودٌة "مقاطعة سورٌا‬ ‫ تٌم ًنا‬Syria Palaestina "‫الفلسطٌنٌة‬ the year, Tisha BAv, (the Ninth of Av), fast day .‫بالفلستٌنٌٌن‬ to mourn the destruction of both Temples.
  49. 49. Roman/ Byzantine Rule ً‫الحكم الرومانً/ البٌزنط‬• For the next 150 years, the city remained a ‫انقسمت اإلمبراطورٌة الرومانٌة عام 593م‬ • ‫إلى: غربٌة عاصمتها روما وشرقٌة أو بٌزنطٌة‬ relatively unimportant pagan Roman town. ‫عاصمتها القسطنطٌنٌة، وخضعت القدس إلى‬• Byzantine Emperor Constantine, however, rebuilt .‫األخٌرة‬ ‫خضعت المدٌنة لسٌطرة الرومان ثم البٌزنطٌٌن‬ • Jerusalem as a Christian center of worship, ‫خالل القرون الخمسة التً تلت ثورة شمعون بن‬ building the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in 335. .‫كوكبة‬ ‫بعد أن نقل قسطنطٌن األول عاصمة‬ •• Jerusalem received special recognition in ‫اإلمبراطورٌة الرومانٌة إلى بٌزنطة، وأعلن‬ Canon VII of the First Council of Nicaea in 325; ‫المسٌحٌة دٌانة رسمٌة، أمر بتشٌٌد كنٌسة القٌامة‬ became home to one of the five Patriarchates of .326 ً ‫بعد مجمع نٌقٌة، أصبحت القدس مركزا‬ • the Christian Church. ‫لبطرٌركٌة من الخمس الكبرى: اإلسكندرٌة‬• Jews were still banned from the city, except during .‫وروما والقسطنطٌنٌة وأنطاكٌة والقدس‬ ‫استمر حظر دخول الٌهود حتى القرن السابع‬ • a brief period of Persian rule from 614 to 629 AD. .‫المٌالدي‬
  50. 50. The Persians Again ‫فارس ثانٌة‬The Jews joined Sassanid Persia in the invasion ‫احتل الفرس القدس بعد أن ساعدهم‬ • .‫الٌهود الناقمون على البٌزنطٌٌن‬ of Byzantine Empire to liberate Jerusalem. ‫فتح الفرس المدٌنة 416م، بعد‬ •The city fell to the combined forces after a 20- ‫حصار 12 ٌومًا. تنص السجالت‬ day siege. Christians of Jerusalem were ‫البٌزنطٌة أن الفرس والٌهود ذبحوا‬ massacred. ‫آالف المسٌحٌٌن، وما زال هذا‬ .‫موضع جدل‬Jews were given permission to run the city and ‫استمرت المدٌنة خاضعة للفرس‬ • effectively did for five years. ‫51 سنة، إلى أن استعادها الروم‬In 628, after the defeat and death of Khosrau II, ‫926م تحت قٌادة هرقل، وظلت‬ Heraclius came as victor into Jerusalem. ً‫بؤٌدٌهم حتى الفتح اإلسالم‬ .‫636م‬
  51. 51. ‫فً عهد عمر، أًرسل عمرو بن العاص وأبا‬ ‫عبٌدة لفتح فلسطٌن، لكن القدس عصٌت‬ ‫علٌهم لمناعة أسوارها. وعندما طال‬ ‫حصار المسلمٌن، طلب رئٌس البطاركة،‬ ‫"صفرونٌوس” أال ٌسلم القدس إال لعمر.‬ ‫فؤرسل عمرو بن العاص ٌخبر عمر‬ ‫فاستشار فقال علً: "إنً أرى أنك إن‬ ‫سرت إلٌهم فتح هللا هذه المدٌنة على‬ ‫ٌدٌك وكان فً مسٌرك األجر العظٌم".‬ ‫‪Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab‬‬‫م ذنة مسجد عمر بن الخطاب‬ ‫‪personally went to the city to‬‬ ‫فً القدس سنة 5291.‬ ‫‪receive its submission‬‬
  52. 52. Caliphates (638–1300s) )+1300–638( ‫الخالفة‬• The city was one of the Arab Caliphates first ‫قام عمر رضً هللا عنه بعد فتح‬ • conquests in 638 AD. ‫المدٌنة بالبحث عن األقصى واضعً ا‬• Omar entered it and looked for the site of the ‫نصب عٌنٌه الرواٌة التً سمعها‬ Masjid according to the description of the ‫من رسول هللا، وسؤل الصحابة‬ Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace be upon ،‫وكعب األحبار وصفرونٌوس‬ him), then he found it under layers of soil and ‫وكان ٌراجعهم قائالً: "لقد وصف‬ garbage. He ordered the cleaning of the place, the ‫لً رسول هللا صلّى هللا علٌه وسلم‬ building of a mosque, and a wooden canopy over ."‫المسجد بصفة ما هً علٌه هذه‬ the rock. ً‫وعثر على المكان، وكان مطمورا‬• Umar ibn al-Khattab also allowed the Jews back ‫باألتربة. فؤمر بإقامة مسجد وإقامة‬ into the city and freedom to live and worship after .‫ظلة من الخشب فوق الصخرة‬ four hundred years.
  53. 53. Caliphates (638–1300s) )+1300–638( ‫الخالفة‬• Sixty years later the Dome of the ‫• عبد الملك بن‬ Rock was built by Abdul-Malik ibn ‫مروان بنى قبة‬ Marwaan. (The octagonal and gold- ‫الصخرة عام‬ sheeted Dome is not the same .691 thing as the Al-Aqsa Mosque beside ‫• الولٌد بن عبد الملك‬ it, the latest version of which was ‫بنى المسجد‬ built more than three centuries ‫األقصى عام‬ later). .709
  54. 54. Caliphates (638–1300s) )+1300–638( ‫الخالفة‬• Under the early centuries of Muslim rule, ‫• اهتم األموٌون‬ especially during the Umayyad (650–750) and ‫والعباسٌون بالمدٌنة‬ Abbasid (750–969) dynasties, the city ً‫فشهدت نهضة علمٌة ف‬ prospered; the geographers Ibn Hawqal and ‫مختلف المٌادٌن، لكن‬ al-Istakhri (10th century) describe it as "the ‫شهرتها سرعان ما‬ most fertile province of Palestine", while its ‫تضعضعت بسبب عدم‬ native son the geographer al-Maqdisiy (born 946) devoted many pages to its praises in his ‫االستقرار الذي شهدته‬ most famous work, The Best Divisions in the ‫الدولة العباسٌة وانقسامها‬ Knowledge of the Climes. .‫إلى دوٌالت‬
  55. 55. ‫‪Weakness and Division‬‬ ‫ضعف الدولة وتفككها‬ ‫‪• The early Arab period was‬‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫• أدى تفكك الدولة العباسٌة إلى ضعف العمل‬ ‫بالشرٌعة، فلقً المسٌحٌون نوعًؤ من‬ ‫‪also one of religious‬‬ ‫االضطهاد، وهُدمت كنٌسة القٌامة فً‬ ‫.‪tolerance‬‬ ‫القدس خالل عهد الخلٌفة الفاطمً، أبو علً‬ ‫‪• However, in the early 11th‬‬ ‫منصور الحاكم بؤمر هللا، وتعرّ ضت حٌاة‬ ‫‪century, the Egyptian‬‬ ‫الحجاج األوروبٌٌن للخطر.‬ ‫• عندما سقطت القدس بقبضة األتراك‬ ‫-‪Fatimid Caliph Al-Hakim bi‬‬ ‫السالجقة سنة 6701، إزدادت الحالة سوءًا‬ ‫‪Amr Allah ordered the‬‬ ‫وكثر التعدي على الحجاج األوروبٌٌن،‬ ‫.‪destruction of all churches‬‬ ‫فكانت تلك إحدى أسباب الحروب الصلٌبٌة.‬
  56. 56. Crusaders ‫الصلٌبٌون‬The crusaders besieged Jerusalem for a ً‫• انطلق الصلٌبٌون ف‬ 1095 ‫حملتهم األولى سنة‬ month before they captured it. Upon ،‫متوجهٌن إلى القدس‬ entry, they killed about 70,000 Muslims 1099 ‫فوصلوها سنة‬ and Jews. ‫وضربوا الحصار علٌها‬Jews were among the most vigorous .‫فسقطت بعد شهر‬ defenders of Jerusalem. When the city ‫• قتل الصلٌبٌون فور دخولهم‬ ً ‫قرابة 07 ألفا من المسلمٌن‬ fell, the Crusaders placed all of them .‫والٌهود وانتهكوا مقدساتهم‬ inside the citys synagogue and burned it down.
  57. 57. Crusaders ‫الصلٌبٌون‬• Jerusalem became the capital of the ‫•قامت فً القدس منذ‬ Kingdom of Jerusalem. Godfrey of ‫ذلك التارٌخ مملكة‬ Bouillon, was elected Lord of ُ ‫التٌنٌة تحكم من قبل‬ Jerusalem on July 22, 1099, but did ‫ملك كاثولٌكً فرض‬ not assume the royal crown and died ‫الشعائر الكاثولٌكٌة‬ a year later. ‫على المسٌحٌٌن‬• The Catholics initially imposed their rites on the Orthodox, which caused ‫األرثوذكس مما أثار‬ their anger. .‫غضبهم‬
  58. 58. Ayyubides ‫األٌوبٌون‬ ‫• استطاع صالح الدٌن‬• The Kingdom of Jerusalem 1187 ‫استرداد القدس عام‬ lasted until 1291; however, Jerusalem itself was ‫بعد معركة حطٌن، وعامل‬ recaptured by Saladin in ‫أهلها معاملة طٌبة، ودعا‬ 1187, who permitted ‫الٌهود والمسلمٌن لٌعودوا‬ worship of all religions. ‫إلى المدٌنة، واهتم بعمارتها‬ .‫وتحصٌنها‬
  59. 59. ‫‪Ayyubides‬‬ ‫األٌوبٌون‬‫‪• In 1229, by treaty with Egypts‬‬ ‫ولكن الصلٌبٌٌن نجحوا فً السٌطرة‬ ‫•‬ ‫‪ruler al-Kamil, Jerusalem came‬‬ ‫على المدٌنة بعد وفاة صالح الدٌن‬ ‫‪into the hands of Frederick II‬‬ ‫فً عهد فرٌدرٌش األول إمبراطور‬ ‫.‪of Germany‬‬ ‫اإلمبراطورٌة الرومانٌة المقدسة،‬‫‪• In 1243 Jerusalem came again‬‬ ‫وكانت القدس قد أفل نجمها بسبب‬ ‫‪into the power of the‬‬ ‫انهماك أوالد صالح الدٌن بالنزاع‬ ‫.‪Christians‬‬ ‫فٌما بٌنهم.‬‫‪• In 1244 al-Malik as-Salih‬‬ ‫‪Najm-ud-Deen Ayyoob‬‬ ‫ظلت القدس بؤٌدي الصلٌبٌٌن 11‬ ‫•‬ ‫‪recaptured it for the last time‬‬ ‫عامًا إلى أن استردها نهائٌا ً الملك‬ ‫.‪from the medieval crusaders‬‬ ‫الصالح نجم الدٌن أٌوب عام 4421.‬
  60. 60. ‫‪Mamluks‬‬ ‫العهد المملوكً‬‫‪• The Khwarezmian Tatars took‬‬ ‫4421 تعرضت المدٌنة لغزو‬ ‫•‬ ‫التتار، الذٌن قضوا على أكثر‬ ‫.4421 ‪the city in‬‬ ‫المسٌحٌٌن وطردوا الٌهود.‬‫‪• They in turn were driven out‬‬ ‫هُزم التتار على ٌد الممالٌك بقٌادة‬ ‫•‬ ‫‪by the Mamluks under the‬‬ ‫سٌف الدٌن قطز والظاهر بٌبرس فً‬ ‫معركة عٌن جالوت عام 9521.‬ ‫‪leadership of Qutuz and‬‬ ‫ضمت فلسطٌن إلى السلطنة‬ ‫•‬ ‫.7421 ‪Baybars in‬‬ ‫المملوكٌة التً حكمت مصر والشام‬‫‪• Palestine remained under the‬‬ ‫بعد الدولة األٌوبٌة حتى 7151.‬ ‫.7151 ‪Mamluks until‬‬
  61. 61. Muslim Tolerance or Collection of Abominations1482, visiting Dominican priest Felix Fabri described Jerusalem:“.. dwelling place of diverse nations of the world, and is, as it were, a collection of all manner of abominations". As "abominations" he listed Saracens, Greeks, Syrians, Jacobites, Abyssinians, Nestorians, Armenians, Gregorians, Maronites, Turcomans, Bedouins, Assassins, a possibly Druze sect, Mamluks, and "the most accursed of all", Jews.”
  62. 62. ‫)7191–7151( ‪Ottomans‬‬ ‫العثمانٌون (7151-7191)‬‫‪• In 1517, it was taken over by‬‬ ‫• 7151دخل العثمانٌون‬ ‫‪the Ottoman Empire under‬‬ ‫فلسطٌن بقٌادة سلٌم‬ ‫األول بعد مرج دابق.‬ ‫.‪Salim I‬‬ ‫• أصبحت القدس تابعة‬‫‪• Al-Quds remained ottoman for‬‬ ‫للدولة العثمانٌة 004‬ ‫‪400 years until it fell to the‬‬ ‫سنة حتى سقوطها بٌد‬ ‫.7191 ‪British in‬‬ ‫الحلفاء فً الحرب‬ ‫العالمٌة األولى سنة‬ ‫7191.‬
  63. 63. Ottomans (1517–1917) )1917-1517( ‫العثمانٌون‬• Renewal and peace under Suleiman the Magnificent – ‫• االزدهار خالل عهد‬ rebuilding the walls of the Old City and the Dome. ‫سلٌمان األول‬• Ottomans brought peace; Jew, Christian and Muslim ‫"القانونً"، خلٌفة سلٌم‬ ‫األول، حٌث أعاد بناء‬ enjoyed freedom of religion. In 1700, Judah he-Hasid ‫أسوار المدٌنة وقبة‬ led the largest organized group of Jewish immigrants to . ‫الصخرة‬ the Land of Israel in centuries. ‫• خالل معظم العهد‬• By mid 19th century, the city had a population that did ‫العثمانً مدٌنة محلٌّة ولم‬ not exceed 8,000. Nevertheless, extremely ،‫ٌعلوا شؤنها التجاري‬ heterogeneous. ‫لكن بقٌت مهمة لمكانتها‬ . ‫الدٌنٌة‬
  64. 64. ‫)7191–7151( ‪Ottomans‬‬ ‫العثمانٌون (7151-7191)‬ ‫-‪• Modern utilities came to al‬‬ ‫تطوّ رت الحٌاة المقدسٌّة خالل القرن‬ ‫•‬ ‫التاسع عشر بعد أن أنشؤت السلطات‬ ‫‪Quds in the middle of he‬‬ ‫العثمانٌة المرافق الحدٌثة، فافتتح مركز‬ ‫.‪19th century‬‬ ‫للبرٌد وخطوط سٌر نظامٌة لمركبات‬ ‫‪• Post offices, Public horse‬‬ ‫الجٌاد العمومٌة، وأُنٌرت الشوارع‬ ‫بالمصابٌح الزٌتٌّة، وفً أواسط القرن‬ ‫‪carriages and a railroad‬‬ ‫أنشؤ العثمانٌون أوّ ل طرٌق معبّدة بٌن‬ ‫‪connecting it to Hijaaz and‬‬ ‫القدس وٌافا، وبحلول 2981، كانت‬ ‫‪rest of the neighboring‬‬ ‫المدٌنة موصولة بغٌرها من المدن‬ ‫الشامٌّة والحجازٌة بسكة حدٌدٌة.‬ ‫.2981 ‪cities by‬‬
  65. 65. Ottomans (1517–1917) )1917-1517( ‫العثمانٌون‬ 4 major communities: Jewish, Christian, Muslim, and Armenian. Further divided into subgroups, based on precise religious affiliation or country of origin. Church of the Holy Sepulcher was partitioned between Greek Orthodox, Catholic, Armenian, Coptic, and Ethiopian churches. Tensions deep, the keys to the shrine were left with a neutral Muslim family.
  66. 66. Old picture of Jerusalem from the mount of olivesJews in Jerusalem 1895
  67. 67. ‫)!‪Egyptian Rule (Albanian‬‬ ‫الحكم المصري (األلبانً!)‬ ‫من 1381 حتى 0481 أصبحت فلسطٌن‬ ‫•‬‫‪From 1831 to 1840, Palestine was part of‬‬ ‫جزءا من الدولة المصرٌة التً أقامها محمد‬ ‫ً‬ ‫‪the Egyptian state under Muhammad‬‬ ‫علً باشا وفً 6381 سمح إبراهٌم باشا‬ ‫‪Ali. His son Ibrahim allowed the Jews to‬‬ ‫بن محمد علً للٌهود أن ٌعٌدوا إنشاء أربعة‬ ‫معابد ر ٌسٌة ومن ضمنها كنٌس الخراب .‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫.‪rebuild 4 major synagogues‬‬ ‫ثار الشوام على الحكم المصري ألسباب‬ ‫•‬‫‪The locals rebelled against the Egyptian‬‬ ‫مختلفة منها زٌادة الضرا ب والتجنٌد وكان‬ ‫من ضمن هذه ثورة فً 4381 بقٌادة "قاسم‬ ‫‪rule and Qasim al-Ahmad from Nablus‬‬ ‫ً‬ ‫األحمد" الذي قاد جٌشا من انابلس تعاونه‬ ‫‪was able to capture Jerusalem May of‬‬ ‫وهاجم القدس‬ ‫عشا ر بلدة أبو غو‬ ‫ودخلها 13 ماٌو 4381 لكن الجٌ‬ ‫‪1834, but the Egyptian army defeated‬‬ ‫المصري رد الثوار فً الشهر التالً .‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫.‪them‬‬
  68. 68. Back under the Ottomans ً‫عودة إلى الحكم العثمان‬• The Egyptians were defeated by the combined ‫بعد هزٌمة المصرٌٌن أمام الجٌو‬ • 1840 ‫العثمانٌة واألوروبٌة سنة‬ Ottoman and European forces in 1840. ً‫إال أن كثٌرا من المصرٌٌن بق‬ ً• In mid-19th century, a trickle of Jewish immigrants ‫بالمدٌنة وفً نفس الفترة قدمت‬ ‫وفود من الٌهود والمسلمٌن‬ from the Middle East and Eastern Europe. . ‫المغاربة واستقرت فٌها‬• Many churches sent missionaries to proselytize ‫أخذت المنازل تظهر خارج أسوار‬ • among Muslims and Jews, to “speed the Second ‫القدس خالل الستٌنات من القرن‬ . ‫التاسع عشر‬ Coming of Christ.” ‫قدرت إحدس إحصا ٌات إرسالٌة‬ ّ •• By 1860s, the city, with an area of only one square ‫أمرٌكٌة عدد سكان القدس سنة‬ kilometer, was already overcrowded. Thus began the 15,000 "‫7681 "بأكثر من‬ ‫نسمة 000,6 منهم مسلمٌن وما‬ construction outside of the city walls. .‫بٌن 000,4 إلى 000,5 ٌهود‬
  69. 69. British Mandate period (1917–1948) ً‫االنتداب البرٌطان‬ The British were victorious over the ً‫الفرٌق أول إدموند ألنب‬ ‫ٌدخل بلدة القدس‬ Turks in World War I. 11 ‫القدٌمة بتارٌخ‬ General Sir Edmund Allenby, .1917 ‫دٌسمبر سنة‬ commander-in-chief of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force entered Jerusalem on foot, “out of respect for the Holy City, on December 11, 1917.”
  70. 70. Jewish Legion soldiers at the Western Wall after taking part in 1917 British conquest ofThe Ottoman surrenderof Jerusalem to the JerusalemBritish, December 9,1917
  71. 71. Under the Mandate ‫تحت االنتداب‬• Arab resentment at British rule and the influx ‫زادت أعداد المهاجرٌن الٌهود خاصة‬ • .‫بعد وعد بلفور‬ of Jewish immigrants boiled over in anti-Jewish ‫سكان المدٌنة من 000,25 نسمة‬ • riots in Jerusalem in 1920, 1929, and the 1930s. ‫2291 إلى 000,561 نسمة‬• During the 1930s, Hebrew University founded . 1948 on Jerusalems Mount Scopus. ‫ازداد استٌاء المقدسٌٌن من مسلمٌن‬ • 1920 ً‫ومسٌحٌٌن فقامت ثورة ف‬• In July 1946 members of the underground ‫و9291 عرفت األخٌرة بثورة‬ Zionist group Irgun blew up a part of the King . ‫البراق‬ David Hotel, where the British forces were ‫عمل البرٌطانٌون على جعل الٌهود‬ • temporarily located, an act which led to the ً‫ٌستقرون عن طرٌق بناء أحٌاء ف‬ death of many civilians. ‫شمال وغرب المدٌنة ومؤسسات‬ ‫تعلٌم عالً كالجامعة العبرٌة على‬ ".‫"جبل المشهد‬
  72. 72. • On November 29, 1947, the United Nations General Assembly approved a plan which partitioned the British Mandate of Palestine into two states: one Jewish and one Arab.• Each state would be composed of three major sections, linked by extraterritorial crossroads, plus an Arab enclave at Jaffa.• The Greater Jerusalem area would fall under international control.
  73. 73. International Jerusalem? ‫تدوٌل؟‬ ‫أحٌلت قضٌة القدس إلى األمم المتحدة فأصدرت فً 92 نوفمبر 7491 قرارا بتدوٌل‬ .‫القدس تحت رعاٌتها 01 سنوات بعدها ٌتم استفتاء لتحدٌد نظام الحكم‬ ‫تطبٌق القرار لم ٌتم فبعد أن أعلنت برٌطانٌا 8491 إنهاء االنتداب أعلنت العصابات‬ .‫الٌهودٌة قٌام الدولة اإلسرا ٌلٌة فثار العرب وأعلنوا الحرب‬ The United Nations proposed, in its 1947 plan for the partition of Palestine, for Jerusalem to be a city under international administration. The city was to be completely surrounded by the Arab state, with only a highway to connect international Jerusalem to the Jewish state.
  74. 74. Main residential areas of Jerusalem in 1947
  75. 75. ‫‪• Following the 1948 Arab-Israeli‬‬ ‫قُسمت القدس إلى: الجزء الغربً الخاضع‬ ‫•‬ ‫إلسرا ٌل والشرقً الخاضع لألردن.‬ ‫.‪War, Jerusalem was divided‬‬ ‫قابل قا د القوات اإلسرا ٌلٌة فً القدس‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫•‬‫‪• The Western half of the New City‬‬ ‫داٌان نظٌره األردنً عبد هللا التل وقاما‬ ‫‪became part of the newly‬‬ ‫بتعلٌم الحدود ”غٌر الرسمٌة“ لكنها‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫‪formed state of Israel, while the‬‬ ‫أخذت بعٌن االعتبار عند الهدنة بٌن‬ ‫‪eastern half, along with the Old‬‬ ‫إسرا ٌل ولبنان ومصر واألردن وسورٌا‬ ‫9491.‬ ‫.‪City, was annexed by Jordan‬‬ ‫أعلن بن جورٌون فً 3 دٌسمبر 8491‬ ‫•‬‫‪• On January 23, 1950, the Knesset‬‬ ‫أن القدس الغربٌة عاصمة إلسرا ٌل وفً‬ ‫‪passed a resolution that stated‬‬ ‫0591 أعلن األردن خضوع الشرقٌة‬ ‫‪Jerusalem was the capital of‬‬ ‫للسٌادة األردنٌة.‬ ‫.‪Israel‬‬
  76. 76. • The comparatively populous Arab village of Lifta (today within the bounds of Jerusalem) was captured by Israeli troops in 1948, and its residents were loaded on trucks and taken to East Jerusalem.• The villages of Deir Yassin, Ein Karem and Malcha, as well as neighborhoods to the west of Jerusalems Old City such as Talbiya, Katamon, Baka, Mamilla and Abu Tor, also came under Israeli control, and their residents were forcibly displaced; in some cases, as documented by Israeli historian Benny Morris and Palestinian historian Walid Khalidi, among others, expulsions and massacres occurred.• In May 1948 the US Consul, Thomas C. Wasson, was assassinated outside the YMCA building. Four months later the UN mediator, Count Bernadotte, was also shot dead in the Katamon district of Jerusalem by the Jewish Stern Group.
  77. 77. • East Jerusalem was captured. ‫قامت إسرا ٌل بالسٌطرة على القدس‬ • ‫الشرقٌة أما األقصى وقبة الصخرة‬• Moroccan Quarter containing several hundred .‫فاستمرا خاضعٌن لألوقاف‬ homes demolished and inhabitants expelled. ‫هدمت إسرا ٌل حارة المغاربة التً تواجه‬ •• The Waqf (Islamic trust) granted .‫حا ط البراق لٌجعلوا الموقع ساحة صالة‬ ‫قامت ببناء أحٌاء سكنٌة ومستعمرات‬ • administration of the al-Aqsa. ً‫ٌهودٌة شرق الخط األخضر وشرعت ف‬• Security Council Res. 478 declared the .‫تهوٌد المناطق التً احتلتها‬ Knessets 1980 "Jerusalem Law" declaring ‫أصدرت قانون أساس اعتبرت فٌه القدس‬ • ‫الموحدة عاصمة أبدٌة فأصدر مجلس‬ Jerusalem as Israels "eternal and indivisible" ‫األمن قرار 874 لٌنص على خرقها‬ capital "null and void". Advised member states ‫للقانون الدولً وٌطالب الدول بسحب ما‬ to withdraw diplomatic representation from .‫تبقى من سفاراتها من القدس‬ the city.
  78. 78. ‫ّافات إس ائيمية تزيل ركام ة المغاربة‬ ‫حار‬ ‫ر‬ ‫جر‬ ‫بعد هدمها في يوليو 7691‬
  79. 79. ‫‪"Judaization" of East‬‬ ‫تهوٌد القدس‬‫‪Jerusalem‬‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫تتبع إسرا ٌل سٌاسٌة دمج المستوطنات الستٌعاب أكبر عدد ممكن من الٌهود داخل القدس. كما بنت 241 ألف شقة‬ ‫فً القطاع الٌهودي لزٌادة حجم السكان فٌها .‬‫‪• Since Israel gained‬‬ ‫تفٌد إحدس تقارٌر البن الدولً أن عدد مخالفات البناء فً الفترة الممتدة بٌن عامً 6991 و 0002 كان أكبر‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫‪control over East‬‬ ‫بأربع مرات ونصف فً األحٌاء الٌهودٌة وأن عملٌات الهدم فً القدس الغربٌة كانت أقل بأربع مرات من تل‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫الحاصلة فً القدس الشرقٌة؛ كذل أفاد التقرٌر أن السلطات اإلسرا ٌلٌة كانت تمنح الفلسطٌنٌٌن أذونا بالبناء‬ ‫,7691 ‪Jerusalem in‬‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫أقل بكثٌر من األذون التً تمنحها للٌهود وأن المخالفٌن الفلسطٌنٌٌن تزال مخالفاتهم بنسبة أكبر من مخالفات‬ ‫الٌهود.‬ ‫‪Jewish settler‬‬ ‫حصلت بعض المؤسسات الٌهودٌة على‬ ‫‪organizations have‬‬ ‫إذن من الحكومة خالل السنوات‬ ‫‪sought to establish‬‬ ‫الماضٌة ٌسمح بتشٌٌد المبانً والمعالم‬ ‫‪a Jewish presence‬‬ ‫على األراضً المتنازع علٌها من‬ ‫شاكلة "حدٌقة المل سلٌمان" المخطط‬ ‫‪in neighborhoods‬‬ ‫إنشاؤها فً قرٌة سلوان والتً ٌشكل‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫.‪such as Silwan‬‬ ‫العرب 06% من سكانها‬
  80. 80. East JerusalemStatistics on land expropriation in East Jerusalem from 1967 to 2002:• Amount of land taken (in dunams): 23378• Size of neighborhood (in dunams): 22571• Number of housing units 2002: 44610• Number of residents 2002: 176647• Revocation of Residency Rights!!!: 6396Betselem
  81. 81. Timeline of the History of al -Quds
  82. 82. Lessons from ‫دروس من‬ the Crusades ‫الحروب الصلٌبٌة‬
  83. 83. The Opposite View SurvivesThe Catholic Encyclopedia:Knight, K. Volume IV, Online ed. 2003• “The Crusades were expeditions undertaken, in fulfillment of a solemn vow, to deliver the Holy Places from Mohammedan tyranny.”
  84. 84. The Opposite View Survives Thomas F. Madden: “Whether we admire the Crusaders or not, it is a fact that the world we know today would not exist without their efforts. The ancient faith of Christianity, with its respect for women and antipathy toward slavery, not only survived but flourished. Without the Crusades, it might well have followed Zoroastrianism, another of Islam’s rivals, into extinction…”Associate professor and Chairman of the Department of History at Saint Louis University.
  85. 85. Impartiality!?
  86. 86. Not Only the Muslims• “The wars waged by the Spaniards against the Moors constituted a continual crusade from the eleventh to the sixteenth century; in the north of Europe crusades were organized against the Prussians and Lithuanians; the extermination of the Albigensian heresy was due to a crusade, and, in the thirteenth century the popes preached crusades against John Lackland and Frederick II.”
  87. 87. The Claim• “The Council of Clermont convoked by Urban II on November 18, 1095, was attended largely by bishops of southern France as well as a few representatives from northern France and elsewhere.”
  88. 88. Intolerance In the Preaching of Islam by Thomas Arnold pp 54,55:• " Michael the Elder, Jacobite Patriarch of Antioch, writing in the latter half of the twelfth century, could approve the decision of his co-religionists and see the finger og God in the Arab conquests even after the Eastern churches had experience of five centuries of Muhammadan rule. After recounting the persecution of Heraclius, he writes: "This is why the God of vengeance. Who alone is all powerful , and changes the empire of mortals as He will, giving it to whomsoever He will and uplifting the humble beholding the wickedness of the Romans who, throughout their dominions, cruelly plundered our churches and our monasteries and condened us without pity-brought from the region of the south the sons of Ishmael, to deliver us through them from the hands of the Romans.”
  89. 89. Intolerance• “ And if in truth, we have suffered some loss, because the catholic churches, that had been taken a way from us and given to the Chalcedonians remained in their possession; for when the cities submitted to the Arabs, they assigned to each denomination the churches which they found it to be in possession of (and at that time the great church of Emessa and that of Harran had been taken away from us); never theless it was no slight advantage for us to be delivered from the cruelty of the Romans, their wickedness, their wrath and crule zeal against us, and to find aourselves at peace.”
  90. 90. Intolerance• “When the Muslim army reached the valley of the Jordan and Adu Ubaygah pitched his camp at Fihl, the Christian inhabitants of the country wrote to the Arabs, saying : ’O, Muslims, we prefer you to the Byzantines, though they are of our own faith, because you keep better faith with us and are more merciful to us and refrain from doing us injustice and your rule over us is better than theirs, for they have robbed us of our goods and our homes’. The people of Emessa closed the gates of their city against the army of Heraclius and told the Muslims that they preferred their government and justice to the injustice and oppression of the Greeks.”
  91. 91. Intolerance• “Such was the state of feeling in Syria during the campa pf 633 – 639 in which the Arabs gradually drove the Romans army out of the province. And when Damascus, in 637set the example of making terms with the Arabs, and thus secured immunity from plunder and other unfavourable condition, the rest of the cities of Syria were not slow to follow Emessa, Arethusa, Hieropolis and other towns entered into treaties whereby they became tributary to the Arabs. Even the patriarch of Jerusalem surrendered the city on similar terms. The fear of religious compulsion on the part of the heretical emperor made the promise of Muslim toleration appear more attractive than the connection with the Roman Empire and a Christian government , and after the first terrors caused by the passage of an invading army, there succeeded a profound, revulsion of feeling in favour of the Arab conquerors.”
  92. 92. What Made My Ancestors Accept The Religion Of The Conquerors• The Columbia History of The World, 1st Ed., pp. 264: “For the conquered peoples, the task of shifting from old to new rulers was not difficult. Most of them had long been alienated by cruel and corrupt Persian and Byzantine bureaucratic administrations. Moreover, in Egypt and Syria the Christian population was strongly opposed to the centralizing and Hellenizing tendencies of the Byzantine bureaucracy and the Orthodox Church. Umar’s organizational abilities also contributed greatly to the Arabs’ success. He regularized the legal position of the millions of non-Muslim subjects in his domain and set up an efficient administrative system for the empire. Muhammad established the precedent of ‘tolerance’ for the ‘People of the Book,’ the Jewish and Christian communities in the northern Hijaz.”
  93. 93. What Made My Ancestors Accept The Religion Of The Conquerors“Umar left these communities undistributed except for the payment of an annual tribute in the form of poll tax (jizya); indeed, he extended the principle of toleration to cover not only all Christians and Jews in the empire, but also the Zoroastrians of Persia. Non-Muslims groups formed their own self-administered communities, lived under their own civil codes, and were governed by their own religious leaders. This system prevailed throughout Islam until the end of the Ottoman period and still exists in a restricted way in parts of the Middle East that have not yet been thoroughly secularized. European Christian claimed that the Muslims gave unbelievers, mainly Christian and Jews, the choice of conversion to Islam or death by sword, but this was not the case. From a practical point of view, mass conversions to Islam would have meant abandoning the jizya, a considerable source of revenue.”
  94. 94. Who were the early Muslims fighting?
  95. 95. Do They Care?• Britannica: “On October 2 Jerusalem, then defended by only a handful under the command of Balian of Ibelin, capitulated to Saladin, who agreed to allow the inhabitants to leave once they had paid a ransom. Though Saladins offer included the poor, several thousand apparently were not redeemed and probably were sold into slavery ... Somewhat later Saladin permitted a number of Jews to settle in the city.”
  96. 96. Stages• “After Philip returned to France, he preyed upon Richards lands; Richard … had been in constant communication with Saladin and his brother al-Adil, and various peace proposals were made … Finally, on September 2, 1192, the two signed a three-year peace treaty. The coast from Jaffa north remained in Christian hands, but Ascalon was to be restored to Saladin after Richards men demolished the fortifications that they had painstakingly built.”
  97. 97. We Keep the Peace• Encyclopædia Britannica: “Forced by the Crusaders to convert or die, many Jews chose death. There are accounts of Jews committing suicide and even killing their children rather than converting or submitting to execution by the Crusaders.”
  98. 98. Intolerance of Own• “Antioch had not been returned to the emperor, and Bohemond had consolidated his position there. The city was predominantly Greek in population, though there were also Syrians and Armenians, and the latent Greek-Latin friction was intensified when Bohemond replaced the Greek patriarch with a Latin one.”
  99. 99. Intolerance• “Tancred and Raymond entered, and the Muslim governor surrendered to the latter in the Tower of David. The governor, along with his bodyguard, was escorted out of the city. Tancred promised protection in the Aqsa Mosque, but his orders were disobeyed. Hundreds of men, women, and children, both Muslim and Jewish, perished in the general slaughter that followed. [Runciman[1]: no one can tell, yet he agreed it was a huge massacre and Raymond had to walk through the bodies whose flesh and blood reached his knees; Ibn al-Atheer: 70,000+”*2]
  100. 100. Which Version is Closer to the Truth?• The pillage of Jerusalem according to Raymond dAguilers: “ Now that our men had possession of the walls and towers, wonderful sights were to be seen. Some of our men (and this was merciful) cut off the heads of their enemies; others shot them with arrows, so that they fell from the towers; others tortured them longer by casting them into the flames. Piles of heads, hands and feet were to be seen in the streets of the city. It was necessary to pick ones way over the bodies of men and horses.”
  101. 101. “But these were small matters compared with what happened inthe Temple of Solomon, a place where religious services arenormally chanted. What happened there? If I tell the truth, youwould not believe it. Suffice to say that, in the Temple and Porchof Solomon, men rode in blood up to their knees and bridlereins. Indeed, it was a just and splendid judgment of God thatthis place should be filled with the blood of the unbelievers,since it had suffered so long from their blasphemies. The citywas filled with corpses and blood.”
  102. 102. Intolerance• “In the midst of near civil war, Reginald of Châtillon, lord of Kerak and Montréal, broke the truce with the Muslims by attacking a caravan. Saladin replied by proclaiming jihad against the Latin kingdom. In 1187 he left Egypt, crossed the Jordan south of the Sea of Galilee, and took up a position close to the river.”*1]
  103. 103. Intolerance• “When Saladin failed to pay the first installment of the ransom for the prisoners on schedule, Richard flew into a rage. He ordered that all 2,700 members of the Muslim garrison be marched outside the city and executed in view of Saladin and his army [The Encyclopedia fails to mention that their women and children were slaughtered with them, Runciman 3/53+.”
  104. 104. Intolerance• “Most mosques were appropriated during the conquest, but some were restored, and no attempt was made to restrict Muslim religious observance ... The tolerance of the Franks, noted by Arab visitors, often surprised and disturbed newcomers from the West.”
  105. 105. Does It End?• King Peter I of Cyprus finally organized an expedition that in 1365 succeeded in the temporary occupation of Alexandria. After a horrible sack and massacre, the unruly Crusaders returned to Cyprus with immense booty. Peter planned to return, but no European aid was forthcoming, and after his murder in 1369 a peace treaty was signed.
  106. 106. Expansion of The Muslim State & The Protection of Pilgrims• The Seljuq Turks, one of several tribes on the northeastern frontier of the Muslim world who had embraced Islam in the 11th century, were beginning to move south and west into Iran and beyond with all the enthusiasm of a new convert.”*1]
  107. 107. Expansion of Muslim State & Protection of Pilgrims• ‘By the middle of the 11th century, the Seljuq Turks had wrested political authority from the Abbasid caliphs of Baghdad. Seljuq policy, originally directed southward against the Fatimids of Egypt, was increasingly diverted by the pressure of Turkmen raids into Anatolia and Byzantine Armenia. A Byzantine army was defeated and Emperor Romanus IV Diogenes was captured at Manzikert in 1071, and Christian Asia Minor was thereby opened to eventual Turkish occupation.”*1]
  108. 108. Different Map, Isn’t It?
  109. 109. The Most Fanatic Can Still Be Deterred• Encyclopædia Britannica: “The situation seemed so hopeless [i.e.,the siege of Antioch] that some Crusaders deserted and attempted to return home. Among these was Peter the Hermit, who was caught and returned to the host, where he was quietly forgiven.”
  110. 110. WHO WERE THE CRUSADERS?• “Moreover, by 1304 rumours (probably false) of irreligious practices and blasphemies committed by the Templars during their secret rites of initiation had begun to circulate through Europe. At this juncture, King Philip IV the Fair of France had every Templar in France arrested on Oct. 13, 1307, and sequestered all the Templars property in France.”
  111. 111. Where Does It Stop?• Encyclopædia Britannica: “King Louis once again took up the cross, but his second venture, the Eighth Crusade, never reached the East. The expedition instead went to Tunis, probably because of the influence of Louiss brother....
  112. 112. Motives: Diverting Problems from Europe!• Encyclopædia Britannica: “… he apparently stressed the plight of Eastern Christians, the molestation of pilgrims, and the desecration of the holy places. He urged those who were guilty of disturbing the peace to turn their warlike energies toward a holy cause. He emphasized the need for penance along with the acceptance of suffering.”
  113. 113. Motives: Population Growth in Europe• Encyclopædia Britannica: “Although still backward when compared with the other civilizations of the Mediterranean basin, western Europe had become a significant power by the end of the 11th century … At the same time, Europe was feeling the effects of population growth that had begun toward the end of the 10th century.”
  114. 114. Apocalyptic Motives!• Encyclopædia Britannica: “Yet another element in the popular religious consciousness of the 11th century … was the belief that the end of the world was imminent. Some scholars have discovered evidence of apocalyptic expectations around the years 1000 and 1033 (the millennium of the birth and Passion of Jesus, respectively)... Moreover, in certain late 11th-century portrayals…, the “last emperor,” … the final successor of Charlemagne, was to lead the faithful to Jerusalem to await the Second Coming of Christ.”
  115. 115. Apocalyptic Motives!• “After having allegedly received divine instruction, Nicholas set out to rescue Jerusalem from the Muslims. He believed that when he reached the Mediterranean, God would dry up the waters so that he could walk across to Palestine. Hundreds and then thousands of children, adolescents, women, the elderly, the poor, parish clergy, and the occasional thief joined him in his march south. In every town the people hailed the “Crusaders” as heroes, although the educated clergy ridiculed them as deranged or deceived.”
  116. 116. Apocalyptic Motives!• Encyclopædia Britannica: “ ... Nicholas himself arrived with a large gathering at Genoa on August 25. To the great disappointment of the “Crusaders,” the sea did not open for them, nor did it allow them to walk across its waves. At this point many probably returned home, while others remained in Genoa. It was said that some marched to Rome, where Innocent III praised their zeal but released them from their “vows.”
  117. 117. Some Were Sincere, but Misguided.• Extract from a letter sent during the siege [of Antioch] by Stephen, Count of Blois, to his wife, Adele – March 29, 1098 “We found the city of Antioch very extensive, fortified with incredible strength and almost impregnable. In addition, more than 5,000 bold Turkish soldiers had entered the city, not counting the Saracens, Publicans, Arabs, Turcopolitans, Syrians, Armenians and other different races .... In fighting against these enemies of God and of our own we have, by Gods grace, endured many sufferings and innumerable evils up to the present time. Many also have already exhausted all their resources in this very holy passion ... “
  118. 118. Crusades Vs. Islamic Expansion• Britannica: “European settlers in the Crusader states, however, were only a small minority of the population….• Muslims who had not fled were captured and put to menial tasks. Some, it is true, appeared in Italian Krak Des Chavaliers, Where They Lived slave marts, but royal and ecclesiastical ordinances at least Baptism brought with it immediate restricted slave owners actions. freedom.
  119. 119. They Were Convinced the Inhabitants of the Land Don’t Deserve Better Treatment• 1: Samuel, 18-27: “David and his men went out and killed two hundred Philistines. He brought their foreskins and presented the full number to the king so that he might become the kings son-in-law. Then Saul gave him his daughter Michal in marriage.”
  120. 120. Think!• Crusaders accepting the surrender of Arabs.(Notice the sizes)
  121. 121. THE WORK OF THE MEDIA• Muslim soldiers besieging Crusaders in a tower.All the sudden Muslims are much bigger.
  122. 122. • Latin View of The Saracens
  123. 123. Not About Talking Only - Short Term:1) Do not do anything hasty and irresponsible.2) Visit the masjids; be around your brethren if you feel too frustrated. Listen to news in moderation; stay in touch; dont allow yourself to get overwhelmed. Prophet Musa was harmed by Pharaoh and Prophet Yahya’s head was given as a gift to a prostitute.3) Do not despair. Put your trust in Allah.4) Supplicate, but first repent; seek waseelah (means).5) Donate through legal channels. Harm will not touch you inshallah. But, if it did, then let it be.6) Protest and be vocal, but, learn the facts and commit the most important to memory, to communicate an intelligible argument to the people of conscience.
  124. 124. Not About Talking Only – Long Term: We must feel angry at ourselves without acquitting the victimizers of their crimes. Help revive the ummah – Starting with yourself.

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