Complex System Engineering

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Complex System Engineering

  1. 1. Introduction to Complex System Engineering <ul><li>Emmanuel FUCHS </li></ul><ul><li>Slides available soon at www.elfuchs.fr </li></ul>
  2. 3. Complex System Examples Information Systems
  3. 4. System Problems Examples
  4. 5. System Problems Examples
  5. 7. System definition (Eberhardt Rechtin 1926-2006) <ul><li>A system is a construct or collection of different elements that together produce results not obtainable by the elements alone.  </li></ul><ul><li>The elements, or parts, can include people, hardware, software, facilities, policies, and documents; that is, all things required to produce systems-level results.  </li></ul><ul><li>The results include system level qualities, properties, characteristics, functions, behavior and performance.   </li></ul><ul><li>The value added by the system as a whole, beyond that contributed independently by the parts, is primarily created by the relationship among the parts; that is, how they are interconnected. </li></ul>
  6. 8. Systemic <ul><li>The whole is greater than the sum of the parts; </li></ul><ul><li>The part is greater than a fraction of the whole. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aristotle </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. System: another definition <ul><li>A system is any set (group) of interdependent or temporally interacting parts . </li></ul><ul><li>Parts are generally systems themselves and are composed of other parts, just as systems are generally parts of other systems. </li></ul>
  8. 10. System Definition System Users Mission Environment Stakeholders Border Sub System Sub System Sub System
  9. 11. System Meta Model From INCOSE
  10. 12. SE Bodies <ul><li>http://www.afis.fr/ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Association Française d'Ingénierie Système </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http://www.incose.org/ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 14. System Engineering Definition <ul><li>“ an interdisciplinary approach encompassing the entire technical effort to evolve and verify an integrated and balanced set of system, people, product, and process solutions that satisfy customer needs …..” </li></ul>
  12. 15. System Engineering (SE) <ul><li>SE focuses on defining customer needs and required functionality early in the development cycle, documenting requirements, then proceeding with design synthesis and system validation while considering the complete problem </li></ul><ul><li>Systems engineers deal with abstract systems, and rely on other engineering disciplines to design and deliver the tangible products that are the realization of those systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Systems engineering effort spans the whole system lifecycle . </li></ul>
  13. 16. Systemic Approach <ul><li>One + One > two </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle : The whole is more than the sum of its parts. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parts (Components) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connections </li></ul></ul>
  14. 17. System Engineering Meta Model From INCOSE
  15. 18. System engineer/architect <ul><li>Works with system abstraction. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is impossible to master everything </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requirements Management </li></ul><ul><li>System Model </li></ul>
  16. 20. Design the right system As proposed by the project sponsor As proposed by the programmers As specified in the project request As designed by the project analyst As installed at the users’ site What the customer really want
  17. 22. Process Definition <ul><li>Set of interrelated of interacting activities which transforms inputs to outputs </li></ul>Inputs Outputs P
  18. 23. A Process
  19. 24. Process: V cycle
  20. 25. Sequential V cycle drawbacks Documentation And mock-up Phase
  21. 26. Sequential V cycle drawbacks Documentation And mock-up Phase
  22. 27. Iterative and Incremental Incremental Iterative
  23. 28. Barry W. Boehm
  24. 29. Iterative and Incremental <ul><li>The Systems Engineering Process is not sequential. It is parallel and iterative. </li></ul><ul><li>The complex interrelationship between creating and improving models throughout the process of developing and selecting alternatives is a good example of the dynamic nature of the systems engineering process. </li></ul>
  25. 30. Process Standardization <ul><li>NASA </li></ul><ul><li>DOD (US Departement Of Defense): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Documentation Model </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IEEE </li></ul><ul><li>ISO (International Organization for Standardization) </li></ul><ul><li>IEC (International Electrotechnical Committee). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO/IEC 15504 / SPICE (Software Process Improvement and Capability dEtermination) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SEI (Software Engineering Institute) </li></ul>
  26. 31. Capability Maturity Model - Integration <ul><li>CMMI defines the essential elements of effective processes for engineering disciplines based on best industry experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>CMMI models provide guidance when developing and evaluating processes. </li></ul><ul><li>CMMI models are not actually processes or process descriptions. </li></ul>
  27. 32. CMMI Maturity Levels Level Identified as Status 5 optimizing focus on process improvement 4 quantitatively managed process measured and controlled 3 defined process characterized for the organization and is proactive 2 managed process characterized by projects and often reactive 1 initial process uncontrolled poorly managed and reactive
  28. 33. Process Documentation and Review <ul><li>SSS: System/Segment Specification </li></ul><ul><li>SSDD : System/Segment Design Document </li></ul><ul><li>IRS : Interface Requirement Specification </li></ul><ul><li>ICD : Interface Control Definition </li></ul><ul><li>SRR : System Requirement Review </li></ul><ul><li>SDR : System Design Review </li></ul><ul><li>TRR : Test Readiness Review </li></ul>
  29. 35. Process Activities
  30. 36. What is a requirement ? <ul><li>A requirement is a condition to be satisfied in order to respond to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A contract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A specification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any other document and / or model imposed. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 37. Requirements <ul><li>User’s Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statements in natural language of the system services. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Described by the user </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured document setting out detailed description of system services. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of the contract </li></ul></ul>
  32. 38. User’s Requirements example <ul><li>A customer must be able to abort a transaction in progress by pressing the Cancel key instead of responding to a request from the machine. </li></ul><ul><li>The washing machine will be used in the following countries: UK, USA, Europe, Eastern Europe </li></ul>
  33. 39. Process
  34. 40. System Requirements <ul><li>The System shall provide ........ </li></ul><ul><li>The System shall be capable of ........ </li></ul><ul><li>The System shall weigh ........ </li></ul><ul><li>The Subsystem #1 shall provide ........ </li></ul><ul><li>The Subsystem #2 shall interface with ..... </li></ul>
  35. 41. Requirement Quality <ul><li>A good requirement states something that is necessary , verifiable , and attainable </li></ul><ul><li>To be verifiable, the requirement must state something that can be verified by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>analysis, inspection, test, or demonstration (AIDT) </li></ul></ul>
  36. 42. Requirement analysis <ul><li>User Requirement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum levels of noise and vibration are desirable . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System Requirement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirement 03320: The noise generated shall not exceed 60 db </li></ul></ul>
  37. 43. Requirement Types <ul><li>Functional requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional requirements capture the intended behavior of the system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This behavior may be expressed as services, tasks or functions the system is required to perform </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-Functional requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constraints </li></ul>
  38. 45. Process
  39. 46. System Architecture <ul><li>The System Architecture identifies all the products (including enabling products) that are necessary to support the system and, by implication, the processes necessary for development, production/construction, deployment, operations, support, disposal, training, and verification </li></ul>
  40. 47. Architecture Modeling <ul><li>System : Abstraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Object model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interfaces Model </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Model Views </li></ul>
  41. 48. Architecture Meta Model From IEEE
  42. 49. Architecture and Components Assembly
  43. 50. Example of Architecture Views <ul><li>The Functional Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identifies and structures the allocated functional and performance requirements. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Physical Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>depicts the system product by showing how it is broken down into subsystems and components </li></ul></ul>
  44. 52. Functional To Physical Model <ul><li>Functional : Discover the system functions </li></ul><ul><li>Washing Machine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What it does ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Washes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How it does ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agitates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Component : Agitator </li></ul></ul>
  45. 53. Functional VS physical Model <ul><li>How to fly ? </li></ul><ul><li>Look at birds: Physical Model </li></ul><ul><li>So I need: Legs, Eyes, Brain, and Wings. </li></ul><ul><li>But I can not fly !!! </li></ul><ul><li>Why ? </li></ul><ul><li>I have to find the flight functional model ! </li></ul>
  46. 54. Flying functional model <ul><li>Functional decomposition of flying function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce horizontal thrust, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce vertical lift. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takeoff and land, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense position and velocity, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigate, </li></ul></ul>
  47. 55. Example Birds physical for flying <ul><li>Physical decomposition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>physical components that birds used to fly: Legs, Eyes, Brain, and Wings. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But can not be applied to system directly </li></ul>
  48. 56. Bird and Airplane Functional to Physical architecture mapping Function Airplane Physical Component Bird Physical Component Takeoff and land Wheels, Legs Sense position and velocity Vision or radar Eyes Navigate Brain or computer Brain Produce horizontal thrust Propeller or jet Wings Produce vertical lift Wings Wings
  49. 57. Multi-criteria decision
  50. 58. Trade Off <ul><li>Multi-criteria decision-aiding techniques are available to help discover the preferred alternatives. </li></ul><ul><li>This analysis should be repeated, as better data becomes available. </li></ul>
  51. 59. Washing Machine example
  52. 60. Context Diagram
  53. 61. Washing Machine Functional Breakdown
  54. 62. Washing Machine Data Flows
  55. 63. Washing Machine Physical Model agitator tube draining hand-operated washer plungers
  56. 64. Washing Machine Physical Model agitator Outer tube draining top loading US
  57. 65. Washing Machine Physical Model top loading
  58. 66. Washing Machine Physical Model agitator Outer tube draining Inner tube = drum front loading Europe
  59. 67. Washing Machine Physical Model front loading
  60. 68. Washing Machine Physical Model front loading
  61. 70. Process
  62. 71. Integration <ul><li>Integration means bringing things together so they work as a whole. </li></ul>
  63. 72. Spaghetti Plate Syndrome
  64. 73. Spaghetti Plate Syndrome
  65. 74. Spaghetti Plate Syndrome
  66. 75. Spaghetti Plate Syndrome
  67. 76. Spaghetti Plate Syndrome
  68. 77. Spaghetti Plate Syndrome
  69. 78. Spaghetti Plate Syndrome Spaghetti Plate
  70. 79. Spaghetti Plate Syndrome Spaghetti Plate System Architect
  71. 80. Spaghetti Plate Syndrome Spaghetti Plate System Architect System Integrator
  72. 81. Encapsulation Analogy Implementation Interface A driver doesn't care of engine's internal working. He only knows the interface
  73. 83. Process
  74. 84. IVVQCA <ul><li>Integrate : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build the system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Verification : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures that you built it right </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Validation : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures that you built the right thing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Certification : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure that the system is safe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acceptance : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures that the customer gets what he wants and the company get paid. </li></ul></ul>
  75. 85. Ensure that the system is safe
  76. 86. Conclusion <ul><li>Thank You For Your Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Questions are welcome </li></ul><ul><li>Contacts : </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Slides Available soon at www.elfuchs.fr </li></ul>
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