Introduction to  Complex System Engineering 3 march 2009 Emmanuel FUCHS Slides available soon at www.elfuchs.fr
 
Content • Complex System Example • System Definition • System Engineering • Design The Right System • Process • Requiremen...
Complex System Examples Information Systems
System  Problems Examples
System Problems Examples
 
System definition  (Eberhardt Rechtin 1926-2006)   <ul><li>A system is a construct or collection of different elements tha...
Systemic <ul><li>The whole is greater than the sum of the parts;  </li></ul><ul><li>T he part is greater than a fraction o...
System: another definition <ul><li>A  system  is any set (group) of interdependent or  temporally  interacting  parts .  <...
System Definition Sub System Sub System Sub System System Users Mission Environment Stakeholders Border
System Meta Model From INCOSE
SE Bodies <ul><li>http://www.afis.fr/ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Association Française d'Ingénierie Système  </li></ul></ul><ul...
 
System Engineering Definition <ul><li>“ an  interdisciplinary  approach encompassing the entire technical effort to evolve...
System Engineering (SE) <ul><li>SE focuses on defining customer needs and required functionality early in the development ...
Systemic Approach <ul><li>One + One >  two </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle : The whole is more than the sum of its parts. </li...
System Engineering Meta Model From INCOSE
System engineer/architect <ul><li>Works with system abstraction. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is impossible to master everythi...
 
Design the right system As proposed by the project sponsor As proposed by the programmers As specified in the  project req...
 
Process Definition <ul><li>Set of interrelated of interacting activities which transforms inputs to outputs </li></ul>P In...
A Process
Process: V cycle
Sequential V cycle drawbacks Documentation And mock-up Phase
Sequential V cycle drawbacks Documentation And mock-up Phase
Iterative and Incremental Incremental Iterative
Barry W. Boehm
Iterative and Incremental <ul><li>The Systems Engineering Process is not sequential.  It is parallel and iterative.  </li>...
Process Standardization <ul><li>NASA </li></ul><ul><li>DOD (US Departement Of Defense): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Documentatio...
Capability Maturity Model - Integration <ul><li>CMMI  defines the essential elements of effective processes for engineerin...
CMMI Maturity Levels process uncontrolled poorly managed and reactive initial 1 process characterized by projects and ofte...
ITIL <ul><li>ITIL : Information Technology Infrastructure Library </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.itil-officialsite.com </li...
Process Documentation and Review <ul><li>SSS:  System/Segment Specification  </li></ul><ul><li>SSDD : System/Segment Desig...
 
Process Activities
What is a requirement ? <ul><li>A requirement is a condition to be satisfied in order to respond to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Requirements  <ul><li>User’s Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statements in natural language of the system services. </l...
User’s Requirements example <ul><li>A customer must be able to abort a transaction in progress by pressing the Cancel key ...
Process
System Requirements <ul><li>The System shall provide ........   </li></ul><ul><li>The System shall be capable of ........ ...
Requirement Quality <ul><li>A good requirement states something that is  necessary ,  verifiable , and  attainable   </li>...
Requirement analysis <ul><li>User Requirement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum levels of noise and vibration are desirable . ...
Requirement Types <ul><li>Functional requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional requirements  capture the intended beha...
DOORS
DOORS
DOORS
 
Process
System Architecture <ul><li>The  System Architecture  identifies all the products (including enabling products) that are n...
Architecture Modeling  <ul><li>System : Abstraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dyna...
Architecture Meta Model From IEEE
Architecture and Components Assembly
Example of Architecture Views <ul><li>The  Functional Architecture  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identifies and structures the al...
Functional VS physical Model <ul><li>How to fly ? </li></ul><ul><li>Look at birds: Physical Model </li></ul><ul><li>So I n...
Example Birds physical for flying <ul><li>Physical decomposition:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>physical components that birds us...
Flying functional model <ul><li>Functional decomposition of flying function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce horizontal thru...
Allocations <ul><li>Represent general relationships that map one model element to another </li></ul><ul><li>Different type...
Bird and Airplane  Functional to Physical architecture mapping Wings Wings  Produce vertical lift  Wings  Propeller or jet...
Stove Pipe architecture User Functional Organization Physical
Multi-criteria decision
Trade Off <ul><li>Multi-criteria decision-aiding techniques are available to help discover the preferred alternatives.  </...
 
Tower Crane example
Tower Crane example x
French  Tower  Cranes
British Tower Cranes
British Tower Cranes
British Tower Cranes
British Tower Cranes
Luffing jib tower crane  <ul><li>When the jib is moved, the hoist gear is controlled in such a way as to ensure that the h...
Luffing jib tower crane
The two types of basic jib design <ul><li>Horizontal Jib  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This jib takes the form of a simple struct...
Horizontal Jib
Luffing Jib
Luffing jib tower crane   <ul><li>These cranes have been designed for work on particularly high buildings or in extremely ...
Washing Machine example
Functional To Physical Model <ul><li>Functional : Discover the system functions </li></ul><ul><li>Washing Machine </li></u...
Washing Machine Physical Model agitator tube draining hand-operated washer  plungers
Washing Machine Physical Model agitator Outer tube draining top loading US
Washing Machine Physical Model agitator Outer tube draining Inner tube = drum front loading Europe
Washing Machine  Functional model
Context Diagram
Washing Machine  Functional Breakdown
Washing Machine Data Flows
Washing Machine allocation example
Washing Machine Physical Model agitator tube draining hand-operated washer  plungers
Washing Machine Physical Model agitator Outer tube draining top loading US
Washing Machine Physical Model agitator Outer tube draining Inner tube = drum front loading Europe
Washing Machine Physical Model top loading
Washing Machine Physical Model front loading
Washing Machine Physical Model front loading
UML
SysML
Block definition diagram of the Clothe Washing Domain
Activity hierarchy in block diagram definition  (Hierarchical Functional Model)
Washing Machine Data Flows
 
Process
Process: V cycle
Integration <ul><li>Integration means bringing things together so they work as a whole.  </li></ul>
Spaghetti Plate Syndrome Spaghetti Plate System Architect   System Integrator
Encapsulation   A nalogy Implementation Interface A driver doesn't care of  engine's internal working. He only knows the i...
 
Process
IVVQCA <ul><li>Integrate :  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build the system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Verification :  </li></ul><ul><u...
Ensure that the system is safe
Conclusion <ul><li>Thank You For Your Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Questions are welcome </li></ul><ul><li>Contacts :  </li...
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Cse3 March2009cwd35with Crane

  1. 1. Introduction to Complex System Engineering 3 march 2009 Emmanuel FUCHS Slides available soon at www.elfuchs.fr
  2. 3. Content • Complex System Example • System Definition • System Engineering • Design The Right System • Process • Requirements • Design and Architecture • Functional and Physical Allocation • Integration • IVVQCA
  3. 4. Complex System Examples Information Systems
  4. 5. System Problems Examples
  5. 6. System Problems Examples
  6. 8. System definition (Eberhardt Rechtin 1926-2006) <ul><li>A system is a construct or collection of different elements that together produce results not obtainable by the elements alone.  </li></ul><ul><li>The elements, or parts, can include people, hardware, software, facilities, policies, and documents; that is, all things required to produce systems-level results.  </li></ul><ul><li>The results include system level qualities, properties, characteristics, functions, behavior and performance.   </li></ul><ul><li>The value added by the system as a whole, beyond that contributed independently by the parts, is primarily created by the relationship among the parts; that is, how they are interconnected. </li></ul>
  7. 9. Systemic <ul><li>The whole is greater than the sum of the parts; </li></ul><ul><li>T he part is greater than a fraction of the whole. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aristotle </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. System: another definition <ul><li>A system is any set (group) of interdependent or temporally interacting parts . </li></ul><ul><li>Parts are generally systems themselves and are composed of other parts, just as systems are generally parts of other systems. </li></ul>
  9. 11. System Definition Sub System Sub System Sub System System Users Mission Environment Stakeholders Border
  10. 12. System Meta Model From INCOSE
  11. 13. SE Bodies <ul><li>http://www.afis.fr/ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Association Française d'Ingénierie Système </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http://www.incose.org/ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 15. System Engineering Definition <ul><li>“ an interdisciplinary approach encompassing the entire technical effort to evolve and verify an integrated and balanced set of system, people, product, and process solutions that satisfy customer needs …..” </li></ul>
  13. 16. System Engineering (SE) <ul><li>SE focuses on defining customer needs and required functionality early in the development cycle, documenting requirements, then proceeding with design synthesis and system validation while considering the complete problem </li></ul><ul><li>Systems engineers deal with abstract systems, and rely on other engineering disciplines to design and deliver the tangible products that are the realization of those systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Systems engineering effort spans the whole system lifecycle . </li></ul>
  14. 17. Systemic Approach <ul><li>One + One > two </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle : The whole is more than the sum of its parts. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parts (Components) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connections </li></ul></ul>
  15. 18. System Engineering Meta Model From INCOSE
  16. 19. System engineer/architect <ul><li>Works with system abstraction. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is impossible to master everything </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requirements Management </li></ul><ul><li>System Model </li></ul>
  17. 21. Design the right system As proposed by the project sponsor As proposed by the programmers As specified in the project request As designed by the project analyst As installed at the users’ site What the customer really want
  18. 23. Process Definition <ul><li>Set of interrelated of interacting activities which transforms inputs to outputs </li></ul>P Inputs Outputs
  19. 24. A Process
  20. 25. Process: V cycle
  21. 26. Sequential V cycle drawbacks Documentation And mock-up Phase
  22. 27. Sequential V cycle drawbacks Documentation And mock-up Phase
  23. 28. Iterative and Incremental Incremental Iterative
  24. 29. Barry W. Boehm
  25. 30. Iterative and Incremental <ul><li>The Systems Engineering Process is not sequential. It is parallel and iterative. </li></ul><ul><li>The complex interrelationship between creating and improving models throughout the process of developing and selecting alternatives is a good example of the dynamic nature of the systems engineering process. </li></ul>
  26. 31. Process Standardization <ul><li>NASA </li></ul><ul><li>DOD (US Departement Of Defense): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Documentation Model </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IEEE </li></ul><ul><li>ISO (International Organization for Standardization) </li></ul><ul><li>IEC (International Electrotechnical Committee). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO/IEC 15504 / SPICE (Software Process Improvement and Capability dEtermination) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SEI (Software Engineering Institute) </li></ul>
  27. 32. Capability Maturity Model - Integration <ul><li>CMMI defines the essential elements of effective processes for engineering disciplines based on best industry experiences . </li></ul><ul><li>CMMI models provide guidance when developing and evaluating processes. </li></ul><ul><li>CMMI models are not actually processes or process descriptions. </li></ul>
  28. 33. CMMI Maturity Levels process uncontrolled poorly managed and reactive initial 1 process characterized by projects and often reactive managed 2 process characterized for the organization and is proactive defined 3 process measured and controlled quantitatively managed 4 focus on process improvement optimizing 5 Status Identified as Level
  29. 34. ITIL <ul><li>ITIL : Information Technology Infrastructure Library </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.itil-officialsite.com </li></ul>
  30. 35. Process Documentation and Review <ul><li>SSS: System/Segment Specification </li></ul><ul><li>SSDD : System/Segment Design Document </li></ul><ul><li>IRS : Interface Requirement Specification </li></ul><ul><li>ICD : Interface Control Definition </li></ul><ul><li>SRR : System Requirement Review </li></ul><ul><li>SDR : System Design Review </li></ul><ul><li>TRR : Test Readiness Review </li></ul>
  31. 37. Process Activities
  32. 38. What is a requirement ? <ul><li>A requirement is a condition to be satisfied in order to respond to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A contract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A specification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any other document and / or model imposed. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 39. Requirements <ul><li>User’s Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statements in natural language of the system services. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Described by the user </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured document setting out detailed description of system services. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of the contract </li></ul></ul>
  34. 40. User’s Requirements example <ul><li>A customer must be able to abort a transaction in progress by pressing the Cancel key instead of responding to a request from the machine. </li></ul><ul><li>The washing machine will be used in the following countries: UK, USA, Europe, Eastern Europe </li></ul>
  35. 41. Process
  36. 42. System Requirements <ul><li>The System shall provide ........ </li></ul><ul><li>The System shall be capable of ........ </li></ul><ul><li>The System shall weigh ........ </li></ul><ul><li>The Subsystem #1 shall provide ........ </li></ul><ul><li>The Subsystem #2 shall interface with ..... </li></ul>
  37. 43. Requirement Quality <ul><li>A good requirement states something that is necessary , verifiable , and attainable </li></ul><ul><li>To be verifiable, the requirement must state something that can be verified by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>analysis, inspection, test, or demonstration (AIDT) </li></ul></ul>
  38. 44. Requirement analysis <ul><li>User Requirement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum levels of noise and vibration are desirable . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System Requirement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirement 03320: The noise generated shall not exceed 60 db </li></ul></ul>
  39. 45. Requirement Types <ul><li>Functional requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional requirements capture the intended behavior of the system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This behavior may be expressed as services, tasks or functions the system is required to perform </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-Functional requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constraints </li></ul>
  40. 46. DOORS
  41. 47. DOORS
  42. 48. DOORS
  43. 50. Process
  44. 51. System Architecture <ul><li>The System Architecture identifies all the products (including enabling products) that are necessary to support the system and, by implication, the processes necessary for development, production/construction, deployment, operations, support, disposal, training, and verification </li></ul>
  45. 52. Architecture Modeling <ul><li>System : Abstraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Object model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interfaces Model </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Model Views </li></ul>
  46. 53. Architecture Meta Model From IEEE
  47. 54. Architecture and Components Assembly
  48. 55. Example of Architecture Views <ul><li>The Functional Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identifies and structures the allocated functional and performance requirements. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Physical Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>depicts the system product by showing how it is broken down into subsystems and components </li></ul></ul>
  49. 56. Functional VS physical Model <ul><li>How to fly ? </li></ul><ul><li>Look at birds: Physical Model </li></ul><ul><li>So I need: Legs, Eyes, Brain, and Wings. </li></ul><ul><li>But I can not fly !!! </li></ul><ul><li>Why ? </li></ul><ul><li>I have to find the flight functional model ! </li></ul>
  50. 57. Example Birds physical for flying <ul><li>Physical decomposition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>physical components that birds used to fly: Legs, Eyes, Brain, and Wings. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But can not be applied to system directly </li></ul>
  51. 58. Flying functional model <ul><li>Functional decomposition of flying function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce horizontal thrust, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce vertical lift. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takeoff and land, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense position and velocity, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigate, </li></ul></ul>
  52. 59. Allocations <ul><li>Represent general relationships that map one model element to another </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of allocation are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral (i.e., function to component) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural (i.e., logical to physical) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software to Hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>…. </li></ul></ul>
  53. 60. Bird and Airplane Functional to Physical architecture mapping Wings Wings Produce vertical lift Wings Propeller or jet Produce horizontal thrust Brain Brain or computer Navigate Eyes Vision or radar Sense position and velocity Legs Wheels, Takeoff and land Bird Physical Component Airplane Physical Component Function
  54. 61. Stove Pipe architecture User Functional Organization Physical
  55. 62. Multi-criteria decision
  56. 63. Trade Off <ul><li>Multi-criteria decision-aiding techniques are available to help discover the preferred alternatives. </li></ul><ul><li>This analysis should be repeated, as better data becomes available. </li></ul>
  57. 65. Tower Crane example
  58. 66. Tower Crane example x
  59. 67. French Tower Cranes
  60. 68. British Tower Cranes
  61. 69. British Tower Cranes
  62. 70. British Tower Cranes
  63. 71. British Tower Cranes
  64. 72. Luffing jib tower crane  <ul><li>When the jib is moved, the hoist gear is controlled in such a way as to ensure that the hook travels horizontally.  </li></ul>
  65. 73. Luffing jib tower crane
  66. 74. The two types of basic jib design <ul><li>Horizontal Jib </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This jib takes the form of a simple structure extending from the tower, along which a trolley can travel, carrying the hoist rope and hook assembly to vary radii. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Luffing Jib </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The luffing jib has no trolley, the variation of hook radii is achieved by altering the jib angle, the same as with a mobile crane. </li></ul></ul>
  67. 75. Horizontal Jib
  68. 76. Luffing Jib
  69. 77. Luffing jib tower crane  <ul><li>These cranes have been designed for work on particularly high buildings or in extremely restricted spaces. </li></ul><ul><li>These cranes can solve all the problems that may appear in building sites settled in crowded places, in the town centres or in some areas full of obstacles like prefabricated buildings or towers. </li></ul>
  70. 78. Washing Machine example
  71. 79. Functional To Physical Model <ul><li>Functional : Discover the system functions </li></ul><ul><li>Washing Machine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What it does ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Washes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How it does ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agitates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Component : Agitator </li></ul></ul>
  72. 80. Washing Machine Physical Model agitator tube draining hand-operated washer plungers
  73. 81. Washing Machine Physical Model agitator Outer tube draining top loading US
  74. 82. Washing Machine Physical Model agitator Outer tube draining Inner tube = drum front loading Europe
  75. 83. Washing Machine Functional model
  76. 84. Context Diagram
  77. 85. Washing Machine Functional Breakdown
  78. 86. Washing Machine Data Flows
  79. 87. Washing Machine allocation example
  80. 88. Washing Machine Physical Model agitator tube draining hand-operated washer plungers
  81. 89. Washing Machine Physical Model agitator Outer tube draining top loading US
  82. 90. Washing Machine Physical Model agitator Outer tube draining Inner tube = drum front loading Europe
  83. 91. Washing Machine Physical Model top loading
  84. 92. Washing Machine Physical Model front loading
  85. 93. Washing Machine Physical Model front loading
  86. 94. UML
  87. 95. SysML
  88. 96. Block definition diagram of the Clothe Washing Domain
  89. 97. Activity hierarchy in block diagram definition (Hierarchical Functional Model)
  90. 98. Washing Machine Data Flows
  91. 100. Process
  92. 101. Process: V cycle
  93. 102. Integration <ul><li>Integration means bringing things together so they work as a whole. </li></ul>
  94. 103. Spaghetti Plate Syndrome Spaghetti Plate System Architect System Integrator
  95. 104. Encapsulation A nalogy Implementation Interface A driver doesn't care of engine's internal working. He only knows the interface
  96. 106. Process
  97. 107. IVVQCA <ul><li>Integrate : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build the system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Verification : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures that you built it right </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Validation : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures that you built the right thing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Certification : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure that the system is safe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acceptance : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures that the customer gets what he wants and the company get paid. </li></ul></ul>
  98. 108. Ensure that the system is safe
  99. 109. Conclusion <ul><li>Thank You For Your Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Questions are welcome </li></ul><ul><li>Contacts : </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Slides Available soon at www.elfuchs.fr </li></ul>

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