The rules of phonology

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The rules of phonology

  1. 1. THE RULES OF PHONOLOGY GROUP 3 Members of group: Adindha (2201411022) Puspa Dewi A. K. (2201411023) Lisa Ika Lestary (2201411024) Retno Tri Handayani (2201411026) Rizki Iftiani (2201411028) Kasanah (2201411035)
  2. 2. Phonological rules are part of a speaker’s knowledge of the language. The phonemic representations are minimally specified because some features or feature values are predictable. For example, in English all nasal consonants are voiced, so we don’t need to specify voicing in the phonemic feature matrix for nasals. Similarly, we don’t need to specify the feature round for non–low back vowels. THE RULES OF PHONOLOGY
  3. 3. ASSIMILATION RULES  Vowel Nasalization in English: a rule that makes neighboring segments more similar by copying or spreading a phonetic property from one segment to the other.  Assimilation is when a sound becomes more like a neighboring sound with respect to some phonetic property
  4. 4. VOWEL NASALIZATION RULE  Vowels are nasalized before a nasal consonant within the same syllable. This rule specifies the class of sounds affected by the rule:  Vowels It states what phonetic change will occur by applying the rule:  Change phonemic oral vowels to phonetic nasal vowels. And it specifies the context or phonological environment. Before a nasal consonant within the same syllable.
  5. 5. We can use similar notations to state the nasalization rule as:  V → [+nasal] / __ [+nasal] $ Let’s look at the rule piece by piece.  V → [+nasal] / __ [+nasal] $ Vowels become nasalized in the before nasal within the same syllable  environment segments syllable
  6. 6. ENGLISH NASALS Place assimilation in nasals  I can ask [ɑɪ kæn æsk]  I can see [ɑɪ kæn si]  I can bake [ɑɪ kæm beɪk]  I can play [ɑɪ kæm pleɪ]  I can go [ɑɪ kæŋ goʊ]  I can come [ɑɪ kæŋ kʌm] The nasal has the same place of articulation as the stop following it  /n/ → [m] / __C[labial]  /n/ → [ŋ] / __ C[velar]  /n/ → [n] / elsewhere
  7. 7. DISSIMILATION  Dissimilation is a rule where two close or adjacent sounds become less alike with respect to some property Example: [fθ] and [sθ] → [ft] and [st] Fricatives → stop?  fifth and sixth come to be pronounced as if they were spelled fift and sikst
  8. 8. FEATURE-CHANGING RULES The assimilation and dissimilation rules we have seen may all be thought of as feature-changing rules. Some feature-changing rules are neither assimilation nor dissimilation rules. The rule in English that aspirates voiceless stops at the beginning of a syllable simply adds a nondistinctive feature. Generally, aspiration occurs only if the following vowel is stressed. The /p/ in pit and repeat is an aspirated [pʰ], but the /p/ in inspect or compass is an unaspirated [p]. A voiceless, noncontinuant has [+aspirated] added to its feature matrix at the beginning of a syllable containing a stressed vowel with an optional intervening consonant. Aspiration is not specified in any phonemic feature matrices of English.
  9. 9. FEATURE-CHANGING RULES Remember that /p/ and /b/ (and all such symbols) are simply cover symbols that do not reveal the phonemic distinctions. In phonemic and phonetic feature matrices, these differences are made explicit, as shown in the following phonemic matrices: p b Consonantal + + Continuant – – Labial + + Voiced – + ← distinctive difference The nondistinctive feature “aspiration” is not included in these phonemic representations because aspiration is predictable.
  10. 10. SEGMENT INSERTION AND DELETION RULES Phonological rules may add or delete entire segments. The process of inserting a consonant or vowel is called epenthesis. The examples of epenthesis:  Insert a [ə] before the plural morpheme /z/ when a regular noun ends in a sibilant, giving [əz].  Insert a [ə] before the past-tense morpheme when a regular verb ends in a non-nasal alveolar stop, giving [əd].
  11. 11. SEGMENT INSERTION AND DELETION RULES We often delete the unstressed vowels that are shown in bold type in words like the following:  mystery general memory funeral vigorous Barbara These words in casual speech sound as if they were written:  mystry genral memry funral vigrous Barbra
  12. 12. CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING EXAMPLES: A sign [sãɪn] design [dəzãɪn] paradigm [pʰærədãɪm] B signature [sɪgnətʃər] n] Paradigmatic [pʰærədɪgmæɾək]
  13. 13. MOVEMENT (METATHESIS) RULES Phonological rules may also reorder sequences of phonemes, in which case they are called metathesis rules. For some speakers of English, the word ask is pronounced [æks], but the word asking is pronounced [æskĩŋ]. In this case a metathesis rule reorders the /s/ and /k/ in certain contexts. In Old English the verb was aksian, with the /k/ preceding the /s/. A historical metathesis rule switched these two consonants, producing ask in most dialects of English.
  14. 14. MOVEMENT (METATHESIS) RULES Children’s speech shows many cases of metathesis (which are corrected as the child approaches the adult grammar): aminal nəl] for animal and pusketti [pʰəskɛti] for spaghetti are common children’s pronunciations. Dog lovers have metathesized the Shetland sheepdog into a sheltie, and at least two presidents of the United States have applied a metathesis rule to the word nuclear, which many Americans pronounce [njukliər], but is pronounced [nukjələr] by those leading statesmen.
  15. 15. FROM ONE TO MANY AND FROM MANY TO ONE FUNCTION EXAMPLE 1. Change feature values Nasal consonant assimilation rules in Akan and English. 1. Add new features Aspiration in English 1. Delete segments g-deletion before nasals in English. 1. Add segments Schwa insertion in English plural and past tense. 1. Reorder segments Metathesis rule relating [æsk] and [æks] Phonological rules that relate phonemic to phonetic representations have several functions, among which the following are:
  16. 16. FROM ONE TO MANY AND FROM MANY TO ONE A B /i/ Compete [i] Competition [Ə] /I/ Medicinal [I] Medicine [Ə] /e/ Maintain [e] Maintenance [Ə] /Ɛ/ Telegraph [Ɛ] Telegraphy [Ə] /æ/ Analysis [æ] Analytic [Ə] /a/ Solid [a] Solidity [Ə] /o/ Phone [o] Phonetic [Ə] /ᴜ/ Talmudic [ᴜ] Talmud [Ə] The relationship between the phonemes and phones of a language is complex and varied. Rarely is a single phoneme realized as one and only one phone. Considering the vowels in the following pairs of words:
  17. 17. THE FUNCTION OF PHONOLOGICAL RULES The function of the phonological rules in a grammar is to provide the phonetic information necessary for the pronunciation of utterances. We may illustrate this point in the following way:
  18. 18. THE FUNCTION OF PHONOLOGICAL RULES The input to the P-rules is the phonemic representation. The P- rules apply to the the phonemic strings and produce as output the phonetic representation. The application of rules in this way is called derivation. For example, the word tempest is phonemically /tɛmpɛst/ (as shown by the pronunciation of tempestuous [ mpʰɛstʃuəs]) but phonetically [ mpəst]. Three rules apply to it: the aspiration rule, the vowel nasalization rule, and the schwa rule. We can derive the phonetic form from the phonemic representation as follows:
  19. 19. SLIPS OF THE TONGUE: EVIDENCE FOR PHONOLOGICAL RULES Slips of the tongue, or speech errors, in which we deviate in some way from the intended utterance, show phonological rules in action. We all make speech errors, and they tell us interesting things about language and its use. Consider the following speech errors: Intended Utterance Actual Utterance  gone to seed god to seen [gãn tə sid] [gad tə sĩn]  stick in the mud smuck in the tid [stɪk ĩn ðə mʌd] [smʌk ĩn ðə tʰɪd]  speech production preach seduction [spitʃ n] [pʰritʃ n]

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