Using sourcesA guide for students: Find it - Check it - Credit it
Contents■ Acknowledgements 4■ Introduction 5■ Find it! 6■ Check it! 8■ Credit it! A quick guide to referencing 10■ References 18■ Further information 19
5Acknowledgements IntroductionThis guide was commissioned by Ofqual, the regulator of qualifications, examinations In many subjects internally assessed work The Joint Council for Qualifications (JCQ) definesand assessments in England and vocational qualifications in Northern Ireland. It was (coursework or controlled assessment) such as plagiarism as: essays, investigations, projects or performancewritten by PlagiarismAdvice.org – a national body, founded by the Joint Information work will count towards your final grade. Unacknowledged copying from published sources Systems Committee (JISC), which provides advice, guidance and training on measures (including the Internet) or incomplete referencing to ensure authentic work from students to universities, colleges and schools in the UK A source is any resource that you use to collect (JCQ, 2008, p28)and Europe. information for your coursework including text books, encyclopaedias, journals, TV and radio This guide covers the following areas: programmes, the internet and other people. Authors: ■ finding, checking and using electronic resources Anne Flood, Will Murray and Gill Rowell, An acknowledgment is a description of a source ■ referencingsources and using citations PlagiarismAdvice.org so that someone else can find it, along with an ■ paraphrasing. indication in your coursework of which information came from that source. With contributions from: Coursework for controlled assessment often involves researching information from sources ■ John Barwick and Rich Smalley, Ofqual such as text books, encyclopaedias, journals, TV ■ Judy Cohen, University of Kent and radio programmes and the internet. Any work ■ Jo Hirst and the JCQ Malpractice Group you submit for assessment must be your own work ■ Jane Imrie, Norham Community and you should list (acknowledge) any sources you Technology College use. Failure to acknowledge your sources could ■ Kim Irving, Cramlington Learning Village constitute malpractice and you may be penalised. ■ ndrew Panayi and students, Stockton A Riverside College This guide provides useful, practical advice on how ■ Fiona Pocock CIFE members to use and acknowledge sources of information ■ raham Shields, University of Cumbria G when you are researching coursework for controlled ■ nne Marie Tarter, Chris Wise and students, A assessment, so you can demonstrate your Ripon Grammar School knowledge to your teachers without being accused ■ elen Undrill, Barking College H of plagiarism. ■ dele Wills and Mike Padbury, Solihull College A
6 7 Find it! Finding poor quality information online is Using Wikipedia as a starting point Using search engines as a starting point What about images? easy. Finding good quality information is slightly harder! ‘The free encyclopedia [sic] that anyone can edit.’ Google or Yahoo! can be a good starting point for You may decide to include images to enhance your (Wikipedia, 2009) your research. work. It’s important to remember that any images The internet is vast you find on the web (for example using an images Wikipedia can be an excellent starting point for ■ first write a list of keywords or search terms. search in Google) belong to someone and may be You probably use the web for: research. However, unlike traditional encyclopaedias ■ use a thesaurus to help create synonyms. subject to copyright restrictions. ■ music anyone can add information on any topic, even you! ■ target the search using the search engine’s ■ games It may not necessarily be authoritative or accurate. In advanced options. It’s not always instantly obvious where the image ■ talking to friends. some cases information may be completely untrue. ■ enclosing specific phrases in quotation marks has come from and who it belongs to, so it’s best to will result in a more accurate search (for example click on the image itself to find out more information Did you know that it is also an excellent You must always check the facts in a “global warming”). and whether you can use it in your work. In most resource for: wiki article ■ read Google’s list of suggestions for more cases these images will be subject to copyright and effective searching at Google search basics you will need to ask the owner for permission to ■ assignments (Google, 2009). use them and may, in some cases, need to buy ■ check the reference list for the article. ■ school projects? them first. ■ carryout further research to find the referenced articles. Using a database as a starting point You can find collections of freely available images Points to remember ■ use the history and discussion pages on the web, which offer high quality images that are accompanying an entry to help evaluate whether Your school library will probably subscribe to not subject to copyright restrictions. ■ anyone can publish online you can trust the information. online databases that you can also use to locate ■ sources may be untrue ■ you can find a pre-checked Wikipedia collection information on a topic, such as Encyclopaedia You can find further details on using images in your of 5,500 articles targeted around the national Britannica or NewsUK. The advantage of using these ■ sources may be inaccurate work, along with sources of free images, in a useful curriculum at http://schools-wikipedia.org. databases is that the information they provide has ■ always check the relevance tutorial developed by JISC Digital Media ■ never use Wikipedia as your only source. been written and reviewed by experts. ■ always check the reliability (www.vts.intute.ac.uk/tutorial/imagesearching). ■ be critical of all content. Remember you need to reference any images you Ask your teacher or school librarian for help if you’re use in your work. not sure.
8 9 Check it! How can I check the accuracy and reliability of the websites I use? Put your sources under the spotlight – Use trusted sites be aware of bias Using sources of information whose reputation you Consider why a particular person or organisation can trust, and where an expert has provided the is writing on this topic. Do they have something to details, is another way of assuring authoritative and Why did they gain? Be aware that what they write and the way in accurate information on a topic. write it? which they write may not be impartial. For example: For example: ‹ Who wrote this? When did they ■ the BBC for news ‹ write it? if you are looking for information about global ■ the Met Office for the weather warming each of the following authors will offer a ■ Hansard for parliamentary proceedings ‹ very different viewpoint: ■ resources that your teacher or librarian provide. Some key questions to ask when ■ a leading scientific research council ■ a personal blog from a climate change protestor you are looking at a website ■ a company offering carbon neutral flights. (Tarter, 2009) If you struggle to find the answers to the questions ‹ in the diagram then this particular website may not ‹ be the best one to use for your research. Where did they Further information ‹ How can it help me? write it? At what level is The Internet Detective it written? (www.vts.intute.ac.uk/detective) tutorial is an excellent tool to help with evaluating information provided on websites.
10 11 Credit it! A quick guide to referencing Every idea has an owner – give them credit Ideally when you provide a reference to a source, You should use in-text citations whenever you use a whether it is a website or a printed text, you should My Great Essay source in your work: By Adam Smith ■ every article has an author (or authors) who has give enough information about the source so that spent time creating and researching the topic. others, in particular your assessor (teacher or the I read a lot about writing and vocabulary and found this ■ as a specific reference to information or facts from quotation very useful. ■ you can’t use the author’s work or ideas, including examiner), can find it easily. the source images, without giving them credit. “Learning vocabulary is always a matter of building up fields ■ as a direct quotation (the same words as of words. And we do that by comparing words with other ■ don’t just cut and paste. How do I give credit? words. That is how parents teach children.” the original) (Crystal, 2006, p29) ■ in a paraphrase (a rewording of the original). There are a number of standard ways to In conclusion I think I learned a lot from this book and from Let your teacher know your sources my parents. acknowledge the work of others. The following Your reference list and bibliography are always examples use the Harvard standard (also known References presented in alphabetical order by author, last name. By giving credit and clearly indicating that you are Crystal, D (2006) Words words words, Oxford: Oxford as the author–date system) as defined in Cite them There is no need to divide your bibliography up incorporating someone else’s ideas in your own work University Press. right (Pears and Shields, 2008), which is widely used into, say, a textbook section and an internet section. you show your teacher that you have researched the Bibliography in universities, colleges and schools. Document Murray, W (2008) All about essays, Newcastle: nlearning Press Simply go by the author’s last name. If you do not topic properly using authoritative sources. it (www.documentit.co.uk), an electronic tool Dawes, J and Rowley, J (1998) ‘Enhancing the customer experience: contributions from information technology’, know the author, or it is not given, you should developed specifically for students based on the Management Decision, 36:6, pp.350-357. use the name of the organisation that created the If you use someone else’s ideas in your work without Harvard standard, helps you manage your citations. material instead. giving them credit for the original, this is plagiarism (trying to pass someone else’s work off as your own). Citation methods may seem complicated but it If this work is submitted for your qualification this is extremely important to acknowledge all your In the body of the text you only include the author’s constitutes malpractice and you will be penalised, sources, otherwise although you did not intend to last name, year and optionally the page number you which could result in disqualification from the cheat you may be accused of plagiarism. are referring to. You give the full bibliographic examination or examination series. reference at the end of your work in the Every time you use an idea or include material from references section. Enable someone else to find your sources another author you should also include a reference to the source, both in the text of your work and at You should include any source used as background You give credit or acknowledge the sources you the end in a reference list or bibliography. See in reading in a ‘Bibliography’ section. have used by adding a set of references to the example of where to use the reference your work. “(Crystal, 2006, p29)”.
12 13 Bibliographic information Bibliography information for a Bibliography information for a website (or online image*) journal article Different sources require you to record different information in your bibliography and references section. We provide details of what to record for Author(s) last Year of Title of article in Publisher Author(s) last Year of Title of web page three main formats below: name, initial publication quotation marks Publisher name, initial publication publication in italics ➡ ➡ ➡ ➡ ➡ ➡ ■ textbooks Dawes, J and Rowley, J (1998) ‘ Enhancing the customer ■ journalarticles experience: contributions from the information technology’, Rowell, G (2008) AMBeR - Generic Penalty Tariff. Available at: ■ websites (and images from the web). Management Decision, 36:6, pp. 350-357. www.plagiarismadvice.org (Accessed: 17 May 2009). The following formats are taken from Cite them right ➡ ➡ ➡ ➡ ➡ (Pears and Shields, 2008). Title of publication Issue Pages in italics The website The date you looked Bibliography information for a textbook address at the website Author last Title of article * In the case of an online image ‘author ‘ would refer to the Publisher name, initial in italics photographer or illustrator. ➡ ➡ ➡ Crystal, D (2006) Words words words, Oxford: Oxford University Press. ➡ ➡ Year of Place of publication publication
14 15 Quotations Here you indent the actual words so they stand Websites out, and you don’t need to place them in If you want to include a quotation from another quotation marks. Main body quotations take a similar form. The idea is source then you can use the following format: that the reader will find the URL (web address) in the Journal article reference list if they wish to check the quotation. As Crystal (2006) points out “Learning vocabulary is always a matter of A journal article has exactly the same format in the Harris (2008) is keen to share his expertise with building up fields of words.” body of the text: all sectors: New right now is a page of Cook (2008) points out the benefits to students software tools that trainers, If the words that you want to quote are longer than a sentence you need to include the author’s name, of undertaking research within a educators, and instructional the date of publication and the page number the classroom environment: designers will find very useful. quotation comes from, at the end. After the experience, students (Harris, 2008, Virtual Salt) reported a significant increase in As Crystal (2006) points out: their understanding of the Learning vocabulary is always research process. In addition, Referencing other sources a matter of building up fields of students recommended using words. And we do that by the exercise in future classes and Should you find that you want to include references comparing words with other at other universities. from sources other than those listed then your teacher or school librarian should be able to help words. That is how parents (Cook, 2008, p13) you with how to format and include them. teach children. (Crystal, 2006, p29)
16 17 Paraphrasing Paraphrasing example So, how do I paraphrase? I’ve tried, but it doesn’t work! Paraphrasing is something that you will have been There are several methods you can adopt. Try them If you can’t paraphrase the source then you asked to do throughout your school life. This is Original text (written by Mr Brown): The green all a few times. You’ll soon find out which ones work may need to think about putting the idea in as when your teachers ask you to put someone else’s fields of Lincolnshire are at their best in high best for you. a quotation. ideas into your own words. Paraphrasing is a skill summer. that may take time to master. If you paraphrase the ideas of someone else, rather than quoting them Bad paraphrase: 1. Read small sections of your notes or the text you directly, you will still need to acknowledge the are studying (say a paragraph at a time). Cover original author. As with a direct quotation you must The verdant meadows of Lincoln are in their your notes and then write the section in your include the author’s last name, followed by the year prime in August. own words. of publication. Why? Here the writer has simply replaced some 2. For every sentence of text you want to paraphrase of the words with synonyms. write two of your own. Remember it often helps if Crystal (2006) points out that... you identify the main idea then give an example Good paraphrase: of your own and then explain how your example Harris (2008) has produced an online document that... fits with the main idea. According to Brown, the countryside of Lincolnshire is beautiful between June and 3. Take a small section (again say a paragraph). Dawes and Rowley (1998) define.... August. Write down the key words. Cover the original and then use the key words to help you write a Why? Rather than only changing a few words paragraph in your own words. Don’t change any This will allow the reader to find the full the writer has changed the structure, hinting technical words, numbers or mathematical or bibliographic reference at the end of your work. at a more in depth understanding of the scientific formulae. However feel free to change original. The writer has also acknowledged the the everyday words (see the example on original source. paraphrasing) to those of your own. 4. Remember to include a reference to the person who first wrote what you have paraphrased.
18 References ■ Cook, K.E. (2008) ‘Experiencing the research ■ JISC Digital Media (2009). Available at: process in a single class period’, The Journal of www.jiscdigitalmedia.ac.uk Effective Teaching, 8:1, pp.13–20. (Accessed: 13 August 2009). ■ Crystal, D. (2006) Words words words, Oxford: ■ JISC Digital Media (2009) Welcome to internet for Oxford University Press. image searching. Available at: www.vts.intute.ac.uk/tutorial/imagesearching ■ Dawes, J. and Rowley, J. (1998) ‘Enhancing (Accessed: 13 August 2009). the customer experience: contributions from information technology’, Management Decision, ■ NewsUK (2009). Available at: www.newsuk.co.uk 36:6, pp.350–357. (Accessed: 23 June 2009). ■ Encyclopedia Britannica (2009). Available at: ■ Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2008) Cite them right, the www.info.britannica.co.uk essential referencing guide, 7th rev. edn., Durham: (Accessed: 23 June 2009). Pear Tree Books. ■ Google (2009) Google search basics. Available at: ■ Tarter, A. (2009) email to Gill Rowell, 19 March. www.google.com/support/websearch/bin/ answer.py?answer=134479 ■ Wikipedia (2009). Available at: Further information (Accessed: 16 June 2009). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page (Accessed: 23 June 2009). The following organisations also provide guidance on using sources and avoiding plagiarism: ■ Harris, R. (2008) Virtual salt. Available at: ■ Wikipedia (2009) 2008/9 Wikipedia selection for www.virtualsalt.com (Accessed: 16 June 2009). ■ Joint Council for Qualifications (JCQ): www.jcq.org.uk schools. Available at: The JCQ represents the seven largest providers of qualifications in the UK, including the GCSE ■ Internet Detective (2009). Available at: www.schools-wikipedia.org and A level awarding organisations. JCQ coordinates common administration of qualifications www.vts.intute.ac.uk/detective (Accessed: 16 June 2009). between the organisations. (Accessed: 13 August 2009). ■ JISC: www.jisc.ac.uk ■ JCQ (2008) General and vocational qualifications: Further information JISC inspires UK colleges and universities in the innovative use of digital technologies, helping suspected malpractice in examinations and to maintain the UK’s position as a global leader in education. assessments: policies and procedures. Available If you need further guidance on using sources speak to your(Ofqual):or school librarian in the first ■ The Office of Qualifications and Examinations Regulation teacher www.ofqual.gov.uk at: www.jcq.org.uk (Accessed: 21 July 2009). instance. The following bodies also provide guidance on using sources and avoiding plagiarism: The regulator of qualifications, examinations and assessments in England and vocational qualifications in Northern Ireland. ■ Joint Council for Qualifications (JCQ): www.jcq.org.uk PlagiarismAdvice.org: www.plagiarismadvice.org ■ The Office of Qualifications and Examinations Regulation (Ofqual): www.ofqual.gov.uk PlagiarismAdvice.org provides details of news, events, resources and research for teachers and students on plagiarism and ensuring work is authentic. ■ PlagiarismAdvice.org: www.plagiarismadvice.org