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WES 2014 - Role of Assessment, Accreditation, Evaluation & Quality Standard in Higher Education - Prof. A. H. Rajasab, Vice Chancellor, Tumkur University
WES 2014 - Role of Assessment, Accreditation, Evaluation & Quality Standard in Higher Education - Prof. A. H. Rajasab, Vice Chancellor, Tumkur University
WES 2014 - Role of Assessment, Accreditation, Evaluation & Quality Standard in Higher Education - Prof. A. H. Rajasab, Vice Chancellor, Tumkur University
WES 2014 - Role of Assessment, Accreditation, Evaluation & Quality Standard in Higher Education - Prof. A. H. Rajasab, Vice Chancellor, Tumkur University
WES 2014 - Role of Assessment, Accreditation, Evaluation & Quality Standard in Higher Education - Prof. A. H. Rajasab, Vice Chancellor, Tumkur University
WES 2014 - Role of Assessment, Accreditation, Evaluation & Quality Standard in Higher Education - Prof. A. H. Rajasab, Vice Chancellor, Tumkur University
WES 2014 - Role of Assessment, Accreditation, Evaluation & Quality Standard in Higher Education - Prof. A. H. Rajasab, Vice Chancellor, Tumkur University
WES 2014 - Role of Assessment, Accreditation, Evaluation & Quality Standard in Higher Education - Prof. A. H. Rajasab, Vice Chancellor, Tumkur University
WES 2014 - Role of Assessment, Accreditation, Evaluation & Quality Standard in Higher Education - Prof. A. H. Rajasab, Vice Chancellor, Tumkur University
WES 2014 - Role of Assessment, Accreditation, Evaluation & Quality Standard in Higher Education - Prof. A. H. Rajasab, Vice Chancellor, Tumkur University
WES 2014 - Role of Assessment, Accreditation, Evaluation & Quality Standard in Higher Education - Prof. A. H. Rajasab, Vice Chancellor, Tumkur University
WES 2014 - Role of Assessment, Accreditation, Evaluation & Quality Standard in Higher Education - Prof. A. H. Rajasab, Vice Chancellor, Tumkur University
WES 2014 - Role of Assessment, Accreditation, Evaluation & Quality Standard in Higher Education - Prof. A. H. Rajasab, Vice Chancellor, Tumkur University
WES 2014 - Role of Assessment, Accreditation, Evaluation & Quality Standard in Higher Education - Prof. A. H. Rajasab, Vice Chancellor, Tumkur University
WES 2014 - Role of Assessment, Accreditation, Evaluation & Quality Standard in Higher Education - Prof. A. H. Rajasab, Vice Chancellor, Tumkur University
WES 2014 - Role of Assessment, Accreditation, Evaluation & Quality Standard in Higher Education - Prof. A. H. Rajasab, Vice Chancellor, Tumkur University
WES 2014 - Role of Assessment, Accreditation, Evaluation & Quality Standard in Higher Education - Prof. A. H. Rajasab, Vice Chancellor, Tumkur University
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WES 2014 - Role of Assessment, Accreditation, Evaluation & Quality Standard in Higher Education - Prof. A. H. Rajasab, Vice Chancellor, Tumkur University

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WES 2014 - Role of Assessment, Accreditation, Evaluation & Quality Standard in Higher Education - Prof. A. H. Rajasab, Vice Chancellor, Tumkur University

WES 2014 - Role of Assessment, Accreditation, Evaluation & Quality Standard in Higher Education - Prof. A. H. Rajasab, Vice Chancellor, Tumkur University

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  • 1. ACCESS FOR HIGHER EDUCATION : ECONOMIC AND EDUCATIONAL SCENARIO OF MUSLIMS IN INDIA (Based on Sachar Committee Report – 2006) Prof. Rajasab, A.H. Vice Chancellor, Tumkur University, Karnataka, India Email - rajasab55@gmail.com Cell - 9448405552
  • 2. Muslim Population in India (13.4%) • From 1961 to 2001 – Muslim population increased from 10.7% to 13.4%. • As per 2001 Census, India’s Muslim population was about 138 million (13.4% of India’s total population). • 2009 India’s total Population 120 Crores India’s Muslim population 16.1 Crore • In India, population of all major religions have experienced large growth in the recent past • The growth among Muslims has been higher than average.
  • 3. Populations of major religions in India • According to the 2001 Census, India’s Muslim population was about 138 million (about 13.4% of the total population) • The report states, “In India, populations of all major religions have experienced large growth in the recent past, but the growth among Muslims has been higher than average.” • Between 1961 and 2001 the percent of Muslim population increased from 10.7% to 13.4%. TABLE 1: POPULATION COMPOSITION AND GROWTH RATES (PERCENTAGE) All Hindu Muslim Christian Sikh Buddha Jain Other 1961 100 83.4 10.7 2.4 1.8 0.7 0.5 0.4 1971 100 82.7 11.2 2.6 1.9 0.7 0.5 0.4 1981 100 82.3 11.7 2.4 1.9 0.7 0.5 0.4 1991 100 81.5 12.6 2.3 1.9 0.8 0.4 0.4 2001 100 80.5 13.4 2.3 1.9 0.8 0.4 0.7 Increase (1961-2001) 134 126 194 124 145 144 108 286 Annual growth (exponential) 2.13 2.04 2.70 2.02 2.24 2.23 1.84 3.38
  • 4. MUSLIMS HAVE HIGHER SHARE IN YOUNGER AGE GROUPS Table 2: Age-Sex Distribution of All Population and Muslim Population, India 2001 (Percentage) All religions Muslims Male Female Male Female 0-9 23.2 23.1 27.1 27.4 10-19 22.4 21.2 24.8 23.8 20-29 16.5 17.2 15.9 16.4 30-39 13.8 14.4 12.4 13.0 40-49 10.3 9.7 8.8 8.3 50+ 13.4 14.0 10.7 11.0 Age not stated 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2
  • 5. Highest percentage of Muslims include : Jammu & Kashmir (67%), Assam (30.9%), West Bengal (25.2%), and Kerala (24.7%). Figure 1: Concentration of Muslim Population
  • 6. MUSLIM LITERACY RATE (2001 CENSUS DATA ) All India Rural Urban All Male Female All Male Female All 64.8 59 71 46 80 86 73 Hindu 65.1 59 72 46 81 88 74 SC/ST 52.2 49 61 36 68 78 58 Muslim 59.1 53 62 43 70 76 63 Others 70.8 64 77 52 85 90 78
  • 7. Muslim Children Enrollment in Schools GovernmentSchools 66% PrivateSchools 30% Madarsas 4%
  • 8. Higher Education Scenario (2001 Data) • Other communities - 7% of the population aged 20 years and above are graduates or hold diplomas, while only 4% among the Muslim population does. • In 2004-05, the percentage of participation in this age group in higher education was 6 % and it has risen to 11% in 2009-10 • The gap between Muslims and other Socio Religious Categories (SRCs) increases as the level of education increases, and • The unemployment rates among Muslim graduates is the highest among SRCs both among the poor and the non-poor.
  • 9. Age Hindus Muslims Other MinoritiesGen OBC SCs/STs 6-13 19.1 (17.3) 36.1 (35.5) 25.7 (27.4) 14.0 (15.1) 5.1 (4.8) 14-15 24.3 (19.1) 36.1 (35.2) 21.4 (25.2) 12.2 (14.5) 6.0 (5.3) 16-17 28.9 (21.1) 33.7 (35.0) 20.2 (24.7) 10.7 (14.0) 6.3 (5.1) 18-22 34.0 (20.8) 30.5 (34.4) 17.7 (25.5) 10.2 (13.9) 7.6 (5.5) 23 & up 35.6 (23.9) 29.2 (35.1) 18.3 (24.1) 7.4 (10.9) 9.5 (5.9) Muslims Studying by Age Groups – 2004-05
  • 10. TUMKUR UNIVERSITY UG Admissions. Data based on Three years (2011-12, 2012-13 & 2013-14) Sl. No GM SC ST Cat-1 Cat-2A Cat-2B Cat-3A Cat-3B Boys Girls Grand TotalB G 01 Total No. of students in University and Affiliated Colleges 6226 18752 7360 8192 17565 5601 23669 17465 49544 47.2% 55286 49.8% 104830 02 Percentage 5.94 17.89 7.02 7.81 16.76 5.34 22.58 16.66 Analysis of Students Enrolment at Tumkur University in Percentage/ Average GM SC ST Cat-1 Cat-2A Cat-2B Cat-3A Cat-3B Adi Dravida Adi Karnataka Beda Jangama Bovi, Holar Korma, Korcha Jenu Kuruba, Kadu Kuruba, Siddi, Nayaka, Beda, Valmiki Golla, Uppara, Bestha, Helava, Ambiga, Kabaliga, Devdasi Pinjara/Nadaf Agasa, Devadiga, Idiga, Kumbara, Kuruba, Nayinda, Buddhist, Thigala Muslim Vokkaliga, Reddy, Hegde, Kodagaru, Balija, Naidu Lingayat, Aryaru, Maratha, Bunt, Christian Fixed reservation 50% 15% 3% 4% 15% 4% 4% 5% Students enrolment – Average 5.94 17.89 7.02 7.81 16.76 5.34 22.58 16.66 Gain 2.89 4.02 3.81 1.76 1.34 18.58 11.66
  • 11. TUMKUR UNIVERSITY PG Admissions . Data based on three years ( 2011-12, 2012-13 & 2013-14) Sl. No GM SC ST Cat-1 Cat-2A Cat-2B Cat-3A Cat-3B Boys Girls Grand Total 01 Total No. of students in University and Affiliated Colleges 684 1049 420 511 998 295 1328 1221 3412 (52.4 %) 3094 (47.5%) 6506 02 Percentage 10.51 16.12 6.46 7.86 15.34 4.53 20.33 18.72 Analysis of Students Enrolment at Tumkur University in percentage/ average GM SC ST Cat-1 Cat-2A Cat-2B Cat-3A Cat-3B Sub Castes Adi Dravida Adi Karnataka Beda Jangama Bovi, Korma, Korcha Jenu Kuruba, Kadu Kuruba, Siddi, Nayaka, Beda, Valmiki Golla, Uppara, Bestha, Helava, Ambiga, Kabaliga, Devdasi Pinjara/ Nadaf Agasa, Devadiga, Idiga, Kumbara, Kuruba, Nayinda, Buddhist, Thigala Muslim Vokkaliga, Reddy, Hegde, Kodagaru, Balija, Naidu Lingayath, Aryaru, Maratha, Bunt, Christian Fixed reservation 50% 15% 3% 4% 15% 4% 4% 5% Students enrolment – Average 10.51 16.12 6.46 7.86 15.34 4.53 20.33 18.72 Gain 1.12 3.46 3.85 0.34 0.53 16.41 13.77
  • 12. Salaried Workers Employed in Government, Public & Large Private Sectors (2004-05) (%) Participation of Muslim salaried workers in both the public and private sectors is quite low (as is true for SCs/STs), and the average salary of Muslim workers is lower than others (possibly, as more Muslims are in inferior jobs). Govt Pub/ Pvt All 34.2 13.1 All Hindus 35.3 13.9 - SC/ST 39.4 9.5 - OBCs 30.4 12.8 - Upper Caste 37.4 17.1 Muslim 23.7 6.5 Others 35.8 12.8
  • 13. Muslim Employment • Participation of Muslim workers in the informal sector is much higher than the average population • Work at homes (70%) is much higher than all workers (51%) • Muslims participation rates in traditional manufacturing and trade (especially wearing apparel, auto-repair and electrical machinery) is much higher than for other groups, • Their participation in the agricultural section is lower. • Also, Muslim participation rates in security related activities, such as the police, was 4% as compared to SCs/STs at 12% and OBCs at 23% each.
  • 14. Table 7: Percentage Muslims of Total Population engaged in Government-related Employment Government-related Employment % Muslim IAS 3.0 IFS 1.8 IPS/Security Agencies 4.0 Indian Railways 4.5 Education Department (state level) 6.5 Home Department (state level) 7.3 Police constables 6.0 Health Departments 4.5 Transport Department 6.5 Judiciary Employment 7.8 • Muslim employment in Government sector is very low. Muslim participation rates in security related activities, such as the police, was 4% as compared to SCs/STs at 12% and OBCs at 23% each. There is not one state in which the representation of Muslims in the government departments matches their population share.
  • 15. The three vulnerable Groups in Muslims which need AFFIRMATIVE ACTION • The conditions of the general Muslim category are lower than the Hindu- OBCs who have the benefit of reservation. • The conditions of Muslim-OBCs are worse than those of the general Muslim category. • The three groups of Muslim OBCs are ashrafs, ajlafs and arzals, (in order of “caste” hierarchy) • They require different types of affirmative action.
  • 16. Sachar Committee Main Recommendations • Set up an Equal Opportunity Commission to look into grievances of deprived groups like minorities. • Create a nomination procedure to increase participation of minorities in public bodies. • Establish a delimitation procedure that does not reserve constituencies with high minority population for SCs. • Increase employment share of Muslims, particularly where there is great deal of public dealing. • Work out mechanisms to link madarsas with higher secondary school board. • Recognize degrees from madarsas for eligibility in defense, civil and banking examinations. • Focus on inclusive development and ‘mainstreaming’ of the Community while respecting diversity.”
  • 17. THANK YOU

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