FICCI: Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industries ITI: Industrial Training Institute ITC: Industrial Training Centre
eINDIA 2011 Skills Development- A German Perspective Shrikant Bansal 15 December 2011
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH
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India adds about 12.8 Million workers per year out of which:
40% are illiterate
25% have only Primary Education
Estimated Skill gap 10 Million per Year (Present training capacity 3.1 Million)
Source: FICCI Skill Survey, Jan 2010
Lack of Industry linkages
Shortage of trained and qualified teachers
No vertical mobility for vocational trained person
Exclusive reliance on the traditional training courses
National Skills Development Corporation- for viability gap funding
Massive expansion planned (1600 ITI/Polytechnics, 10000 vocational schools, 50000 skill development centers, quadruple seating capacity to 10 Mio. annually)
Modernisation of State run Vocational schools (ITI) in PPP model
Sector Skill Councils by apex industry bodies
DEMAND For employable workforce Supply Mismatch
The Development Gap Wherever you look: India is white collar biased, top-heavy, and bottom-weak. The analytical abilities may be brilliant, but lacks in skills. Lacking: the competence, the capacity to act. Level of the individual: How to nourish the skills to act, create and transform? The Prisoners’ Dilemma: Opportunistic pursue of short-term objectives by many leads to short-term gains for some and long-term losses for everybody Skill Development needs collective action Level of the enterprise: How to obtain qualified staff, when and where needed?
Demographic pressure: 500 Mio / 10 years
imminent structural change in agro sector
inclusive growth = job-rich growth
massive jobs = massive industrial dev. 2 Revolutions: Industrial + Skill Development
Level of society: How to create income and employment for the masses of poor youth, entering the labor market?
Inspired by the Dual System? Educational System in Germany Lower secondary school Intermediate school Grammar school Primary school Continuing VET Dual system Company/vocational school (approx. 54%) Full-time vocational schools (approx.12 %) Grammar sch. upper sec. ed. (ca. 34%) Lower secondary level from 10 to 15/16 Primary level from 6 to 10 Upper secondary level from 15 to 19 Tertiary level over 19 Continuing education Institutes of higher education
Inspired by the Dual System? 1 st decision: Hiring by Company ® Cooperation, Coordination Companies (private) Vocational School (public) Didactic Foundation Vocational Training Regulation
Harmonisation Regulated by Vocational Training Act (Bund) Regulated by School Acts (Länder) Designation of Learners: Legal Basis: Vocational School Students The Trainees are: Youths / Adults The training is completed by the final examination Craft / Journeyman ‘s certificate Learning Venues are: Designation of Learners: Apprentices / Trainees Legal Basis: Apprenticeship Contract Learning Venues are:
inter-company Vocational Training Establishments
with Compulsory Schooling (School Act) Consequence: Selection of school
Inspired by the Dual System? good reasons for Indo-German cooperation in vocational training - leading to counselling and training offers
Project Approach: Expediting the ITI upgradation with the cooperation of private sector while focusing on trainer’s training, system development and international linkages.
“ If I were a poet, I could write poetry on the possibilities of the five fingers. Why should you think that the mind is everything and the hands and feet nothing. Those who do not train their hands, who go through the ordinary rut of education, lack the ‘music’ in their life”. - Mahatma Gandhi
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Employment in Formal and Informal Sector )in million & %)