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Public private partnership opportunities to ensure inclusiveness and quality in education-gwang-chol chang
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  • Note: Two sentences in the same article, of apparent contradiction, subject to numerous interrogations Especially as it relates to private education, while providing public goods, which is in most cases not free however, two conclusions seem to emerge: ** those who can pay, pay ** healthy competition can be useful and mutually enriching
  • In order for PPPs to be successfully implemented, governments need to ensure a robust regulatory framework . This may include: Clear identification of the place of PPPs in national education strategy Clear, objective, streamlined criteria that the private sector must meet in order to establish and operate schools Introducing school funding systems that integrate public and private schools and that are neutral, responsive, and targeted; Establishing an effective quality assurance system Source: The Role and Impact of Public Private Partnerships in Education, The World Bank, 2009
  • Australia: Computer Technologies for Schools (CTFS) Main points: aimed at providing greater access to ICT in Australian govt and non-govt schools The project sources ICT equipment from the public and private sector and arranges distribution to schools. Part of the Prime Minister’s “Investing for Growth” policy statement in 1997. Since it began, the Computer Technologies for Schools project has delivered over 235 000 pieces of surplus ICT equipment to schools around Australia worth many millions of dollars. The equipment donated to the project has included printers, scanners, modems, photocopiers, network equipment, monitors, servers and personal computers. The project is funded by the Australian Government through the Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations A National Steering Committee, made up of representatives from State and Territory education departments, the non-government schools sector and DEEWR State and Territory Steering Committee networks receive requests from schools and organise for the distribution of the equipment. Donors – Australian government organisations, state and local government and the private sector (full list here: http://ctfs.edu.au/list-of-donors/ ) ADDITIONAL PPP IN ICT INITIATIVES IMPLEMENTED BY THE AUSTRALIAN GOVT INCLUDE: The Australian federal government in 2009 allocated AUD 4.7 billion to build a national broadband network based on join public-private funding. This joint initiative is expected to bridge knowledge sharing divide by encompassing rural school, farmers and regional communities. 2) Australia: National Secondary School Computer Fund Main points: assisting schools and schools systems to provide new computers and other information and communication technology (ICT) equipment for students in Years 9 to 12. Aim to achieve a computer to student ratio of 1:1 for students in Years 9 to 12 by 31 December 2011. The Australian Government is providing funding of $1000 per computer and up to $1500 for the installation and maintenance of that device.  Universal access program - assisting schools in the public, Catholic and independent education sectors, regardless of location. Implementation in partnership with government and non-government education authorities who are responsible for purchasing ICT equipment best suited to the needs of their schools. Depending on need and preference, schools can purchase netbooks, laptops, tablet computing devices, install more desktop computers or deploy a mix of mobile and stationary devices. Funding has also been made available for specialised ICT equipment to benefit students with disability. The Fund is on track to deliver over 786,000 computers to secondary schools across Australia by the end of 2011. As at 30 June 2011, over 589,000 computers had been installed. Further points: The Australian Government does not play a role in choosing brands/software – decisions made at state, sector or school level. Government and non-government education authorities have primary responsibility for decisions about design, purchase and use of educational hardware and software. The Government has developed The Better Practice Guide: ICT in Schools to assist schools in decision-making. The Australian Government does not support the charging of a fee, levy, co-contribution or bond to parents or carers. However, there are limited circumstances where a parental co-contribution may be justified in consultation with the parent community: maintenance of effort, high end devices/more expensive devices, extending the program.
  • The project: http://www.gilas.org/ See the IIEP evaluation here: www.unesco.org/ iiep /PDF/pubs/Philippines.pdf Here is a good overview of the status of connectivity as of June 2011: http://www.gilas.org/schools/schools-connectivity-per-region.pdf GILAS (Gearing Up Literacy Access for Students) PROJECT: The Republic of the Philippines 2006-2010 Only about 40 per cent of Philippines public schools are equipped with computer laboratories and less than 6 per cent of those were connected to the Internet (2004). Under auspices of the Ayala Foundation, the GILAS Steering Committee was formed consisting of Gov’t officials, private sector and academia. (Partners included IBM, Microsoft, Intel, SPI Technologies, social, development and donor organizations. GILAS has worked to provide internet for all public high school students and teachers, with a connection rate of 1000 schools per year between 2006 and 2010. GILAS has been delivering servers or routers, LAN cards and cables, providing free Internet usage (for the first year), as well as computers and basic computer training for teachers, curriculum and lesson planning assistance. Implemented in three stages – survey of schools, prioritization of schools, full implementation for schools. The project was implemented in three stages – survey of schools, prioritization of schools, full implementation for schools Fundraising has been a major component, with donations from citizens and companies channeled through the the Ayala Foundation AS of June 30 2011, 3,187 schools were connected to the internet through the project GILAS shows how PPPs can make a significant difference through combined efforts. Nonetheless, questions remain on how to make this project sustainable, ensure the selection of priority schools, maintain hardware and software, ensure good governance and co-ordination among stakeholders and make certain that the schools continue being funded sufficiently to use the Inernet connection beyond the project. A full evaluation is needed to identify what has worked well and what has not and what recommendations can be drawn.
  • Expected Results Partnerships for Education has six core outputs which will be delivered over a three-year period to January 2010: 1. Creation of a sustainable partnership framework: including governance structure; an ethical partnership framework; a monitoring and evaluation strategy; and Technical Advisory Group mechanisms 2. Identification and application of principles and models of successful MSPEs: publication of a meta-review of existing experiences and models of MSPEs; creation of an online database of MSPEs; dissemination of information on successful MSPEs and lessons learnt from their delivery 3. Awareness-raising and advocacy: convincing governments and the private sector of the value of MSPEs 4. Internal and external communications strategy: creation of a website, discussion forums and information media to disseminate core messages and promote PfE in global forums on education and partnerships. 5. Capacity development and implementation: review of existing global capacity in delivering MSPEs; development of training modalities to support capacity development in MSPE delivery; and facilitating implementation of MSPEs on the ground in support of countries with appropriate education strategies. 6. Contribution to greater global understanding of MSPEs: co-ordination with existing MSPE organisations; support for community of MSPE stakeholders; and mechanisms for recognizing good practices. Progress • Created three Technical Advisory Groups involving the private sector, civil society, governments, donors and international agencies. • Hosted three key MSPE workshops in Geneva and Paris. • Published a global review of multi-stakeholder partnerships in education. • Launched an interactive database for multi-stakeholder partnerships in education.
  • UNESCO-NOKIA Mobile Learning Project In 2010, UNESCO and Nokia signed a partnership to use mobile technologies to further the goals of Education For All. Under the initial three-year agreement, Nokia will contribute between five and ten million dollars which will be invested in three types of projects: - In a first phase, research will be conducted to identify possible applications of mobile technology to support Education For All. The results will be transmitted in the form of guidelines to education ministries and policy-makers in developing countries. - The second part of the agreement concerns teachers. It will promote the use of mobile technologies to support training and capacity-building, as well as the management of educational institutions, particularly in gathering data on staff, pupils and school facilities. - The third part of the agreement covers the development of new mobile applications that have educational potential. (2011) To facilitate the discussion, discovery and experimentation of creative ideas about how to use mobile technologies to transform educational processes and outcomes, the First UNESCO Symposium on Mobile Learning from 15 – 16 December 2011 is to be held.   Officials of Ministries of Education, international experts and practitioners in mobile learning, as well as representatives from major partners are invited to share innovative solutions of learning with, and through, mobile technologies to accelerate the achievement of EFA goals and improve the quality of education.   The main objectives of the Symposium are to: Share the main findings of the regional reviews of mobile learning in Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, and Latin America, with specific focuses on the policies that promote mobile learning as well as the effective ways in which mobile technologies can be utilised for teacher support and professional development. Share the latest developments of mobile technologies and their implications for education, and envision innovative ways in which mobile technologies can be used to enhance the quality of education and transform learning processes. UNESCO-HEWLETT Open Educational Resources (OER) Project Open Educational Resources are teaching, learning or research materials that are in the public domain or released with an intellectual property license that allows for free use, adaptation, and distribution. In 2001, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), in an unprecedented move, announced the release of nearly all its courses on the internet for free access. As the number of institutions offering free or open courseware increased, UNESCO organized the  1st Global OER Forum in 2002  where the term Open Educational Resources (OER) was adopted.  With the support of the  Hewlett Foundation , UNESCO created a global  OER Community wiki  in 2005 to share information and work collaboratively on issues surrounding the production and use of Open Educational Resources.  UNESCO is developing a new, innovative OER Platform which will offer selected UNESCO publications as OERs and allow communities of practice including teachers, learners, and education professionals to freely copy, adapt, and share their resources.  In partnership with key European institutions, UNESCO is a member of the (Open Educational Quality (OPAL)  Initiative to develop a Framework of OER Practices that improve quality and innovation in education.


  • 1. 3 December 2011 e-ASIA2011: Realizing Digital Nation
  • 2. “ Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages.” - Article 26, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948 “ Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that should be given to their children.” - Article 26, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948
  • 3.
    • PPPs in Education
    • PPPs in Education: Examples
    • PPPs in Education: Pros and Cons
    • PPPs and UNESCO
  • 4.
    • Public-private partnerships (PPPs): loosely defined as an arrangement between government and private sector entities, for the purpose of providing public infrastructure, community facilities and related services (Jeffary & Farah).
    • Key Features:
      • Formal arrangement, often based on explicit contract
      • Long term relationship between partners
      • Private financing and/or private delivery of public services
      • Ultimate responsibility remains with public sector (define scope; set priorities, targets, outputs)
      • Outcome-focused (focusing on service delivery and outputs / outcomes, not inputs)
      • Risks/rewards sharing
    • PPPs widely used, with a range of objectives – improving efficiency, quality and access.
    Defining PPPs
  • 5.
    • Types of PPPs in Education:
    • Non-state philanthropic initiatives
    • Privately-managed/operated schools
    • Gov’t purchasing education services from private schools
    • Gov’t funding students to attend private schools through school voucher
    • Non-state partners provide cash or in-kind support to complement gov’t funding
    • Capacity building services outsourced to private sector partners
    • (e.g. teacher training, curriculum enhancement)
    • PPPs in school infrastructure and facilities
    • (e.g. private sector partners design, construct and operate public school infrastructure under long-term contracts with the government)
    • Who do they involve?
    • Private sector schools; NGOs/charity groups; Community; Philanthropic associations
    PPPs in Education
  • 6. PPPs in Education: Stats in the Region Source: Calculated from UIS data for 2008. The country average is not weighted by population. Country Primary Lower Secondary Upper Secondary Bangladesh 40.3 97.7 91.9 Cambodia 1.2 2.8 4.9 China 4.2 7.2 11.5 Indonesia 16.1 37.2 51.4 Japan 1.1 7.1 30.8 Republic of Korea 1.3 18.3 46.5 Lao PDR 2.9 2.3 1.3 Malaysia 1.2 4.1 3.9 Nepal 10.3 13.0 16.6 Pakistan 31.9 31.8 30.7 Philippines 8.2 19.3 25.4 Thailand 18.0 12.4 24.3 Vietnam -- 1.2 29.7 Average 11.4 19.6 28.4
  • 7. PPPs in Education: Examples
    • Non-state partners’ philanthropic initiatives:
    • India : Low-fee private schools
      • significant growth over the past decade
      • to fulfill gaps in public education
    • Bangladesh : NGO-run schools
      • run by Bangladeshi Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC)
      • serving marginalized and needy populations
      • not recognized by public school system
    • The Philippines : Public subsidy of poor children to attend private schools
      • Gov’t purchases “places” on per-pupil funding basis (at or below public unit cost)
      • Gov’t certifies quality of private schools (faculty, facilities, curriculum, admin., etc.)
      • Double-shifting allows more efficient use of infrastructure
      • School hires/fires all staff
  • 8. Australian Government-initiated project - PPPs in Education: Examples
    • Aiming at providing greater access to ICT in Australian gov’t and non-gov’t schools;
    • Sourcing ICT equipment from the public and private sector and arranges distribution to schools;
    • Delivering over 235 000 pieces of surplus ICT equipment to schools around Australia worth many millions of dollars;
    • Equipment donated included printers, scanners, modems, photocopiers, network equipment, monitors, servers and personal computers;
    • Donors:
      • Australian Government organizations (including ABC, Australia Post, AusAID)
      • local level government, and
      • the private sector (including Jetstar, Microsoft, Reuters)
    Computer Technologies for Schools
  • 9.
    • GILAS (Gearing Up Literacy Access for Students) project (Philippines 2006-2010)
    • In 2004, only 40% of public schools equipped with computer labs and less than 6% of those connected to the Internet (2004).
    • The GILAS project
      • under auspices of the Ayala Foundation,
      • Steering Committee consisting of Gov’t officials, academia and private sector
      • Partners: IBM, Microsoft, Intel, SPI Technologies, social, development and donor organizations
      • Implemented in three stages – survey of schools, prioritization of schools, full implementation for schools
      • Fundraising, a major component, with donations from citizens and companies channeled through the Ayala Foundation.
    • As of 30 June 2011, 3,187 schools connected to the internet, success story on how PPPs can make difference through combined efforts. Nonetheless, questions remain on how to:
      • make this project sustainable
      • ensure the selection of priority schools
      • maintain hardware and software
      • ensure good governance and co-ordination among stakeholders and
      • make certain that the schools continue being funded sufficiently to use the Internet connection beyond the project.
    PPPs in Education: Examples
  • 10.
    • The Pros
    • PPPs can provide opportunity for greater access and quality of education, through:
    • Greater competition in the education market, e.g. competing for students, hence raising quality
    • Greater flexibility in arrangements/ contracts, e.g. more autonomy in hiring teachers and teacher contracts and organizing schools
    • Government choice of PPP through ‘open bidding’, e.g. setting contracts with measurable outcomes and conditions
    • ‘ Risk-sharing’ between government and private sector, in turn increasing efficiency in delivery of services and the channeling of new resources
    PPPs in Education: Pros and Cons Source: The Role and Impact of Public Private Partnerships in Education, The World Bank, 2009
    • The Cons
    • PPPs can also have potentially negative impacts including:
    • The privatization of education creating a lack of government control over education, e.g. competing public and private sector goals
    • Increasing socio-economic segregation, e.g. only certain students pursuing higher equality education
    • Deterioration of public schools, e.g. parental support and investment moves to private schools, leaving behind poorer students.
  • 11. PPPs and UNESCO
    • Partnerships for Education (PfE)
    • UNESCO and the World Economic Forum created in Jan 2007 Partnerships for Education (PfE), which work collaboratively with other global initiatives to harness and help deliver effective private sector contributions to the Education for All (EFA) goals.
    • PfE provides mechanisms and advice about how to craft and sustain Multi-Stakeholder Partnerships for Education (MSPEs).
    • Focus themes :
      • The shaping and dissemination of principles and models for effective private sector contributions to MSPEs
      • Advocacy and awareness-raising concerning the value of private sector contributions to MSPEs
      • Capacity building and implementation
    • Associate partners :
    • Centre for Commonwealth Education
    • Chartwell Education
    • Cisco
    • Digital Opportunity Trust
    • Global e-schools and community initiatives
    • Global Knowledge Partnership
    • Harvard University
    • Intel
    • International business leaders forum
    • International Institute for Education and Planning
    • Juárez Associates
    • Microsoft
    • Organization for economic and cooperation development
    • Oxfam
    • World Bank Institute
  • 12. PPPs and UNESCO
    • UNESCO-Nokia Mobile Learning Project (2011-13)
      • Three main themes : Literacy, in-service teacher training and policy promotion for mobile learning
      • Beneficiaries : Pakistan, Senegal, Mexico and Nigeria
      • Upcoming event : First UNESCO Mobile Learning Symposium, 12-15 December, Paris – International experts and country representatives will discuss policy guidelines for mobile learning
    • UNESO-Hewlett Open Educational Resources (OER) project
      • UNESCO founded the Global OER Forum in 2002
      • To provide universal access to high quality education
      • Upcoming event : In collaboration with Commonwealth of Learning (COL), UNESCO will organize the 2012 World Open Educational Resources (OER) Congress, together with 5 regional symposia from January to May.
  • 13. Thank you