A quick word about us... In the Knowledge Services team at the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) in the UK we’re working on something called the Mobilising Knowledge for Development (MK4D) programme. Underlying the MK4D programme is the belief that good quality research knowledge can make an ever greater contribution to poverty reduction and development. We aim to increase the sharing and effective use of research knowledge by people & organisations in development by helping to strengthen the global network of information intermediary organisations – that is the organisations whose role it is to communicate this research knowledge. If we can do this it should lead to more effective development policy-making, because a more diverse knowledge base should result in better decision-making.
Overview Right now Open Development is a very popular phrase, both in the field of ICTs and the field of aid and international development, but at the intersection between these worlds the phrase takes on a life of its own. We’re looking at a number of aspects of Open Development but today I’m focussing on....
...and my colleague Duncan Edwards is demonstrating our work on Open API at the session tomorrow on “technical e-governance architecture”.
The Wealth of human Knowledge is growing exponentially 1.5 million new academic articles written each year
The Open Access Movement Emerged in the early 1990s, argues for the importance of the access to knowledge for innovation and development. In two decades, the open access movement has started a dramatic change to the old landscape of access to academic knowledge. Respect to academic articles, the open access movement took two main forms: Gold Opens Access and Green Open Access. The Gold Open Access consists in making free of costs the academic articles published by Journals. It can be done from the publishing date of the journal or after a brief time, such as six months or one year. The Green Open Access consists of archiving the academic article in an open access repository. Once archived in those repositories the articles are free for reading and for downloading. Both forms of open access have been growing since the 1900s.
Exploring the accessibility of academic articles, Bjork et al (2008) have found that 8,1% of the articles were openly accessible through one year after their publication (Gold Open Access), and an additional of 11,3% were accessible in homepages e-print and repositories (Green Open Access). These figures combined means that, by end of the first decade of the twenty-first century, around 20% of academic articles were, in some way, accessible on the web. According to the Directory of Open Access Repositories (2011), the annual growth of repositories from 2007 to 2011 is of 25.5%. By June 7, 2011, there were already 1,970 open access repositories. According to the Directory of Open Access Journals (2011), the number of open access journals has been growing still faster, reaching an impressive annual pace of 32.5%, from 2004 to 2011, duplicating the number of open access journals in less than three years. Considering that the pace of growth for academic knowledge is around 3%, open access journals are growing ten times faster than the pace of academic knowledge in general. This difference means that the accessibility to academic literature is going through a process of qualitative change. If this trend goes on for five more years, a very likely scenario, open access journals will be the predominant form of academic literature.
Why has OA been so successful? Increase in researcher's citation rate Improved university's profile and international ranking Acceleration of innovation and discovery Maximize return on research investment Increase in national/regional competitiveness in a globalized world But mostly benefits northern countries The benefits cited above tended to emphasize a market-driven or economic approach to OA. That is the ultimate benefits of OA are higher institutional ranking which then draw more research funding and students, which are seen as income streams. The emphasis on &quot;competitiveness&quot; and ranking also detract from the real ethos of OA, which is the sharing and co-creation of knowledge. OA is not about exculsivity; it’s about the inclusion of research and voices from the South; it's about increasing diversity, not least because diversity is a better approach to inform decision making. At IDS KS we’ve commissioned a paper to look at OA & development, including a number of country case studies. BUT is still a work-in-progress.
Author disincentive can be considerations of promotion and tenure, where many researchers report that their main concern is to publish in the highest impact journal possible, and Open Access values come second. Southern researchers complain that they can’t get published in the most respected & credible northern journals – only in less respected, often social science, OA journals which have less impact & credibility & smaller readerships OA dominated by northern scientists & librarians? Where are the social scientists, particularly from developing countries? Other problems: Publishing in an Open Access journal is often a low priority for some Indian researchers for the reason that many (not all) have author-pays or institution-pays business models. In the case of BioMed Central, this sum can be in the thousands of dollars. Despite the development of the open access movement and the emergence of academic blogs, practitioners and scholars from the south still have important disadvantages in accessing and using knowledge in this new century. Investigating this issue, Jinha (2010a) found that “These price and technology barriers are felt especially where access to knowledge is most needed, in parts of the world where the burden of social, economic and ecological problems are felt the most” (pp. 8-9). Researchers who work in the global South do not share the privileges of the northern scholars such as language domain, technology or connectivity, cognitive skills, and opportunity to participating of local clusters of intellectual collaborators.
Repositories require first the awareness and desire of an institution or individual to implement, and then also the hardware, electricity and staff to do so. In India there are 279 University-level institutions and more than 13,150 affiliated colleges. While many of the university level institutions have the resources required to establish OA repositories, all of them face difficulty in affording journal subscription fees. Madhan Muthu has reported that the research contribution of the regional colleges is very small, and they could benefit significantly from access to external research. Publishing in an Open Access journal is often a low priority for some Indian researchers for the reason that many (not all) have author-pays or institution-pays business models. In the case of BioMed Central, this sum can be in the thousands of dollars.
The OA movement should link itself more strongly with concerns of education and the public good. India now has a constitutional right to education, and Open Access can be seen as an important means to achieving such a goal. The Open Access movement should aim to work with Right to Education groups and other organizations to promote Open Access as part of their mission. Good practice: The INDEST (Indian National Digital Library in Engineering Sciences and Technology) Consortium was established in 2003 by The Ministry of Human Resources. The Ministry provides funds for access to over 6500 journals to 483 educational institutions. Benefits – eg: National Institute of Technology, Rourkela (NITR) which in 2003 had access to less than 50 academic journals and produced less than 30 academic papers a year. Once they joined INDEST they gained access to >1500 online journals and production of academic papers rose to >180. While INDEST has been a great improvement for tertiary content access, it still requires the consortia or funding bodies to pay subscription fees, and excludes smaller governmental colleges not part of the consortia. Open Access would still provide benefits to those inside and outside these initiatives. Indian journal publishers must innovate with funding models for Open Access journals so that it is less expensive for Indian authors and institutions to pay for Open Access publication. Advertisements are one possibility. In India Open Access has a special opportunity to deliver education due to the large number of potential students compared to the number of university places to serve them. The Gross Enrolment Ratio for tertiary education stands at 11 percent, compared to 23 percent for the global average and more than 55 percent in developed countries. So comparatively fewer young people have access to tertiary education and scholarly literature in India than in other countries. But with genuine online Open Access people aren’t prevented from accessing educational material because of their income, location, physical abilities, learning preferences, or working hours.
Publically funded research should be made publically available: Funding agencies (such as the Department of Science and Technology, the Department of Biotechnology, and the Department of Atomic Energy) should mandate open access to all research papers resulting from projects funded by them. Expand training for institutions on the benefits of Open Access and the technical aspects of providing it. Researchers need to believe in the benefit to themselves of self-archiving & how OA can increase visibility, impact, and career prospects. The OA movement in India should expand to include social sciences and humanities. This would mean a strong movement outside the natural sciences and a broader support for Open Access.
South Africa The vision underlying the ambition for impact from research is that of a commercially driven global economy underpinned by knowledge production in a proprietary IP regime. Patents are valued as the indicator of success in this paradigm and the university’s contribution is defined in terms of industry collaboration The southern African research system has particular reasons to turn to the use of Open Access for effective research impact. From a regional perspective, a study commissioned by SARUA revealed that the current framework for academic publishing failed to value publications of local relevance and excluded a wide range of non-formal publications that could be of value in regional collaboration and research development. In South Africa itself, deficits in the educational system and the multilingual student bodies in higher education institutions require particular attention to be paid to appropriate language levels and relevant local knowledge in the provision of learning resources (refs). This is where access to a wide range of research outputs could provide the basis for the development of appropriate and more affordable learning resources based upon locally relevant research. This applies also to training materials and community resources (on the model of the Child Health Care series).
South Africa The most urgent need is for universities to take a more integrated approach to the use of digital technologies and communication strategies for research, teaching and learning and engagement with the broader community. This would also involve acknowledgement that communication is a core responsibility of the universities, rather than the ‘free rider’ syndrome that currently prevails. While progress has been made in South Africa in the application of OA to formal publications, there needs to be, alongside this perspective, a re-evaluation and review of the wide range of communication and publication efforts that are taking place. This would include attention paid to the potential for the ‘translation’ of research for local impact. This would have the added benefit of making visible for government the contribution that the universities are making to the public good, something that is not necessarily apparent in the publication of journal articles. This could be supported by a more integrated national policy environment, which recognises the need for a balanced approach to proprietary and open approaches to dealing with development challenges. Advocacy for the value of OA is urgently needed, together with the development of toolkits and policy briefs that could assist in policy development. This would need to include a review and revaluation of the approach to what is commonly dismissed as ‘grey’ publication. It could also include an engagement with the changes that are taking place in scholarly communications and the work that is being done in developing alternative metrics for research evaluation. In other words: Open Access needs to go beyond university campuses and academic journals!
Open Access debates currently dominated by northern, scientific academics & information specialists Southern voices are often marginalised
Aim to bring these two groups together E-debates on Open Access, Spring 2012, hosted on our own networking platform, Eldis Communities and moderated by southern Open Access advocates. Please let me know if you’re interested in participating!
Open dev open access e asia ppt a-scott, ids
Alistair Scott IDS Knowledge Services team November 2011 Open Development................ .....................Open Access........ ........Open Sesame? www.e-asia.org
Mobilising Knowledge for Development (MK4D): <ul><li>strengthening the knowledge intermediary sector </li></ul><ul><li>helping intermediaries to share research knowledge more effectively </li></ul><ul><li>promoting evidence-based development policy-making </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More effective platforms for sharing development research knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
Exponential growth of Knowledge <ul><li>Barriers and costs to access knowledge are falling, but complexity + sophistication are growing </li></ul>3% to 5% annual increase in number of new academic articles published *The knowledge commons Sebastiao Ferreira (MIT) DSA Sept 2011 50 million academic articles published since 1655!
Open Access <ul><li>Open Access Movement – aims to reduce barriers to access </li></ul><ul><li>“ Traditional” Open Access is about access to academic articles: </li></ul><ul><li>Gold Open Access: making journal articles free </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. PLoS (Public Library of Science) Medicine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Green Open Access: archiving articles in Open Access Repositories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Okayama University Digital Information Repository </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both forms of OA have been growing since the 1990s. </li></ul>
Open Access: an Open Revolution? <ul><li>By 2010 ~ 20% academic articles accessible online (Bjork et al 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>OA journals growing by 33% p.a. – 10 x faster than academic knowledge generally (Directory of Open Access Journals 2011) </li></ul><ul><li>At this pace, by 2016, OA journals will be the principal form of academic literature ( Ferreira 2011) </li></ul><ul><li>So why is Open Access growing so quickly? </li></ul>
Why the growth in Open Access? <ul><li>Increase in researcher's citation rate </li></ul><ul><li>Improved university's profile and international ranking </li></ul><ul><li>Acceleration of innovation and discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in national/regional competitiveness in a globalized world </li></ul><ul><li>But this mostly benefits northern countries. </li></ul>
Open Access – working for Development? <ul><li>Open Access journals not always seen as the most credible or respected </li></ul><ul><li>Southern researchers feel “ghetto-ised” in less respected Open Access journals </li></ul><ul><li>Open Access debates dominated by northern scientists & librarians </li></ul>
<ul><li>Institutional Repositories can be very expensive: “Almost no social science research institutions in India have OA repositories.” </li></ul><ul><li>India’s 300 University-level institutions and 13,000 colleges all struggle to afford journal subscription fees </li></ul>OA Challenges in India (Subbiah Arunachalam, Delhi)
India: a way forward? (Subbiah Arunachalam, Delhi) <ul><li>OA Movement should link with India’s new Right to Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>INDEST Consortium funds 480 institutions to access > 6500 journals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great initiative but still requires funders to pay subscription fees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage Indian publishers to develop innovative funding models for OA journals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OA needs to go further in helping to deliver education </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Publically funded research should be made publically available </li></ul><ul><li>Expand training on the benefits of Open Access </li></ul><ul><li>Include social sciences and humanities in the Indian Open Access Movement </li></ul>India: a way forward? (Subbiah Arunchalam, Delhi)
OA Challenges in South Africa (Eve Gray, Cape Town) <ul><li>Research impact equates to commercial advantage: “patents are valued as the indicator of success…and the university’s contribution is defined in terms of industry collaboration” </li></ul><ul><li>Academic publishing fails to value locally relevant and non-formal publications that could be of value in regional collaboration and research development. </li></ul>
South Africa: a way forward? (Eve Gray, Cape Town) <ul><li>Universities must engage with the wider community (inc better use of ICTs) </li></ul><ul><li>Research must be “translated” to have local impact </li></ul><ul><li>Revaluate “Grey” literature </li></ul><ul><li>Open Access needs to go beyond university campuses and academic journals! </li></ul>