Ke goa 2013 role of research-based education in strengthening knowledge society - prof s satyanarayana, vice chancellor, osmania...

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KE Goa 2013 - Role of Research-based Education in Strengthening Knowledge Society - Prof S Satyanarayana, Vice Chancellor, Osmania...

KE Goa 2013 - Role of Research-based Education in Strengthening Knowledge Society - Prof S Satyanarayana, Vice Chancellor, Osmania...

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  • 1. THE ROLE OF RESEARCH-BASED EDUCATION IN STRENGTHENING KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY By Prof. S. Satyanarayana Vice-Chancellor, Osmania University
  • 2. PRELUDE • Research and Innovation fuels the progress of society through knowledge economy. • Knowledge generated by research innovation is the basis of sustainable social development. • While Research in Industry would be applied in nature, Research in Universities and other Educational Institutions traditionally focuses on pure research. • Throughout the world, there is a tendency to encourage research based education in strengthening knowledge society. This paper exclusively focuses on this significant issue.
  • 3. • That the research based education alone can help us in the strengthening of knowledge society is beyond doubt. • India’s prestigious interplanetary mission to Mars precisely proves this point. This was the first crucial but difficult step in ISRO’s Mars Orbiter Mission. • However, the XL version of the PSLV achieved it in a great way. There is an argument that spending of Rs.460 crores on the Mars Orbiter project is a waste of money. But it is not correct. • The country’s 50 year space programme has always been society-centric and science-centric. India has so far built satellites for communication, remote sensing, forecasting weather and navigation.
  • 4. • All these are of immense benefit to decisionmakers and people at the ground level. Every rupee spent on the space programme is of “direct benefit to people.” • Thousands of lives were saved recently when INSATs beamed pictures of the approaching Phailin cyclone and Indian Meteorological department used them to warn people and they were evacuated to safer places. • The most important of such benefits could well be to fire the imagination of young minds in this country and getting them to dream about possibilities of tomorrow. The research based education, therefore, plays a pivotal role in strengthening the knowledge society.
  • 5. • No society, region or nation prospers without good research. Academic institutions should think strategically and start research and innovation centres on their campus and become deserving to provide world class education in cutting edge technology to youngsters. • Higher Education with research and innovation alone can move a nation forward. Thomas Jefferson, the first US President said that if America wanted to be a leader in the world it must first succeed to lead in higher education. • So also the Bush Commission report in 1945 places on record that “Research should be the main product of Universities and education as bye-product.”
  • 6. • Metaphorically speaking, research and education are like two ends of a bow. The arrow does not move forward unless the two ends of the bow are tightly tied together by a string. • Neither end has a force without the support of other. And institutions binds two ends together namely education and research to provide quality education. • The moral and ethical issues too form an integral part of dedicated research.
  • 7. • Research is financially very much rewarding than normally imagined. As we all know, Faraday demonstrated his discovery of Electromagnetic Induction on which the dynamo depends. • The then Prime Minister of UK asked about the uses of the discovery and Faraday replied that the use is as great and significant as a new born baby. • Later Margaret Thatcher admitted that Faraday’s invention had generated more wealth than the entire capital represented by London Stock Exchange.
  • 8. • In advanced countries, educational institutions concentrate more on research. The Government and industry in those countries work together to forecast the manpower needs and allot funds to create the right kind of graduates. • When US President John F. Kennedy announced that America would send men to the moon and bring back safely in the next 10 years, immediately American Government allocated funds to NASA and also selected Universities and due to this series of scientific advancement that led to the space voyage to the moon in 1969. • Even now we find “Samanvaya”, a wholesome integration and harmony, between the educational research and its role in creating knowledge society.
  • 9. • That is why, GPS was invented in Cambridge University; birth of Genetic Engineering took place in Stanford University; discovery of DNA was done in Cambridge; Apple Computer Company was born in MIT, Boston; Microsoft was born in Harvard. Stanford University has played a key role in promoting IT cluster. • Research Foundations on the lines of Universities in USA like Pennsylvania, IOWA, Washington, Florida and Georgia Universities have to be established. • University Research Foundation is an autonomous, nonprofit educational corporation that administers externally funded contracts, donations, endowments and grants for and on behalf of the University.
  • 10. • Its establishment helps in attracting the funds from various trusts, donations from alumni of the University and other governmental organizations. • It will facilitate research, education, training, business and public service at an accelerated level to tap the experienced and young talent of innovative minds in creating knowledge society. • The proposed Research foundation would have Technology Incubatory Division, Intellectual Property Assistance & Patent Facilitation Services and would monitor the Research Fund Allocations to Innovation Projects, Research Fellowships, Equipment Maintenance, Collaborations, Research Business Promotion and IPR and Patent facilitation.
  • 11. • Further it is possible to carry out high-end applied research and synergizes the research capabilities and professional skills of students, faculty, scientists and industrial work force. • Promotion of innovation research clusters intended for quality research and scholarly works would forge links and stimulate cooperation between companies, research, higher education institutions and ultimately it leads to the development of MSMEs, which will drive economic growth and job creation. • The sum total of all this is creation and strengthening of Knowledge Society.
  • 12. • The measurable outcome of this research activity mainly benefits in creating knowledge society. • Cutting edge research facilities and consultancy options for faculty, continuing education programs with new processes and products for industry, sponsored research and shared IP gains for Institute and finally emergence of entrepreneurship to commercialize research and attracting the industry to university campus providing impetus to knowledge society.
  • 13. • This paper covers : – Experiences of Other countries in respect of Technology transfer from Educational Institutions – Overview of Indian Policy Approaches – Observations of European Commission in respect of University and Industry – Experiences of IIT Bombay – Establishment of Research Foundation at Universities – Proposed working of Research Foundation – Conclusion
  • 14. • Experiences of Other Countries – an Overview: • In the developed and other countries, a range of initiatives have been set up for an effective Technology transfer and commercialization of scientific research results. US Government has issued many policy directives to improve technology transfer from academic institutions. • Primary among them being : – Bayh-Dole Act (Patent and Trademark Amendments, 1980) – National Cooperative Research Act 1984 and – Federal Technology Transfer (TT) Act 1996
  • 15. • Apart from such regulatory support, key factors identified for successful TT at US universities are: – Basic environment – excellent technical manpower and IP culture, fair incentive system for inventors and research and development (R&D) agencies, – Organization and process – trained TT personnel and active patent policy and simplified processes and – Ambient environment – academic- industrial network, vivid venture atmosphere, technology advisory services.
  • 16. • The Bayh—Dole Act transferred the rights of IP generated under government grants from the funding agencies to the universities, thus providing the latter with increased opportunities to independently exploit the research results, commercially. • USA created an institutional set up for the university – industry (UI) interaction by establishing University- Industry Cooperative Research Centres to boost collaborative research between academic institutions and industry leading the path for academic knowledge transfer.
  • 17. • European countries too formed a large number of UI setups such as TT offices, science parks, and university based incubators towards facilitating transfer of academic knowledge to the industry and society (Guena A Muscio A 2008). • Studies have shown that proactive initiatives have been taken by the government authorities in UK, France, Japan, Germany and USA towards facilitating TT and diffusion from academic institutions ( Liu H and Jiang Y 2001 and Moore JH 1988 quoted in Arumugam 2012).
  • 18. • On the Asian front, the Governments of Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan have initiated creation of infrastructure for TT. Technology park is one such initiative developed by linked universities, government institutions and companies both small and large (Gwynne P 1993). • A study found that TT offices helped universities expand their patenting and licensing activities (Thursby and Thursby 2002). • Liu and Jiang identified three important factors that affect technology development and transfer in China: economic system determined by government policies; autonomy and benefits to researchers, and industry networks (Liu H and Jiang Y 2001).
  • 19. • As a matter of fact, Indian Professors have contributed immensely to USA Universities. Sadly, they are not able to contribute to Indian society as systems and procedures are obstructing their performance. • The colleges abroad are innovative in character whereas ours is conservative. They teach sunrise technologies, we teach sunset; they produce leaders, we produce followers; they lead a change, we follow change; they are engines of growth, we remain bogies. Invention when exploited commercially is known as innovation. • The competency of people is measured today in terms of their ability to innovate. Innovation and creativity is today’s Gurumantra. Japan produces 28 PhDs per million, USA 30 and India only 0.45.
  • 20. • MIT, Boston is a private research University which obtains 100 patents every year. It gives birth to 30-40 new technology firms. Around 4000 companies owe their origin to MIT. 20% of the yearly budget of the institute is met out of sale of patents. • The institute has created employment of high income for millions. All Universities in USA taken together obtain 1000 per year and Indian Universities earn less than 100 patents per year.
  • 21. • European Commission Report on Benefits of Research foundation in European Institutions : • Examination of successful research collaborations in Europe and the USA show that sustainable ‘win-win’ arrangements can be obtained which produce good science, publish results without unreasonable delay, contribute to the general education and training of new graduates and generate valuable intellectual property that supports innovation by industrial partners. • When managed in a professional and balanced way, knowledge transfer can be beneficial both for the research institutions concerned and society in general. Benefits to Research Institutions and to the society can be summed up as follows:
  • 22. • Benefits to research institutions • Resulting from knowledge transfer to Industry are not – and should not be expected to be primarily financial, even though any revenues resulting from knowledge transfer can help fund additional R&D activities, in addition to the knowledge transfer activities themselves. Instead, the main benefits are indirect and should be considered in the long term.
  • 23. • They include: – The develop mutual trust between research institution and Industry – The enhancement of research activities in research institutions – Gaining status and prestige resulting from successful partnerships – Involvement of Industry based lecturers, enrichment of teaching contents – Identification of Potential new clients or partners for further research – Attracting, retaining and motivating good scientists interested in entrepreneurial aspects – Contributing to public authorities and recognizing the socio-economic relevance of publicly funded research helps to increased funding thereof
  • 24. • These benefits will have further positive consequences, such as facilitating exchanges of staff between the research institution and the industry, or the hiring of new graduates from the research institution by industry. • Benefits to the Society: • The successful implementation of policies to deal with inventions and collaboration with industry can lead to number of benefits for society at large and in particular, local economy. • These benefits include new jobs, new products on the market and better education. Industries support several activities through corporate social responsibility (CSR).
  • 25. • Overview of Indian Policy Approaches: • Responding to the globalized knowledge economy, Indian policy makers have started several measures to create an innovation driven economy. • This includes augmenting scientific institutions towards building intellectual capital and encouraging commercialization of its scientific research where feasible in order to create long lasting traditional values such as jobs and wealth and become knowledge superpower (Arumugham V and Jain K 2010). • The Government of has formulated three science policies since 1947: Scientific Policy Resolution in 1958, The Technology Policy Statement in 1983 and the Science and Technology Policy in 2003 to strengthen S&T in the country (dst.gov 2011). • The summary of these three policies is presented in Table I.
  • 26. Table I – Main focus of science policies in India (Source: Arumugham & Jain – Technology Transfer – Journal of IPR Vol 17, March 2012) Year Policy 1958 Scientific Policy Resolution 1983 2003 Objectives Establishment of Higher Technical academic institutes with focus on Technical human resources Technology Policy Emphasize on R&D towards Import Statement Substitution Science Create a national innovation Technology Policy system, support Setting Technology Transfer offices in Universities Encourage investment by Industry in Education and R&D
  • 27. • In 2009, the Indian Government formally permitted opening up technology incubation centres as a new means of Technology Transfers. • Leading academic and research institutions in India such as IITs, IIS and the CSIR laboratories have taken the lead and established incubation centres (DST Report 2009). • It should be extended to Universities as well. • In India as on 2009, 15 Science and Technology entrepreneur parks exist, nurturing 788 entities • Thus employment to 5,000 aspirants with an annual turnover of Rs. 130 crores has become possible
  • 28. Utilizing Policy Initiatives: Technology Transfer from IIT Mumbai • The Technology transfer process in IIT Mumbai has evolved over a long period. • This system at IIT Mumbai identified fundamental pre-requisites for a successful academic TT system namely – Basic environment – Organization and process and – Ambient environment • IIT Mumbai successfully implemented this strategy. • A comparative picture is given about the Technology Transfer Output during 2000-01 to 2010-11 as a result of establishment of TT system in Table - II.
  • 29. Table-II : TT Output during 2000-01 to 2010-11 Item Description 2000-01 2001-01 to 2004-05 2005-06 2005-06 to 2009-2010 2010-11 Number of IP (patents/designs) Filed in India and broad 11 66 16 125 88 Number of patent/design/trademarks Granted 3 9 7 56 18 Number of IP commercialized Nil 15 4 43 33 Licence money generated (Rs Lakhs) Nil 40.3 13.8 90.0 65.32 Consultancy receipts from Industry (in Rs. Lakhs) 573 3920 1200 7375 1955 Revenue intensity index (licence Money + consultancy receipts (in Rs Lakhs)/No of faculty) 1.5 1.98 3.0 3.34 4.1 Source: Arumugham & Jain – TT – A case study of IIT Mumbai – JIPR Vol 17, March 2012
  • 30. • Having examined the experience of IIT Mumbai, one need to think, how it can be replicated in traditional Universities where the financial support would be far lesser than that of IITs and input of students is totally different. • New Company law stipulates that the Companies should spend at least 2 percent of their profits on Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR). • Dynamic Universities can take leverage of this stipulation in building industry university network and obtain funds from them for joint research works.
  • 31. Establishment of Research Foundation at Traditional Universities – a Proposal: • The proposed University Research Foundation (URF) will be an autonomous, non-profit educational corporation that administers – – – – externally funded contracts donations Endowments grants • URF facilitates research, education, training, business and public service to unravel the latent talent of innovative minds in the university environment through institute-industry interaction.
  • 32. • Aims of University Research Foundation (URF) – To attract the funds from various trusts, donations from alumni of the University and other governmental organizations – facilitate research, education, training, business and public service at an accelerated level – tap the experienced and young talent of innovative minds in the University environment through institute-industry interaction – facilitates establishment of Technology Incubatory Division, Intellectual Property Assistance & Patent Facilitation Services and would monitor the Research Fund Allocations to Innovation Projects, Research Fellowships, Equipment Maintenance, Collaborations, Research Business Promotion • No society, region or nation prospers without quality research. Academic institutions should think strategically and start research and innovation centres on their campus • Metaphorically speaking, research and education are like two ends of a bow.
  • 33. • Why Research Foundation? • To have strong commitment to hire research oriented faculty • To enhance the scientific fervour among faculty and students • To develop an aptitude to be in fore-front of technology • To elicit industry support for research assistantship • To administer and execute contracts, agreements and awards
  • 34. Objectives of Research Foundation • • • • • • • • To provide consultancy services To take up contract research for industry To invite industrial scientists to work in laboratory To leverage the partnership between institute and industry To send graduate students to work and train in industry To create in house facilities for small entrepreneurs to grow To promote creativity in innovative product development To facilitate promotion of emerging technologies and launching of new companies in collaboration with entrepreneurs • To transform the skills and competency into a resource making enterprise
  • 35. • Research Foundation is expected to have an Incubator Division with the following objectives – To generate additional revenue stream and new sources of funds through contract research and patent royalties – To develop cluster of small business enterprise companies – To provide space to industry for R & D activities and start-up facility on lease – To enhance training and employment opportunities – To cultivate applied research in promoting industrial innovation and new technologies
  • 36. Conclusion • The proposed Research foundation would have : – Technology Incubatory Division – Intellectual Property Assistance & Patent Facilitation Services – Monitor the Research Fund Allocations to • Innovation Projects • Research Fellowships • Equipment Maintenance • Collaborations • Research Business Promotion and IPR and • Patent facilitation • This model is expected to work on the lines of Technology Transfer process system established in IIT Mumbai.
  • 37. • Conclusion: • The proposed Research foundation would have Technology Incubatory Division, Intellectual Property Assistance & Patent Facilitation Services and would monitor the Research Fund Allocations to Innovation Projects, Research Fellowships, Equipment Maintenance, Collaborations, Research Business Promotion and IPR and Patent facilitation. This model is expected to work on the lines of Technology Transfer process system established in IIT Mumbai. • Prof. Terman of Stanford University said “Industry to be globally competitive needs access to first class research in Universities.” So also, first class research in Universities needs access to industry for its commercial exploitation.
  • 38. • This led to the creation of technopreneurs in Silicon Valley. Germany has also maintained its leadership by research, patenting and technology transfer. • The model is being used all over the world. Therefore, India to be globally competitive must have to integrate research with education and industry. • It could be fundamental research as the search for God’s particle or applied research, as in development of fuel efficient vehicles or development of alternate source of energy.
  • 39. • If colleges and Universities do not create centres of research and innovation then there is no hope for growth. • Quality of education can be transformed to world class standard only by introducing research in colleges. Colleges will then become “Light House” for industry. Private industry should also have to come forward and join hands with academics. • The task is too big for Government alone. Research is not a futile exercise. It is high time, academic institutions realised the fact that Research earns more money, more endowments, name and fame.
  • 40. • The bottom line is, if India does not create research based Universities and Colleges, we will have only mediocre graduates far too low by international standards to run its national and international affairs. • Against this discussion and background, it is obvious that Research based education is the key to strengthening of India’s Knowledge Society. Thank you.