Essentiality of Research in
Enhancing the Quality of Higher
Education in India
Prof. W. N. Gade
Vice Chancellor

Universit...
Education is the basis of National
Development – economical, social,
political, industrial, cultural, all types
It is a ...
 We have :
 Over 600 Universities
 About 35,000 colleges
 About 13 million students
 But still our GER is only about ...
Definition of Research
Research and experimental development
comprise creative work undertaken on a
systematic basis in or...
What is our Past?
TECHNOLOGICAL/SCIENTIFIC ACHIEVEMENTS of INDIA
- The technique of algorithm used in computer science today.
- The science ...
Sanskrit is the mother of all the European languages.
Sanskrit is the most suitable language for computer
software reporte...
GREAT ANCIENT INDIANS
ARYABHATTA (476 CE)
MASTER ASTRONOMER AND MATHEMATICIAN
 Aryabhatta was the first to
proclaim that the earth is
round, it...
BHASKARACHARYA II (1114-1183 CE)
GENIUS IN ALGEBRA

Born in the obscure village of
Vijjadit (Jalgaon) in Maharastra,
Bhask...
NAGARJUNA (100 CE)
WIZARD OF CHEMICAL SCIENCE

His dedicated research for twelve years
produced maiden discoveries and
inv...
ACHARYA BHARADWAJA (800 BCE)
PIONEER OF AVIATION TECHNOLOGY

He authored the "Yantra Sarvasva" which
includes astonishing ...
ACHARYA PATANJALI (200 BCE)
FATHER OF YOGA

The Science of Yoga is one of several
unique contributions of India to the
wor...
Indian scientists have played a stellar role in the
development of India. In the short span of its postindependence histor...
Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman

 C.V. Raman is one of the most renowned scientists produced by India.
 In 1930, Sir C....
Dr. Homi Jehnagir Bhabha

 Homi Jehnagir Bhabha, was a famous Indian atomic scientist.
 In Independent India, Homi Jehna...
Dr. Satyendra Nath Bose

 Satyendra Nath Bose was an outstanding Indian physicist. He is known
for his work in Quantum Ph...
Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya

 Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya was an eminent engineer and
statesman and played a key role...
Dr. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
 Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar was one of
the greatest scientists of the 20th century.
 He d...
Dr. Srinivasa Ramanujan
 Srinivasa Ramanujan was a mathematician
par excellence.
He is widely believed to be the greates...
Dr. G. N. Ramachandran

 Gopalasamudram Narayana Iyer Ramachandran, popularly referred to as
G. N. Ramachandran is one of...
Dr. Vikram Sarabhai
 Vikram Sarabhai was one of the greatest scientists of India.
 He is considered as the Father of the...
This was mostly done in Universities
Why not now?
Reasons for declining research quality in Universities
Large number of Affiliated colleges
Large number of students
Tea...
Current Status of Research in India
R & D spending :
 Less than 1% of GDP (increased from 16,200 crores in
2001 to 37,800...
The changing trends in number and global share of scientific
publications from SCI data base

It is evident from trends pr...
Comparisons of Indian performance with respect to SCI
publications with respect to some developed countries
(Australia, Fr...
Comparison of Citation impacts of Indian
publications with some developed economies
Good News
India has improved its position in the world's definitive university rankings
with five Indian varsities enterin...
Importance of Research In Enhancing The Teaching Quality
Teaching can be research led :
Curriculum is structured around ...
Teaching can be research based in the sense that curriculum is designed
around inquiry based activities, rather than acqu...
Need for a Scientific Thinking
 Scientific thinking is self – directed, self – disciplined, self monitored and
self – cor...
Albert Einstein said: We owe a lot to the Indians, who taught us
how to count, without which no worthwhile scientific disc...
A long way to go…

Strengthening science education at all levels is an
enabling requirement, especially for
developing nat...
Steps to Improve the Research Output
Restore the glory of teacher & teaching profession
Introduce choice based credit sy...
Positive initiatives of Govt of India
UPE Programme of UGC Grant Commission
PURSE Programme of DST
INSPIRE Programme of...
Practices in Pune University
 Formulated Research Policy
 Formulated policy on plagiarism
 QIP program for colleges and...
THANKS
KE Goa 2013 - Role of Research-based Education in Strengthening Knowledge Society - Dr W N Gade, Vice Chancellor, Pune Uni...
KE Goa 2013 - Role of Research-based Education in Strengthening Knowledge Society - Dr W N Gade, Vice Chancellor, Pune Uni...
KE Goa 2013 - Role of Research-based Education in Strengthening Knowledge Society - Dr W N Gade, Vice Chancellor, Pune Uni...
KE Goa 2013 - Role of Research-based Education in Strengthening Knowledge Society - Dr W N Gade, Vice Chancellor, Pune Uni...
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KE Goa 2013 - Role of Research-based Education in Strengthening Knowledge Society - Dr W N Gade, Vice Chancellor, Pune University...

  1. 1. Essentiality of Research in Enhancing the Quality of Higher Education in India Prof. W. N. Gade Vice Chancellor University of pune Pune- 411007 Unipune.ac.in
  2. 2. Education is the basis of National Development – economical, social, political, industrial, cultural, all types It is a really unfortunate that the quality of education and particularly higher education is quite poor in our country
  3. 3.  We have :  Over 600 Universities  About 35,000 colleges  About 13 million students  But still our GER is only about 18%  Higher education is becoming a major driver of economic competitiveness in an increasingly knowledge driven global economy  But the employability potential of our graduates and post graduates is very poor
  4. 4. Definition of Research Research and experimental development comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including the knowledge of man, culture and society, and use this stock of knowledge to devise new applications
  5. 5. What is our Past?
  6. 6. TECHNOLOGICAL/SCIENTIFIC ACHIEVEMENTS of INDIA - The technique of algorithm used in computer science today. - The science of algebra. (Indian's invented, Arabs took it when they invaded, and gave it to the then "primitive" Europeans) - The concept of zero - on which ultimately rests the binary code which has given us all software including the WWW - The technique of manufacturing crystal (sugar)cane sugar (the word sugar is derived from the Sanskrit term "Sharkara"). - The making of camphor (MODERN chemists know how important this chemical is). - The making of tin (the technical English word for tin is Cassiterite which is said to have been derived from the Sanskrit term "Kasthira"). -Kung Fu is a derivation of Yoga---taught to the Chinese by an Indian Bhuddist Monk known as Bodidharma (ask any Kung Fu Grand Master, or check the internet for yourself). -The earliest recorded use of copperware in India has been around 3000 B.C. the findings at Mohen-jo-daro and Harappa, bear this out The earliest documented observation of smelting of metals in India is by Greek Historians in the 4th Century B.C.
  7. 7. Sanskrit is the mother of all the European languages. Sanskrit is the most suitable language for computer software reported in Forbes magazine, July 1987. The World's first university was established in Takshila in 700BC. more than 10,500 students from all over the world studied more than 60 subjects. The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century BC was one of the greatest achievements of ancient India in the field of education. Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to humans. Charaka, the father of medicine consolidated Ayurveda 2500 years ago. Today Ayurveda is fast regaining its rightful place in our civilization.
  8. 8. GREAT ANCIENT INDIANS
  9. 9. ARYABHATTA (476 CE) MASTER ASTRONOMER AND MATHEMATICIAN  Aryabhatta was the first to proclaim that the earth is round, it rotates on its axis, orbits the sun and is suspended in space - 1000 years before Copernicus published his heliocentric theory.  He is also acknowledged for calculating p (Pi) to four decimal places: 3.1416  His most spectacular contribution was the concept of zero without which modern computer technology would have been non-existent.
  10. 10. BHASKARACHARYA II (1114-1183 CE) GENIUS IN ALGEBRA Born in the obscure village of Vijjadit (Jalgaon) in Maharastra, Bhaskaracharya's work in Algebra, Arithmetic and Geometry catapulted him to fame and immortality.
  11. 11. NAGARJUNA (100 CE) WIZARD OF CHEMICAL SCIENCE His dedicated research for twelve years produced maiden discoveries and inventions in the faculties of chemistry and metallurgy.
  12. 12. ACHARYA BHARADWAJA (800 BCE) PIONEER OF AVIATION TECHNOLOGY He authored the "Yantra Sarvasva" which includes astonishing and outstanding discoveries in aviation science, space science and flying machines.
  13. 13. ACHARYA PATANJALI (200 BCE) FATHER OF YOGA The Science of Yoga is one of several unique contributions of India to the world. It seeks to discover and realize the ultimate Reality through yogic practices
  14. 14. Indian scientists have played a stellar role in the development of India. In the short span of its postindependence history India has achieved several great scientific achievements. Indian scientists have proved their mettle in the face of international sanctions and have made India one of the scientific powerhouses of the world.
  15. 15. Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman  C.V. Raman is one of the most renowned scientists produced by India.  In 1930, Sir C.V. Raman was awarded with Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on scattering of light.  The discovery was later christened as "Raman Effect". He retired from the Indian Institute of Science in 1948 and a year later he established the Raman Research Institute in Bangalore.
  16. 16. Dr. Homi Jehnagir Bhabha  Homi Jehnagir Bhabha, was a famous Indian atomic scientist.  In Independent India, Homi Jehnagir Bhabha, with the support of Jawaharlal Nehru, laid the foundation of a scientific establishment and was responsible for the creation of two premier institutions, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.  Homi Bhabha was the first chairman of India's Atomic Energy Commission.
  17. 17. Dr. Satyendra Nath Bose  Satyendra Nath Bose was an outstanding Indian physicist. He is known for his work in Quantum Physics.  He is famous for "Bose-Einstein Theory" and a kind of particle in atom has been named after his name as Boson. Satyendra Nath Bose was honored with 'Padmabhusan' by the Indian Government in recognition of his outstanding achievement.
  18. 18. Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya  Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya was an eminent engineer and statesman and played a key role in building of modern India. Architect of Krishnarajasagar Dam; devised steel doors to stop the wasteful flow of water in dams; honored with Bharat Ratna.
  19. 19. Dr. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar  Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar was one of the greatest scientists of the 20th century.  He did commendable work in astrophysics, physics and applied mathematics.  Chandrasekhar was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1983.
  20. 20. Dr. Srinivasa Ramanujan  Srinivasa Ramanujan was a mathematician par excellence. He is widely believed to be the greatest mathematician of the 20th Century.  Srinivasa Ramanujan made significant contribution to the analytical theory of numbers and worked on elliptic functions, continued fractions, and infinite series.  A noted scientist of India, Dr Shanti Swaroop Dr. Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar Bhatnagar was appointed the first directorgeneral of the prestigious Council of Scientific and Industrial Research.  He also hold the credit of building 12 national laboratories like Central Food Processing Technological Institute at Mysore, National Chemical Laboratory at Pune and so on.
  21. 21. Dr. G. N. Ramachandran  Gopalasamudram Narayana Iyer Ramachandran, popularly referred to as G. N. Ramachandran is one of the best scientists that 20th century India had produced.  The best known work of G. N. Ramachandran till date is the Ramachandran plot, which the scientist had conceived along with Viswanathan Sasisekharan, to understand the structure of peptides.  G. N. Ramachandran was the first scientist to suggest a triple-helical model of collagen structure. G. N. Ramachandran also made important contributions in the field of biology in the length of his career as a scientist.
  22. 22. Dr. Vikram Sarabhai  Vikram Sarabhai was one of the greatest scientists of India.  He is considered as the Father of the Indian space program.  Apart from being a scientist, he was a rare combination of an innovator, industrialist and visionary. Dr. Vikram Sarabhai was awarded with Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Medal in 1962 and Padma Bhushan in 1966.
  23. 23. This was mostly done in Universities Why not now?
  24. 24. Reasons for declining research quality in Universities Large number of Affiliated colleges Large number of students Teaching has become the primary responsibility of teacher Teaching has become mechanical exercise Lack of research culture in colleges and many University campuses Lack of passion for research & teaching Lack of research infrastructure High quality research is not a pre-requisite for appointments or promotions
  25. 25. Current Status of Research in India R & D spending :  Less than 1% of GDP (increased from 16,200 crores in 2001 to 37,800 crores in 2008 i.e. 0.9%)  It was expected to be about 2%  In China : increased from 0.9% in 2000 to 1.4% in 2006  Researchers per million of Population  Iceland - 6807  US - 4607  UK - 2706  China - 1564  India - 0119
  26. 26. The changing trends in number and global share of scientific publications from SCI data base It is evident from trends presented in Figure 1a and 1b that India has started to regain the volume share of scientific publications lost during 1980’s since 2002. The present global share of scientific publications is about 3.5%. Based on relative share, India ranks currently 9th in the world with respect to scientific publications in SCI journals. Based on the current trends, India could vie for a share of about 5% within the next five years. This would call for planned investments and concerted actions from all the stake holders.
  27. 27. Comparisons of Indian performance with respect to SCI publications with respect to some developed countries (Australia, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, UK and USA) in global share
  28. 28. Comparison of Citation impacts of Indian publications with some developed economies
  29. 29. Good News India has improved its position in the world's definitive university rankings with five Indian varsities entering the top 400 list, up from three in 2012 Panjab University made its debut in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2013-14 in the 226-250 band followed by two other new entrants - Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi and Kanpur in the 351400 band. The new entrants join IIT Kharagpur, which slipped from 226-250 into the 351-400 group, and IIT Roorkee, which retained its place in the 351400 band. "These results should be encouraging for India: while no Indian institution makes the top 200...India now has five representatives in the top 400 a sign of growing commitment to the global rankings," said Phil Baty, editor of the Times Higher Education World University Rankings. "The drive in India to share more data and to compare its institutions against the trusted, established and rigorous standards set by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings is a great step to improved quality," he added.
  30. 30. Importance of Research In Enhancing The Teaching Quality Teaching can be research led : Curriculum is structured around the subject content Content selected is based on the research interest and the expertise of the teacher Teaching should be research oriented – curriculum should emphasize on understanding the processes by which knowledge is produced Priority has to be given to the teaching of inquiry skills and on acquiring research ethos Project work becomes very important Hence the research experience of teacher plays an important role
  31. 31. Teaching can be research based in the sense that curriculum is designed around inquiry based activities, rather than acquisition of subject knowledge Teaching can be research – informed in the sense that it draws consciously on systematic inquiry into teaching and learning processes itself Research based academic studies are the promoter of higher order learning outcomes (initial thinking) and transferable research related capabilities expected of higher education Students need to acquire the ability of problem solving, critical thinking and analysis based learning so as to enhance their employability potential According to Fisher (2003), key function of education is to teach students to think critically, creatively and effectively It is precisely the capacity to think which enables students to acquire new knowledge and it teaches to recognise the value of gaining knowledge.
  32. 32. Need for a Scientific Thinking  Scientific thinking is self – directed, self – disciplined, self monitored and self – corrective. It presupposes assent to rigorous standards of excellence and mindful command of their use.  It entails effective communication and problem solving abilities as well as commitments to developments of scientific skills, abilities and dispositions  Research culture will inculcate scientific thinking
  33. 33. Albert Einstein said: We owe a lot to the Indians, who taught us how to count, without which no worthwhile scientific discovery could have been made. "Many of the advances in the sciences that we consider today to have been made in Europe were in fact made in India centuries ago." - Grant Duff British Historian of India There are 3.22 Million Indians in America. 38% of Doctors in America are Indians. 12% of Scientists in America are Indians. 36% of NASA employees are Indians. 34% of MICROSOFT employees are Indians 28% of IBM employees are Indians 17% of INTEL employees are Indians 13% of XEROX employees are Indians
  34. 34. A long way to go… Strengthening science education at all levels is an enabling requirement, especially for developing nations, for a self-standing national
  35. 35. Steps to Improve the Research Output Restore the glory of teacher & teaching profession Introduce choice based credit system at UG & PG level Assess academic institutions and teachers on the basis of research quality Strengthen research infrastructure in colleges and universities Provide more fellowships and grants for research in state Universities Implement RUSA in every state Universities should not become factories for producing Ph.D.s
  36. 36. Positive initiatives of Govt of India UPE Programme of UGC Grant Commission PURSE Programme of DST INSPIRE Programme of DST Faculty Recharge Programme of UGC Star College Programme of DBT RUSA of Ministry of Human Resource Development Various Research Fellowships launched by Govt of India
  37. 37. Practices in Pune University  Formulated Research Policy  Formulated policy on plagiarism  QIP program for colleges and University Departments  CIF in colleges and University Departments  BCUD projects  National Fellowships for research scholars  Department Research grants etc
  38. 38. THANKS

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