Role of Cataloger in the 21st Century Academic Library

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Professional catalogers in an academic library have professional responsibilities in librarianship, scholarship, and services to the library, institute, and professional organizations. However, …

Professional catalogers in an academic library have professional responsibilities in librarianship, scholarship, and services to the library, institute, and professional organizations. However, whatever the catalogers do have to be in alignment with strategic directions of the academic library, and contribute to its institutional effectiveness. This presentation uses several projects from Georgia Tech Library as examples to illuminate the subject matter on the role cataloger in the 21st century academic library. It first discusses the role of cataloger in assisting the removal of print collections out of GT Library building and creating a seamless collection with Emory resources in EmTech Library Services Center (LSC). It then discusses the role of cataloger in cataloging and metadata management from the perspectives of resource discovery, data curation, repository services, eResearch archive, and digitization.

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  • I would like to thank the Search Committee who gave me the opportunity for this interview. As we all know, catalogers have professional responsibilities in librarianship, scholarship, and services to the library, institute, and professional organizations.
  • The cataloger’s role in librarianship is to lead cataloging and metadata initiatives for the Library, including designing, implementing, and assessing a wide range of processes that rely on cataloging and metadata to provide access to academic libraries’ scholarly resources in all formats. The person in this role has to supervise library staff, and manage ongoing cataloging operations for the Unit, including original and copy cataloging, authority control, physical processing, batch loading, and database maintenance according to national cataloging standards such as AACR2, RDA, LCSH, LC Classification, FRBR/FRAD, and MARC21; utilizing 1) bibliographic utilities such as OCLC Connexion, local integrated library systems, or digital repository systems; and 2) batch processing tools such as MARCEdit and other tools to streamline processes.In collaborative environment, the person in cataloger’s role also has to plan, develop and implement procedures and workflows for special projects of the Unit. He/she has to perform original cataloging and ensure bibliographic integrity by actively using authority control; edits and updates database records using batch processing tools. He/she serves as the lead in exploring innovative tools and methods in streamlining processes. In addition, the person in this role for librarianship has to provide leadership, training, and expertise in cataloging in a variety of metadata schemas for resources in all formats, including Dublin Core, EAD, VRA Core, MODS, METS, and PREMIS for metadata initiatives in the Library. He/she has to guide the selection and use of metadata schemas, controlled vocabularies, and data dictionaries to facilitate the use of digital collections, institutional repository and others. He/she has to provide quality control for processed materials utilizing various metadata standards.
  • The person in cataloger’s role for librarianship has to collaborate with colleagues in Public Services, Collection Development, Scholarly Communication & Digital Curation Services, the Information Technology & Development, and with other constituents, working on joint projects.The person in cataloger’s role for librarianship has to provide leadership in pursuing new opportunities for resource management, access, and discovery, including integrating metadata from diverse sources, using library standards and best practice such as NISO RP-19-201x, and tools such as GT Library’s VuFind front end, EBSCO Discovery Service, MARCit! Service  Worldcat Collection Sets, and others.What’s more, the person in this role for librarianship has to have exceptional skills in leadership, project management, teamwork, communication and problem solving; and needs to work closely with cross functional teams, e.g. GT Library’s teams in Collection Development, Scholarly Communication & Digital Curation Services, Information Tech and Development, Emory Univ. Libraries and other partners on joint projects.Finally, the cataloger’s role in scholarship and services is to participate actively in professional and scholarly activities including Library, institute, and professional committee, research and publications.However, whatever we catalogers do has to be in alignment with strategic directions of the Library, and contribute to institutional effectiveness. This presentation will use several projects from Georgia Tech Library as examples to illuminate the subject matter, e.g. library renewal project, resource discovery service, data curation, institutional repository and eResearch archive, and digitization. As a result, I will first discuss the role of cataloger in assisting the removal of print collections out of the GT library building, and creating a seamless collection with Emory resources (eventually including electronic resources) in EmTech Library Services Center (LSC). I will then discuss the role of cataloger in cataloging and metadata management from the perspectives of resource discovery, data curation, repository services,eResearch archive, and digitization. I will leave a few minutes for questions and answers.
  • Georgia Tech Library defines the technological research library of the 21st century as “the gathering place that cultivates students’ intellectual inquiry, develops their critical thinking skills, promotes academic discourse, and fosters lifelong learning and knowledge enhancement. The Library is integral to the retention and overall success of Georgia Tech students. For faculty and researchers, the Library’s priority is to enrich their teaching, research and learning, and contribute to their knowledge advancement and research output by providing resources and services that meet their needs.” This visionary statement requires the Library to 1) move majority of its print collections out of the building into an offsite service facility jointly constructed and operated with Emory Libraries; 2) explore leading-edge technology to support a re-imagined Library for the 21st century; 3) engage Georgia Tech community through town hall meetings, focus groups and other forums, etc.
  • This is the screenshot of Georgia Tech Library Renewal Project. It aims to 1) renovate the Library Towers, 2) partner with Emory to jointly construct and operate a climate-controlled facility called the EmTech Library Services Center (LSC), which will house the majority of the Library’s print collection, and 3) employ a number of improved service measures to ensure fast retrieval and delivery of print material from the combined Emory/Georgia Tech Library collection for Georgia Tech users.
  • Now, let’s look at what might take to catalog for moving print collections into offsite service facility, and the role of cataloger in this project.
  • Cataloging for Moving Print Collections into Offsite Service Facility requires to track the physical item from the time the item being identified, labeled, and removed out of the library building to the time the item being shipped, shelved, and maintained in offsite service facility. At the same time, it requires to update the item’s associated cataloging records in various library online catalogs in collaboration with stake holders of the project.Cataloging for Moving Print Collections into Offsite Service Facility is a very large, complex and quite undertaking project if we are going to move the majority of the print collections out of the library building and integrate seamlessly with Emory Library’s resources. According to the GT Library’s fact sheet in 2009, the Library has over 2.5 million books, bound periodicals and serials, including about 1.4 million government documents; approximately 2.8 million technical reports; and over 198,000 cartographic materials. To get the job done, we need to gather requirement; understand local cataloging and materials processing practices; monitor workflows; run data analysis reports by resource types, e.g. books, serials, government documents, electronic resources, etc.; and identify, plan and manage dependencies to get the project up and running. Source: Georgia Institute of Technology. Library and Information Center. Library fact sheet 2009. Retrieved from http://library.gatech.edu/about/FactSheet2009.pdf
  • Here is the screen shot of various GT library online catalogs. Each has its own added values in searching bibliographic records. For instance, in this screenshot, there are GT Online Catalog running VuFind interface, Classic GT Catalog running WebVoyage on top of Voyager databases, GIL (GALILEO Interconnected Libraries) Universal Catalog which also runs WebVoyage on top of Voyager databases, GIL-Find Universal Catalog which runs VuFind front-end, OCLC WorldCat, Quick Search which runs EBSCO Discovery Services, and future ones under exploration.
  • Here is the screenshot of ASERL’s press release on launching ASERL’s Cooperative Journal Archive on January 9, 2012. GT Library participates the Program. Print collections to be withdrawn need to be compliant with collection retention agreement, e.g. ASERL Collaborative Print Journal Retention Program.
  • Here are some examples of bibs/hlds/items designated for ASERL Collaborative Print Journal Retention Program in GT Online Catalog. Print and online journals are cataloged as separate records. Print collections in current storage has to be moved into LSC as well.
  • Print collections to be withdrawn need to be compliant with collection retention agreement, e.g. ASERL’s Collaborative Federal Depository Program (CFDP). In the meantime, the successful implementation of “Documents Without Shelves” at CAM (Collection Acquisitions and Management) Dept. allows bulk loading of MARC records for physical materials received on the Federal Depository Library Program, creates the possibility to reduce “the need to catalog the physical materials, and encourage the Library to re-evaluate its FDLP materials and their access, usability and usage.” Online availability of government documents and cataloging records also have implications on print collection withdrawn for government publications.Georgia Institute of Technology. Library and Information Center. Collection Acquisitions and Management. (2010). Annual Report 2009/2010.Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1853/45440
  • Records for Print collections to be withdrawn are mixed with RDA-compliant records and non-RDA records. What about non-RDA records? Do we want to convert them into RDA compliant records before moving the print collections into off-site service facility? This is example of bound journal with barcode. What to do with unbound journal without any barcode? What about books with QR codes? The following eight screenshots indicate bib/hlds/items records in various online catalogs.
  • This is the single record approach putting both print and online version of the same title into one bib record.
  • Digital reproduction of thesis without barcode.
  • This is the screenshot of a bib associated with holdings, Item status, and QR code in GT Vu-find Catalog.
  • Two holding libraries – Georgia Tech and University of Georgia in a single bib found in GIL-Find Universal Catalog.
  • This table is just a starting point to explore what it takes to catalog for moving print collections into Offsite Service Facility. By the no means, the complexity of the project can be covered in this small table.
  • GT Library is exploring leading-edge technology to support a re-imagined Library for the 21st century. The cataloger will provide leadership in pursuing new opportunity for resource management, access and discovery (e.g. the VuFind front end, EBSCO Discovery Service, MARCit! Service, Worldcat Collection Sets are currently in use). Now, let’s look at metadata in resource discovery and role of cataloger/metadata librarian in resource discovery using Quick Search as an example.According to JISC (Joint Information Systems Committee), “Resource discovery encompasses location and retrieving information in large and complex networked environment, including the internet.” Metadata is the enabler for resource discovery.Source: http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/topics/resourcediscovery.aspx
  • This is the screenshot ofQuick Search powered by EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS). The typical search interface for resource discovery in an academic libraryis a single search box for searching, browsing, discovery and delivery of all kinds of library resources in multiple arrays of formats, e.g. books, articles, media, etc. through a unified index associated with Web-scalediscovery service.
  • The discovery service utilizes link resolvers and library catalog as underlying content sources. This is the high level conceptual diagram indicates the relationship between library e-collections and services on the Web and faculty teaching, research, and learning activities in regard to potential content sources for the discovery service, institutional repository services, and other discovery tools.Xu, A. (2009, March 11). Subject access enhancement via FocusOn Search and CategoryMap: an integrated approach for discovery of university resources and libraries on the Web. PowerPoint Presentation at 2009 Serials Solutions Workshop, Seattle, WA. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/elephantsmith/subject-access-enhancement-focuson-search-and-categorymap-an-integrated-approach-for-discovery-of-university-resources-and-library-on-the-web-7211376
  • Here is the sample list of potential eContent to be considered for content selection in the discovery service and other discovery tools. What the discovery service does well with eContent sources is content from online catalog, databases, selected web resources, and linking resolution services. What is in consideration is content from eResearch archive and Faculty Profile Systems at GT Library.Georgia Institute of Technology. Library and Information Center. (2012, spring). View from the Library, 3(2). Retrieved from https://smartech.gatech.edu/handle/1853/45001Xu, A. (2009, March 11). Subject access enhancement via FocusOn Search and CategoryMap: an integrated approach for discovery of university resources and libraries on the Web. PowerPoint Presentation at 2009 Serials Solutions Workshop, Seattle, WA. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/elephantsmith/subject-access-enhancement-focuson-search-and-categorymap-an-integrated-approach-for-discovery-of-university-resources-and-library-on-the-web-7211376
  • Here is the chart indicating where to curate sample faculty activities and research data for institutional repository and eResearch archive, which the discover service, and other discovery tools can potentially link to if it is desired to link from published literature to faculty research data deemed useful to scholarship, science, and education.Xu, A. (2009, March 11). Subject access enhancement via FocusOn Search and CategoryMap: an integrated approach for discovery of university resources and libraries on the Web. PowerPoint Presentation at 2009 Serials Solutions Workshop, Seattle, WA. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/elephantsmith/subject-access-enhancement-focuson-search-and-categorymap-an-integrated-approach-for-discovery-of-university-resources-and-library-on-the-web-7211376
  • According to NISO Open Discovery Initiative Working Group, the high level stakeholders involve in discovery service are libraries (including library consortium), content providers or aggregators, discovery service provider and end users. This chart indicates who does what in the delivery of discovery service. The stakeholders that the metadata librarian will collaborate with are from the discovery service implementation team of the Library, including end users and partners from academic communities such as key publishers, library consortium, library network and full-text linking and discovery service provider.Open Discovery Initiative Working Group. (2013). Open discovery initiative: promoting transparency in discovery (NISO RP-19-201x). Retrieved from NISO Website: http://www.niso.org/apps/group_public/download.php/11606/rp-19-201x_ODI_draft_for_comments_final.pdf
  • This is recommended list of primary encoding metadata schemas, file formats, and methods of transfer from Open Discovery Initiative Working Group.Open Discovery Initiative Working Group. (2013). Open discovery initiative: promoting transparency in discovery (NISO RP-19-201x). Retrieved from NISO Website: http://www.niso.org/apps/group_public/download.php/11606/rp-19-201x_ODI_draft_for_comments_final.pdfOpen Discovery Initiative Working Group. (2013). Formats, schemas and transport mechanisms. Retrieved from NISO Website: http://www.niso.org/apps/group_public/download.php/11504/ODIFormatsDocument.pdfNote: It mentioned RDF as encoding schema and its schema link from http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/
  • The following table 1 and table 2 indicate basic and enhanced metadata elements for content providers proposed by Open Discovery Initiative Working Group. Elements for peer-reviewed publications, language, content type, etc. are missing from the proposal. These will affect search results by the search filters in the discovery services. Open Discovery Initiative Working Group. (2013). Open discovery initiative: promoting transparency in discovery (NISO RP-19-201x). Retrieved from NISO Website: http://www.niso.org/apps/group_public/download.php/11606/rp-19-201x_ODI_draft_for_comments_final.pdf
  • Open Discovery Initiative Working Group. (2013). Open discovery initiative: promoting transparency in discovery (NISO RP-19-201x). Retrieved from NISO Website: http://www.niso.org/apps/group_public/download.php/11606/rp-19-201x_ODI_draft_for_comments_final.pdf
  • A metadata librarian in an academic library has to understand content coverage in the discovery service.Open Discovery Initiative Working Group. (2013). Open discovery initiative: promoting transparency in discovery (NISO RP-19-201x). Retrieved from NISO Website: http://www.niso.org/apps/group_public/download.php/11606/rp-19-201x_ODI_draft_for_comments_final.pdf
  • Provides leadership in pursuing new opportunities for resource management, access and discovery using library standards and best practice such as NISO RP-19-201x, and tools such as the VuFind front end, EBSCO Discovery Service, MARCit! Service  Worldcat Collection Sets, and others.
  • The value of metadata for the discovery service lies in search results processing and display, query processing, linking resolution, citation management, social bookmark, metrics reporting, sorting, and relevance ranking. Standardized metadata and authority control in the discovery service will enable consistent and accurate search results refinement and display. If metadata records aggregated from multiple sources contain “incorrect values”, “incorrect elements”,“missing information”, “information loss”, and “inconsistent value representation” (Yasser, 2011), the resources will be invisible from the search result rendering and affect their uses. The following 16 slides indicate the issues of metadata in resource discovery using Quick Search as an example. Please feel free to take a look at them after this presentation.Yasser, C. (2011). An analysis of problems in metadata records. Journal of Library Metadata, 11, 51-62.
  • Query expansion is to expand the original query with other words that best capture the actual user intent, or that simply produce a more useful query. It uses a variety of approaches that leverage on several data sources and employ sophisticated methods for finding new features correlated with the query terms.Carpineto, C., & Romano, G. (2012). A survey of automatic query in information retrieval. ACM Computing Surveys, 1-50. doi:10.1145/2071389.2071390
  • Screenshot of sample search based on Quick Search powered by EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS). “For any given item of the content, multiple metadata elements contributed from content providers may be indexed by discovery services. For a journal article, for example, its full-text might be contributed by the primary publishers, citation data from provider of an aggregated database, abstracts or controlled vocabulary terms may be provided by yet another provider.” (p. 2)“A content provider might allow certain metadata elements to be included in the search index for retrieval purposes, but not allow those elements to be displayed in the final user interface.” (p.3) Open Discovery Initiative Working Group. (2013). Open discovery initiative: promoting transparency in discovery (NISO RP-19-201x). Retrieved from NISO Website: http://www.niso.org/apps/group_public/download.php/11606/rp-19-201x_ODI_draft_for_comments_final.pdf
  • What metadata elements are included in a record? Sufficient to support search result refinement, linking resolution, and authority control of identifiers, content types, subject terms and other facets?
  • When no full-text found, Quick Search initiates OpenURL Link Resolver for full-text linking in library catalog.
  • What the Discovery Service does well is to deliver content from library’s catalog. For instance, the rich subject headings from LCSH are searchable in Quick Search Advanced Search Mode.
  • However, data analysis needs to be formed to determine which subject headings and at what level of granularity are made available in browsing mode. Here, topLCsubjectheadingsrefertotrendingresearchtopics,popularsearchedsubjectterms,subjectheadingswithmorehitcount,etc.,whichcanbeobtainedthroughsearchloganalysis,documentanalysis,academicprogramanalysis,facultyspecialty,etc.
  • Search title word computer, only one hit returns from Hathitrust.
  • QuickSearchdoesn’tshowbookcoversforsimilarbooksinGTLibraryCatalog from off-campus access without login.
  • Open Discovery Initiative Working Group. (2013). Open discovery initiative: promoting transparency in discovery (NISO RP-19-201x). Retrieved from NISO Website: http://www.niso.org/apps/group_public/download.php/11606/rp-19-201x_ODI_draft_for_comments_final.pdfBing Images. Retrieved from http://cn.bing.com/images/search?q=consortium+and+library+usage+statistics+reports+&go=&qs=n&form=QBIR&pq=consortium+and+library+usage+statistics+reports+&sc=0-1&sp=-1&sk=#view=detail&id=C71E0459594FDB35BFBF51548F8CE10C7E04E1E7&selectedIndex=14
  • The appropriate copies have the following attributes: 1) library holdings, 2) license coverage, 3) availability, 4) critical mass coverage, 5) currency, 6) relevant few hits, 7) relevant few answers, 8) relevant few recommends, 9) synthesis support, and 10) visualization support. In addition, the appropriate copies can be integrated as part of academic workbenches, matched to research expertise, in alignment to research workflow and research output, and at the same time, in compliance with intellectual property rights, privacy, confidentiality, integrity, and availability, etc.
  • This is the Lifecycle of e-Science Research Data model drawn by Charles Humphrey in 2006. It indicates stages of data discovery, data repurposing and data, and connections to e-Science activities, one of which is research output.In the past, libraries have been managing, delivering and preserving recorded human knowledge, including peer-reviewed literature for scientific publications in both print and electronic formats. Today, we are part of the worldwide research effort to reshape the sciences and humanities and expand our expertise to cover research data, particularly data sets by offering researchers with resource discovery services, publishing and digitalcuration services, institutional repository services, and a lot more.Source: Humphrey, C. (2006). E-Science and the life cycle of research. Retrieved from http://datalib.library.ualberta.ca/~humphrey/lifecycle-science060308.doc
  • Speaking of research output, now let’s take a look at the role of cataloger in the 21st century academic library from the perspective of metadata in data curation, institutional repository, and eResearch archive.
  • This is DataOne’s Data Life Cycle Model. It describes a few fundamental data management practices that will enable researchers to develop a data management plan, as well as how to effectively create, organize, manage, describe, preserve and share data (Strasser, Cook, Michener, & Budden).
  • Academic librarians can apply this model when providing data management guidance to graduate students and faculty.
  • The following slides will look at GT Library’s response to the needs of data curation, institutional repository, and eResearch archive.Here is the screenshot of GT Library’s cutting edge program on scholarly communication & digital curation services. “The current suite of digital services includes electronic publishing (e.g. journals), lecture recording, SMARTech preservation repository, copyright assistance, and metadata creation.” Source: http://www.library.gatech.edu/scdc/about?destination=node/3Its “data curation program's long-term goal is to provide for the on-going management of GT-produced research data through its life cycle and significance to research and education. The data curation program will work toward building GT capabilities for enabling data discovery and retrieval, preserving data and maintaining data quality, providing for data re-use over time, and developing other value-added services. It will support a planned and proactive response to research-sponsoring agencies such as the NIH and NSF, who are instituting policies requiring data access and management plans for their funded projects.”“Program's initial purpose is to conduct research into the data curation needs and practices of GT researchers; then, build effective, first generation information systems and services to facilitate the lifecycle management of their research data; and facilitate cooperation and collaboration on data curation issues among the Library's internal and external partners. Managing data collections as well as evaluating and applying data and metadata standards for uses across the academic disciplines are also among the program's responsibilities.”Source: http://www.library.gatech.edu/scdc/data_curation_services
  • This is the screenshot of GT Library’s report on findings and recommendations from research data assessment.Rolando, L., Doty, C., Hagenmaier, W., Valk, A., & Parham, S. W. (2013). Institutional readiness for data stewardship: Findings and recommendations from the Georgia Tech research data assessment (Technical report). Retrieved from https://smartech.gatech.edu/handle/1853/48188
  • According to two of the findings from the research data assessment report, “Georgia Tech researchers lack guidelines, resources, standards, and policies to properly care for their research data… Researchers recognize the importance of documentation and metadata, but few capture this information adequately.”Rolando, L., Doty, C., Hagenmaier, W., Valk, A., & Parham, S. W. (2013). Institutional readiness for data stewardship: Findings and recommendations from the Georigia Tech research data assessment (Technical report). Retrieved from https://smartech.gatech.edu/handle/1853/48188
  • Rolando, L., Doty, C., Hagenmaier, W., Valk, A., & Parham, S. W. (2013). Institutional readiness for data stewardship: Findings and recommendations from the Georigia Tech research data assessment (Technical report). Retrieved from https://smartech.gatech.edu/handle/1853/48188
  • According to one of recommendations from research data assessment report, GT should “enhance institutional ability to support data archiving” (p. 24) by investing in building a research data repository that supports the access and preservation of the research data. The report also pointed out that data stewardship should “include data management planning, secure retention and disposal, sharing and publishing of research data, and compliance with institute policies, legal requirements, and ethical standards.” (p. 25) Rolando, L., Doty, C., Hagenmaier, W., Valk, A., & Parham, S. W. (2013). Institutional readiness for data stewardship: Findings and recommendations from the Georigia Tech research data assessment (Technical report). Retrieved from https://smartech.gatech.edu/handle/1853/48188
  • Screenshot of GT institutional repository services known as SMARTech. It allows GT researchers to deposit their research work including technical reports, conference proceedings, and published articles in the repository. In the meantime, GT Library has made significant progress in recruiting content for archiving in the institutional repository, including theses and dissertations, digitized course catalogs, reports and newsletters, recorded live events and lectures. There are 39,000 scholarly works, including over 16,000 Georgia Tech theses and dissertations in SMARTech.
  • The descriptive metadata standards to describe research data are proliferated. This is the screenshot listing disciplinary metadata standards available from DCC (Digital Curation Center, U.K.).“Rather than archival metadata standards, the resource focuses on descriptive standards that aid data discovery and re-use; this is the information a repository manager might give a researcher curious about what his or her discipline has decided should be the minimum information kept alongside their data sets.” Source: http://www.dcc.ac.uk/resources/standards
  • In addition, as we all know, research data can be in physical and digital formats. What’s the balance point for academic libraries to get involved in dealing with the data used and generated as part of the scholarly process? Everything is a matter of degree. Do we have to use metadata that is deep and discipline specific, and provide support for 1) managing scientific workflow and 2) manipulating simulation models as new experiment data becomes available? My guess is not probably, partly due to lack of domain knowledge, technical expertise, time, cost of computing resources and others. We can, however, set the limits to inform library collection development decisions, authenticate the use and reuse of the data, archive, manage, preserve, and represent the data for the discoverability of the research data according to what proposed in the GT Library’s research data assessment report, and what’s defined by Graduate School of Library and Information Science at UIUC for its Specialization in Data Curation Program.
  • Academic libraries can plan data curation services by discussing data with researchers and gaining insight into areas of attention in data management using Data Curation Profiles Toolkit developed by Purdue University Libraries.
  • The toolkit contains 14 sections.
  • The toolkit consists of the User Guide, Interviewer’s Manual, Interview Worksheet and the Template.
  • It’s a starting point for curating a dataset for access and preservation.
  • What is the role of cataloger/metadata librarian in the 21st Century academic library from the perspective of metadata in data curation, institutional repository and eResearch archive? The metadata librarian has to learn and lead effort in representation of data such as metadata, data dictionaries,ontologies, and metadata schemas being managed and repurposed for institutional repositories, eResearch archive, resource discovery services and other core library systems. He/she has to serve as metadata consultant on research data management initiatives, including collaborating with Data Curation Services and others to evaluate, develop and implement metadata strategy through metadata need assessment, metadata scheme adoption, metadata interoperability, project management, communication, teamwork, and others. To ensure metadata interoperability, it’s the role of cataloger to develop systems to ensure the quality and consistency of metadata in the discovery service, institutional repository, eResearch archive and other core library systems, including authority control and management of controlled vocabularies. DataCuration Center. List of metadata Standards. Retrieved from http://www.dcc.ac.uk/resources/metadata-standards/list
  • What are the critical issues facing a metadata librarian in an academic library from perspective of metadata in data curation, institutional repository, and eResearch archive?
  • In summary, these are the issues that a metadata librarian in an academic library have to deal with from the perspective of metadata in data curation, institutional repository, and eResearch Archive. In the scholarly process, metadata plays vital role in the discovery from the point of getting research data used to the point of getting research data repurposed into new data. Library has to decide what data curation effort to invest in (Waard, 2013).Ritze, D. & Boland, K. (2013). Integration of research data and research data links into library catalogues. Proceedings of International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications. Retrieved from http://dcevents.dublincore.org/IntConf/dc-2013/paper/view/156/74Waard, A. (2013, May 16). The evolution of research data: some thoughts, and a few pilots in data curation. In The evolution of research data: strategies for curation and data management. Meeting conducted at University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia. Retrieved from http://dmconsult.library.virginia.edu/SciDaC/files/2013/03/Charlottesville2013Final.pptx
  • Digitization is to convert analogue materials into a digital format for use by software (MINERVA T.G., 2008).
  • GT Library rocks at digitization. Georgia Tech Library’s digitized collections contain journal articles, historical documents, and other items. This is the screenshot of GT Archives’ Digital Portal, featuring 13,000 digitized and born-digital items from Georgia Tech Archives.
  • The following screenshots useSantiago Calatrava’s special public lecture as example to illustrate metadata being repurposed for digital resources among GT Library’s core library systems. The lecture presented on December 13, 2013 from 2:00- 3:00 pm in the LeCraw Auditorium, Scheller College of Business, recorded and published by GT Library. The title of the lecture is “A bridge between Architecture and Civil Engineering.” The length of lecture is 84:20 minutes. The types and formats of media resources include video in MPEG-4 format, streaming video in HTML format, and images in JPEG. The description of the lecture and its associate files are stored in SMARTech, Georgia Tech’s institutional repository based on DSpace. Images and the description of images are made available by GT Archives’ Digital Portal based on Omeka, a free, open source content management systems for online digital collections. The description of the images in GT Archives’ Digital Portal is repurposed from the repository metadata in SMARTech. The description of the lecture in GT Catalog based on the VuFind front-end is also repurposed from the repository metadata in SMARTech. In other words, the repository metadata including descriptive and structure metadata are served by SMARTech and repurposed into GT Archives’ Digital Portal and GT Catalog. The next few screenshots illustrate the metadata being repurposed among the three systems from end user’s view of the following: 1) the images and description of the images using Dublin Core Metadata in GT Archives’ Digital Portal; 2) the recorded lecture in various file formats and description of the lecture using DSPACE Dublin Core Metadata in GT SMARTech; and 3) description of the lecture in MARC in GT Catalog.
  • Specifically speaking, the role of cataloger as metadata librarian in the 21st century academic library can be further analyzed according to critical issues facing the metadata librarian in day to day metadata production operation for digitized collections as the following.
  • In summary, everything is a matter of degree. To meet metadata production challenges for digital collections, appropriate choices have to be made. The above 20 metadata issues only attempt to summarize the metadata challenges for library digitized collections and the role of cataloger in providing resource management, access and discovery to the digitized collections. To get the job done here, it takes more than metadata skills. Skills in leadership, communication, collaboration, teamwork, analytics and project management have to be in place as well.

Transcript

  • 1. The Role of the Cataloger in the Twenty-First-Century Academic Library Amanda Xu Candidate for Metadata Librarian and Cataloging Unit Head At Georgia Tech Library Feb. 12, 2014 1
  • 2. The Role of Cataloger in the Academic Library (1) 2
  • 3. Role of Cataloger in an Academic Library (2) Source: GT Library’s job posting for Metadata Librarian & Cataloging Unit Head http://www.library.gatech.edu/about/jobs.php#meta 3
  • 4. Twenty-First-Century Academic Library Defined (1) GT Library defines the technological research library of the 21st century as the “gathering place” that cultivates “students’ intellectual inquiry,” develops their “critical thinking skills, promotes academic discourse, and fosters lifelong learning and knowledge enhancement“. “The Library is integral to the retention and overall success of Georgia Tech students.” “For faculty and researchers, the Library’s priority is to enrich their teaching, research and learning, and contribute to their knowledge advancement and research output by providing resources and services that meet their needs.” Source: Georgia Tech Library Strategic Plan 2013-2016 https://smartech.gatech.edu/bitstream/handle/1853/49353/Library%20and%20Information%20Center%20Strategic%20Plan%2c%2020 13-2016.pdf?sequence=1 4
  • 5. Twenty-First-Century Academic Library Defined (2) Source: http://renewal.library.gatech.edu/ 5
  • 6. The Role of Cataloger in the 21st Century Academic Library CATALOGING FOR MOVING PRINT COLLECTIONS INTO OFFSITE SERVICE FACILITY 6
  • 7. Cataloging for Moving Print Collections Into Offsite Service Facility Defined Cataloging for Moving Print Collections into Offsite Service Facility requires to track the physical item from the time the item being identified, labeled, and removed out of the library building to the time the item being shipped, shelved, and maintained in offsite service facility. At the same time, it requires to update the item’s associated cataloging records in various library online catalogs in collaboration with stake holders of the project. 7
  • 8. Various Online Catalogs Source: Research Guides. College of Computing. Books and eBooks. Available: http://libguides.gatech.edu/content.php?pid=78752&sid=1172509 8
  • 9. Collection Retention Agreement (1) Source: http://www.aserl.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/ASERL_TRLN_Create_Archiving_Partnership.pdf 9
  • 10. Collection Retention Agreement (2) 10
  • 11. Collection Retention Agreement (3) Source: http://www.aserl.org/programs/gov-doc/program-overview/ 11
  • 12. Retrospective conversion of non-RDA records 12
  • 13. Example of Bib/Hld/Item Record Display in Classic GT Catalog 13
  • 14. Example of Bib/Hld/Item Record Display in GT VuFind Catalog (1) 14
  • 15. Example of Bib/Hld/Item Record Display in GT VuFind Catalog (2) 15
  • 16. Example of Bib/Hld/Item Record Display in GT VuFind Catalog (3) 16
  • 17. Example of Bib/Hld/Item Record Display in Classic GIL Universal Catalog 17
  • 18. Example of Bib/Hld/Item Record Display in GIL-Find Universal Catalog (1) 18
  • 19. Example of Bib/Hld/Item Record Display in GIL-Find Universal Catalog (2) 19
  • 20. Example of Bib/Hld/Item Record Display in Quick Search 20
  • 21. Cataloging for Moving Print Collections Into Offsite Service Facility (1) 21
  • 22. Cataloging for Moving Print Collections Into Offsite Service Facility (2) 22
  • 23. Cataloging for Moving Print Collections Into Offsite Service Facility – The Role of Cataloger in the 21st Century Academic Library    Develop and implement procedures for moving print collections into Offsite Service Facility; Supervise staff and manage the work for cataloging, physical processing, batch loading, and database maintenance for print collections relocated to Offsite Service Facility and integrated with Emory Libraries’ collections; Serve as the lead in exploring innovative tools and methods in streamlining the processes for the project;     Provide leadership, training, and expertise in cataloging resources in all formats; Prepare records for i) Offsite Service Facility, ii) Inhouse digitization, iii) ASERL Cooperative Journal Retention Project, iv)ASERL Collaborative Federal Depository Program, v) Retrospective conversion, vi) Withdrawn materials, etc.; Solve cataloging problems; Collaborate with stakeholders of the joint projects. 23
  • 24. The Role of Cataloger as Metadata Librarian in the 21st Century Academic Library METADATA IN RESOURCE DISCOVERY 24
  • 25. Resource Discovery – Typical Search Interface Source: http://www.library.gatech.edu/ A single search box for searching, browsing, discovery and delivery of all kinds of library resources in multiple arrays of formats, e.g. books, articles, media, etc. through a unified index associated with Web-scale discovery service 25
  • 26. Resource Discovery – Content Sources (1) Discovery 26
  • 27. Resource Discovery – Content Sources (2) 27
  • 28. Resource Discovery – Content Sources (3) 28
  • 29. Resource Discovery – Stakeholders (NISO RP-19-201x) 29
  • 30. Resource Discovery – Metadata Schema (NISO RP-19-201x) 30
  • 31. Resource Discovery – Metadata Elements(NISO RP-19-201x) 31
  • 32. Resource Discovery – Metadata Elements(NISO RP-19-201x) 32
  • 33. Resource Discovery – Content Coverage (NISO RP-19-201x) 33
  • 34. Metadata in Resource Discovery – The Role of Cataloger as Metadata Librarian in the 21st Academic Library 1. Understand what content sources and coverage are, and how metadata aggregated from multiple sources impacts i) collocation of resources by facets; ii) user interface interactions; iii) fairness of linking; iv) relevancy ranking of the discovery service and other discovery tools. 2. Define metadata strategy and collaborate with stakeholders of the discovery service and other discovery tools to i) conform to metadata standards and ii) ensure metadata quality and consistency for search result processing , query processing, linking resolutions, metric reporting, views and other features. 3. Provide leadership in pursuing new opportunities for resource management, access and discovery. 34
  • 35. Metadata Issues in Resource Discovery (1)  Search results refinement and display ◦ Limit to scholarly (peerreviewed) journals ◦ Limit to catalog only ◦ Limit by publication date ◦ Filter by type ◦ Subject ◦ Language ◦ Publisher ◦ Library location ◦ Collection ◦ Filter by Database       Sort by date and relevance ranking Links to full-text articles, citations, holdin g libraries, etc. via OpenURL and linking resolution services, etc. Automatic query expansion Permalink and bookmark Citation management Reporting (e.g. usage statistics) 35
  • 36. Metadata Issues in Resource Discovery (2) Does the query expansion expand your query term with other words that best capture your search intent? 36
  • 37. Metadata Issues in Resource Discovery (3) 37
  • 38. Metadata Issues in Resource Discovery (4) No full text? 38
  • 39. Metadata Issues in Resource Discovery (5) Initiate OpenURL Link Resolver for full text linking in library catalog 39
  • 40. Metadata Issues in Resource Discovery (6) How labeling, mapping, merging, indexing, configuring, and testing are done for content types by the discovery service? Which content type is done better, e.g. journal articles vs. conference proceedings for result set rendering, linking resolution, etc.? Need testing by each type? 40
  • 41. Metadata Issues in Resource Discovery (7) Computer software -> hit count 1,215,613 Software ->hit count 165,041 41
  • 42. Metadata Issues in Resource Discovery (8) Richness in LCSH searchable in Quick Search Advanced Search Mode 42
  • 43. Metadata Issues in Resource Discovery (9) Browse top LC subject headings using Filter by subject? 43
  • 44. Metadata Issues in Resource Discovery (10) Does the record count make sense in the discovery service and local library systems using title search “Computer”? 44
  • 45. Metadata Issues in Resource Discovery (11) Does the record count make sense in the discovery service for collections using title search “Computer”? Test by collection? 45
  • 46. Metadata Issues in Resource Discovery (12) Option to exclude a few databases from the db list 46
  • 47. Metadata Issues in Resource Discovery (13) Duplicate Duplicate 47
  • 48. Metadata Issues in Resource Discovery (14) Duplicate Duplicate 48
  • 49. Metadata Issues in Resource Discovery (15) 49
  • 50. Metadata Issues in Resource Discovery (16) 50
  • 51. Metadata Issues in Resource Discovery (17) 51
  • 52. Metadata Issues in Resource Discovery (18) From a researcher’s perspective, what the discovery service renders and delivers ultimately is the appropriate copies of library content resources that tie with researcher’s task completion assistant. 52
  • 53. Metadata Issues in Resource Discovery (19) isPartOf 53
  • 54. Metadata Issues in Resource Discovery (20) Source: http://datalib.library.ualberta.ca/~humphrey/lifecycle-science060308.doc 54
  • 55. The Role of Cataloger as Metadata Librarian in the 21st Century Academic Library METADATA IN DATA CURATION, INSTITUTIONAL REPOSITORY, AND ERESEARCH ARCHIVE 55
  • 56. Data Curation Definition “Data curation is the active and ongoing management of data through its lifecycle of interest and usefulness to scholarship, science, and education. Data curation enables data discovery and retrieval, maintains data quality, adds value, and provides for re-use over time through activities including authentication, archiving, management, preservation, and representation.” Source: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Graduate School of Library and Information Science. Specialization in Data Curation. Retrieved from http://www.lis.illinois.edu/academics/programs/specializations/data_c uration 56
  • 57. Data Curation Model Source: DataONE’s Data Life Cycle Model 57
  • 58. Data Curation Model Source: Strasser, C., Cook, R., Michener, W., & Budden, A. Primer on data management: what you always wanted to know. Retrieved from http://www.dataone.org/sites/all/documents/DataONE_BP_Primer_020212.pdf 58
  • 59. Scholarly Communication & Digital Curation at GT Library Source: http://www.library.gatech.edu/scdc/data_curation_services 59
  • 60. Assessing Data Curation Needs and Practices at GT Library 1: Research Data Source: https://smartech.gatech.edu/handle/1853/48188 60
  • 61. Assessing Data Curation Needs and Practices at GT Library 2 – Research Data  “Georgia Tech researchers lack the guidelines, resources, standards, and policies to properly care for their research data“ Source: https://smartech.gate ch.edu/handle/1853/ 48188  “Researchers recognize the importance of documentation and metadata, but few capture this information adequately“ (Rolando, L., Doty, C., Hagenmaier, W., Valk, A., & Parham, S. W., 2013, abstract) 61
  • 62. Assessing Data Curation Needs and Practices at GT Library 3 – Research Data  “GT Library established the Research Data Project Team to investigate, evaluate, assess, and communicate Georgia Tech researchers' data practices, processes, and outputs.” (Rolando, L., Doty, C., Hagenmaier, W., Valk, A., & Parham, S. W. , 2013, p. 5) “Curation of research data was a natural extension of Library curation services and data curation was designated as [library’s] strategic direction.”  GT Library established SMARTech, a GT institutional repository to support data curation Source: https://smartech.gatech. edu/handle/1853/48188  62
  • 63. Assessing Data Curation Needs and Practices at GT Library 4 – Research Data “While librarians and repository staff can create metadata to support the discoverability of the datasets and can help normalize the metadata to conform to community standards, researchers themselves must create much of the usability metadata necessary for future reuse – they alone have the knowledge and information that needs to be documented.” (p. 17) “Georgia Tech should invest in the development of a repository for research data, both to facilitate wider access to the data and for preservation. “ (p. 24) “…compliance with institute policies, legal requirements, and ethical standards ” (p. 25) (Rolando, L., Doty, C., Hagenmaier, W., Valk, A., & Parham, S. W. , 2013) Source: https://smartech.gatech.edu/handle/1853/48188 63
  • 64. Institutional Repository Service Source: https://smartech.gatech.edu/ 64
  • 65. Content Sources: Disciplinary Metadata for Research Data Source: http://www.dcc.ac.uk/resources/standards 65
  • 66. Content Sources: Research Data Formats Research data can be in physical and digital formats. The types of research data produced during each stage of research processes can be observational, experimental, simulation, derived or compiled. These data can come in many forms: numerical, text, multimedia, Excel spreadsheet, SPSS, Matlab (.mat) files, websites, datasets, databases, manuscripts, computer software, and simulation models that can be at the size of gigabytes to terabytes of data. The data can be in discipline, instrument and device specific formats. Source: http://dmconsult.library.virginia.edu/plan/format-types/ 66
  • 67. Purdue Univ. Libraries’ Data Curation Profiles Toolkit Source: http://datacurationprofiles.org/ 67
  • 68. Purdue Univ. Libraries’ Data Curation Profiles Toolkit Carlson, J. (2010). The Data Curation Profiles Toolkit. User Guide. Purdue University Libraries / Distributed Data Curation Center. 68
  • 69. Purdue Univ. Libraries’ Data Curation Profiles Toolkit Source: http://datacurationprofiles.org/download 69
  • 70. Purdue Univ. Libraries’ Data Curation Profiles Toolkit Carlson, J. (2010). The Data Curation Profiles Toolkit. User Guide. Purdue University Libraries / Distributed Data Curation Center. 70
  • 71. Metadata in Data Curation, Institutional Repository & eResearch Archive – The Role of Cataloger as a Metadata Librarian in the 21st Century Academic Library Learn and lead effort in representation of data such as metadata, data dictionaries, ontologies, and metadata schemas being managed and repurposed  Serve as metadata consultant on research data management initiatives, including collaborating with Data Curation Services and others to evaluate, develop and implement metadata strategy   Develop systems to ensure the quality and consistency of metadata in the discovery service, institutional repository, eReserch Archive, and other core library systems, including authority control and management of controlled vocabularies 71
  • 72. Metadata Issues in Data Curation & Institutional Repository 1 72
  • 73. Metadata Issues in Data Curation & Institutional Repository 2 73
  • 74. Metadata Issues in Data Curation & Institutional Repository 3 74
  • 75. The Role of Cataloger as a Metadata Librarian in the 21st Century Academic Library METADATA IN DIGITIZATION 75
  • 76. GT Archives’ Digital Collections Source: http://history.library.gatech.edu/ 76
  • 77. Images and Description of the Images using DC Metadata in Digital Portal (1) 77
  • 78. Images and Description of the Images using DC Metadata in Digital Portal (2) 78
  • 79. Images and Description of the Images using DC Metadata in Digital Portal (3) 79
  • 80. Images and Description of the Images using DC Metadata in Digital Portal (4) 80
  • 81. The Description of the Lecture and its Associate Files in SMARTech (1) 81
  • 82. The Description of the Lecture and its Associate Files in SMARTech (2) 82
  • 83. The Description of the Lecture and its Associate Files in SMARTech (3) 83
  • 84. The Description of the Lecture in GT Catalog (VuFind Front End) (1) 84
  • 85. The Description of the Lecture in GT Catalog (VuFind Front End) (2) 85
  • 86. Metadata in Digitization – Role of Cataloger as a Metadata Librarian in the 21st Century Academic Library   Collaborate with partners from Archives, Digitization Team, Scholarly Communication & Data Curation Services, and other units to streamline and enhance metadata production Evaluate, adopt and implement appropriate metadata standards and schemas for multiple digital resources of various types and uses residing in disparate systems  Ensure metadata interoperability across digital resources through 1) conforming to metadata standards used in libraries, and 2) implementing systems for metadata quality control consistently across core library systems 86
  • 87. Digitized Collections – Metadata Issues for a Metadata Librarian in an Academic Library 1 87
  • 88. Digitized Collections – Metadata Issues for a Metadata Librarian in an Academic Library 2 88
  • 89. Digitized Collections – Metadata Issues for a Metadata Librarian in an Academic Library 3 89
  • 90. Digitized Collections – Metadata Issues for a Metadata Librarian in an Academic Library 4 90
  • 91. 91
  • 92. References Association of Southeastern Research Libraries. ASERL and TRLN create archiving partnership [Press release]. (2012, January 9). Retrieved from http://www.aserl.org/wpcontent/uploads/2012/01/ASERL_TRLN_Create_Archiving_Partnership.pdf Association of Southeastern Research Libraries. Overview of ASERL’s collaborative Federal Depository Program. Retrieved from http://www.aserl.org/programs/govdoc/program-overview/ Blomer, J. and Ginger, K. (2013). NSDL_DC metadata guidelines. Retrieved from https://wiki.ucar.edu/display/nsdldocs/nsdl_dc Carlson, J. (2010). The Data Curation Profiles Toolkit. User guide. Purdue University Libraries / Distributed Data Curation Center. Carpineto, C., & Romano, G. (2012). A survey of automatic query in information retrieval. ACM Computing Surveys, 1-50. doi:10.1145/2071389.2071390 Data Management Consulting Group, University of Virginia Library. File formats and data types. Retrieved from http://dmconsult.library.virginia.edu/plan/format-types/ DCC (Data Curation Center (U.K.)). Disciplinary metadata. Retrieved from http://www.dcc.ac.uk/resources/standards Deng, S. (2010). Optimizing workflow through metadata repurposing and batch processing. Journal of Library Metadata, 10 (4). doi:10.1080/19386389.2010.524862 92
  • 93. References (Continued) Dietrich, D. (2010). Metadata management in a data staging repository. Journal of Library Metadata, 10(2-3), 79-98. doi: 10.1080/19386389.2010.506376 Eklund, J. (2012). Cultural objects digitization planning: metadata overview. VRA Bulletin 38(1), A4. Georgia Institute of Technology. Library and Information Center. Collection Acquisitions and Management. (2010). Annual report 2009/2010. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1853/45440 Georgia Institute of Technology. Library and Information Center. Archives Digital Portal. Retrieved from http://history.library.gatech.edu/ Georgia Institute of Technology. Library and Information Center. Data Curation Services. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.library.gatech.edu/scdc/data_curation_services Georgia Institute of Technology. Library and Information Center. Library fact sheet 2009. Retrieved from http://library.gatech.edu/about/FactSheet2009.pdf Georgia Institute of Technology. Library and Information Center. (2014). Research Guides. College of Computing. Books and eBooks. Retrieved from http://libguides.gatech.edu/content.php?pid=78752&sid=1172509 93
  • 94. References (Continued) Georgia Institute of Technology. Library and Information Center. (2014). Job opportunities: metadata librarian & cataloging unit head. Retrieved from http://www.library.gatech.edu/about/jobs.php#meta Georgia Institute of Technology. Library and Information Center. (2014). Georgia Tech Library Renewal Project. Retrieved from http://renewal.library.gatech.edu/ Georgia Institute of Technology. Library and Information Center. (2014). SMARTech: Scholarly Materials and Research at Tech. Retrieved from https://smartech.gatech.edu/ Humphrey, C. (2006). E-Science and the life cycle of research. Retrieved from http://datalib.library.ualberta.ca/~humphrey/lifecycle-science060308.doc KBART Phase II Working Group. (2013). Knowledge bases and related tools (KBART): recommended practice (NISO RP-9-201x). Meyer, E. T., Madson, C., & Fry, J. (2010). Digital resources and the future of libraries. In W. H. Dutton & P. W. Jeffreys (Eds.), World wide research: Reshaping the sciences and humanities, (pp. 83-97). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Minervaeurope, T.G. (2008, Sept.). MINERVA technical guidelines for digital cultural content creation programmes: version 2.0. Retrieved from http://www.minervaeurope.org/publications/MINERVA%20TG%202.0.pdf 94
  • 95. References (Continued) Myntti, J., & Cothran, N. (2013). Authority control in a digital repository: preparing for linked data. Journal of Library Metadata, 13(2-3), 95-113. doi: 10.1080/19386389.2013.826061 NISO. (2004). Understanding metadata. Retrieved from http://www.niso.org/publications/press/UnderstandingMetadata.pdf Open Discovery Initiative Working Group. (2013). Open discovery initiative: promoting transparency in discovery (NISO RP-19-201x). Retrieved from NISO Website: http://www.niso.org/apps/group_public/download.php/11606/rp-19201x_ODI_draft_for_comments_final.pdf OCLC. (2013, June 20). Best practice for CONTENTdm and other OAI-PMH compliant repositories: creating sharable metadata. Version 3.1. Retrieved from http://www.oclc.org/content/dam/support/wcdigitalcollectiongateway/MetadataBest Practices.pdf Rolando, L., Doty, C., Hagenmaier, W., Valk, A., & Parham, S. W. (2013). Institutional readiness for data stewardship: Findings and recommendations from the Georgia Tech research data assessment (Technical report). Retrieved from https://smartech.gatech.edu/handle/1853/48188 95
  • 96. References (Continued) Purdue University Libraries. Data Curation Profiles Toolkit. Retrieved from http://datacurationprofiles.org/ Ritze, D., & Boland, K. (2013). Integration of research data and research data links into library catalogues. Proceedings of International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications. Retrieved from http://dcevents.dublincore.org/IntConf/dc2013/paper/view/156/74 Strasser, C., Cook, R., Michener, W., & Budden, A. Primer on data management: what you always wanted to know. Retrieved from http://www.dataone.org/sites/all/documents/DataONE_BP_Primer_0 20212.pdf University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Graduate School of Library and Information Science. Specialization in Data Curation. Retrieved from http://www.lis.illinois.edu/academics/programs/specializations/data_c uration 96
  • 97. References (Continued) Waard, A. (2013, May 16). The evolution of research data: some thoughts, and a few pilots in data curation. In The evolution of research data: strategies for curation and data management. Meeting conducted at University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia. Retrieved from http://dmconsult.library.virginia.edu/SciDaC/files/2013/03/Charlottesville2013Final.pptx Xu, A. (1997). Metadata conversion and the library OPAC. Serials Librarian, v. 33 (1-4). Retrieved from http://archive.ifla.org/documents/libraries/cataloging/metadata/xu.pdf Xu, A. (2009, March 11). Subject access enhancement via FocusOn Search and CategoryMap: an integrated approach for discovery of university resources and libraries on the Web. PowerPoint Presentation at 2009 Serials Solutions Workshop, Seattle, WA. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/elephantsmith/subject-accessenhancement-focuson-search-and-categorymap-an-integrated-approach-for-discoveryof-university-resources-and-library-on-the-web-7211376 Yasser, C. (2011). An analysis of problems in metadata records. Journal of Library Metadata, 11, 51-62. Zeng, M. L., Lee, J. & Hayes, A.F. (2009). Metadata decisions for digital libraries: a survey report. Journal of Library Metadata, 9, 173-193. doi:10.108/19386380903405074 97