Alignment of Lib Technical Services to Changing Needs of Users

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How can LTS (Library Technical Services) meet the changing needs of library users and public services staff in the context of 1) economic challenges and opportunities for academic libraries, 2) increasing digital nature of library collections as IasP (Information as Product), and 3) rising expectations of end users using Web as Infrastructure? This presentation introduced the concept of digital library infrastructure, control objectives for information systems, COBIT, TOGAF, process capability maturity measures, enterprise capability maturity model, etc. as the enabler for communication among the concerned parties.

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Alignment of Lib Technical Services to Changing Needs of Users

  1. 1. Vision of Next Generation of Library Technical Services (LTS) <br />Alignment to the Changing Needs of Library Users and Public Services Staff<br />George Mason University Libraries<br />Dec. 7, 2010<br />Fairfax, Virginia<br />Updated March 8, 2011<br />By Amanda Xu<br />James E. Walker Library<br />Middle Tennessee State Univ.<br />amanda_xu@yahoo.com<br />
  2. 2. Overview<br />Economic Challenges and Opportunities for Academic Libraries as Gateways, Archives, a Place, Buyers, etc.<br />Increasing Digital Nature of Library Collections – Information as Product<br />Rising Expectations of End Users using Web as Infrastructure<br />Rising Expectations of Public Services Staff using Web as Infrastructure<br />Innovative Approaches to Bibliographic Control<br />LTS Alignment to Changing Need of Library Users and Public Services Staff <br />
  3. 3. Library as Gateways<br />“ Provide instant access to electronic library holdings and resources of multiple arrays deemed essential for scholars, students and the public” <br />LTS – Supporting library’s role as gateways to info space by embedding library resources, bibliographic data, authority data, holdings data, user data, and linkages optimized into the context of user preferred experience: <br />Academic Programs as Research Toolkit – Expertise/Tools/Resources/Services/Infrastructure <br />LMS (Learning Management Systems)/CMS (Course Management Systems) / GIS (Geographic Information Services) / Research Statistical Services <br />Federated Search/ Google enterprise search <br />Library portals – GMU Academic Research Portals, LibGuides, MARS, etc.<br />LTS - Ensuring linked data quality by providing complete, clean, consistent, secured, and current data for holdings, resource identity, etc. in compliance with bibliographic control standards, provisions of use, privacy, and info security in cost effective manner<br />
  4. 4. Library as Archives<br />“ Advanced technology for digital resources curation, production & preservation of text, images, sound, videos customized to the user community of the academic library upon request” <br />LTS - Developing in-house expertise in digital resources curation, production & preservation; <br />LTS - Providing trainings for staff to be fluent with digital resources curation, production & preservation standards, best practices, and tools; <br />LTS - Actively participating in the living laboratory development for creation, conversion and preservation of art, music, and text from their original media into digital ones in collaboration with content and technology partners, especially those in Special Collections and Archives, Digital Repository Service Services, Digital Programs and Systems, GMU Information Technology Unit, and others. <br />
  5. 5. Library as a Place<br />“ With greater capacity for traditional print collections” <br />LTS – Honoring tradition by continuously selecting, acquiring, organizing, maintaining, tracking and reporting, evaluating active holdings for print collections via integrated library systems, and any other external systems in the network, e.g. OCLC, WRLC Aquabrowser, GMU instance of Voyager, MetaFinder, Voyager Analyzer, etc. <br />“ Social learning and social networking” <br />LTS – Embracing changes to the library landscape by incorporating the appropriate tools into the library that supports social learning and networking, including using Web as infrastructure with optimized processes and control objectives, e.g. strategic alignment, change management, performance measures, process maturity measures, etc. <br />“ Scholarly community and intellectual engagement” <br />LTS – Participating in the infrastructure development for effective dissemination of ideas in the form of talks, exhibits, and forums. <br />
  6. 6. Library as Buyers (1)<br />Selectively acquiring or subscribing critical mass of information resources by discipline distributed to the library in whatever delivery channels by vendors, e.g. MARC 21, Z39.50, EDI, OpenURL, OAI, Web Services API, XML/XSL, and ILS; <br />LTS – Providing solutions to the next generation of library technologies in collection development, acquisitions, cataloging, serials control, ERMS (Electronic Resources Management Systems), and linked data in highly integrated, automated and maintainable computing environment;<br />LTS – Improving IT infrastructure of the library for auto-processing information resources in various formats in collaboration with external and internal partners & in compliance with control objectives and process maturity measures for info systems and enterprise architecture defined by COBIT 5.0, TOGAF 9.0, and leveraged by library-specific IT industry; <br />
  7. 7. Library as Buyers (2)<br />ILS<br />ERMS<br />Full-text A-Z<br />Federated search<br />Google Search Appliance<br />Link Resolver<br />ILL<br />eReserve<br />eReferences<br />Integrated support for specialized services with CMS, LMS, social media sites, location-based services, etc.<br />Auto citation integration<br />Record management for institution and archival contents<br />Library portals as library content and service distribution toolkit<br />Research Portals<br />MARS<br />OAI & community-based portals<br />Measures, evaluation, and refinement<br />
  8. 8. Library as Universal Digital Library Infrastructure (1) - Definition<br />LTS - Providing ubiquitous and pervasive information infrastructure and computing environment, which integrate people, organizations, processes, data, information, and technologies in such a coherent manner that the objectives of a digital library can be performed, measured and controlled at the lowest meaningful and atomic level; <br />LTS - Providing relevant, engaged, and customized information contents and services, which cover all resources, all vocabularies, and all languages to any given user at any time in compliance with control objectives and process maturity measures for info systems and enterprise architecture defined by COBIT 5.0, TOGAF 9.0, and leveraged by library-specific IT industry; <br />LTS - Empowering the whole brain team using leadership, communication skills, project management, analytical skills, collaboration, and teamwork. <br />
  9. 9. Library as Universal Digital Library Infrastructure (2) – In Context of GMU<br />
  10. 10. Library as Universal Digital Library Infrastructure (3) – In Context of WRLC<br />
  11. 11. Increasing Digital Nature of Library Collection – Information as Product (1)<br /> IT & LTS<br />Plan & Organize<br />Acquire & Implement<br />Deliver & Support<br />Measure, Evaluate & Refine<br />
  12. 12. Increasing Digital Nature of Library Collection – Information as Product (2)<br />Project management, enterprise architecture (EA), EA modeling and business process modeling <br />Content capturing <br />Content modeling and content management systems <br />Search engine services <br />Enterprise service bus (ESB) and service-oriented architecture (SOA) <br />Relational, multidimensional and ontological database management systems and administration <br />Portal solutions <br />Customer relationship management <br />Service resolution management <br />Business intelligence and reporting <br />Specialized content and services, e.g. location as service, IaaS, Intentional Discovery, etc.<br />Information security <br />
  13. 13. Increasing Digital Nature of Library Collection – Information as Product (3)<br />
  14. 14. Increasing Digital Nature of Library Collection – Information as Product (4)<br />
  15. 15. Rising Expectations of End Users Using Web As Infrastructure (1)<br />21st century enrollment <br />New students, new technologies and new senses <br />Media savvy, and always connected <br />Teaching and learning 21st century skills <br />Digital divide between faculty and students <br />Mending the gaps by Library <br />Digital age literacy <br />Inventive thinking <br />Effective communication <br />High productivity <br />21st century research <br />Cyber infrastructure for research in science, engineering, humanities and social sciences <br />One to one engagement <br />
  16. 16. Rising Expectations of Public Services Staff Using Web As Infrastructure (2)<br />Self-services<br />Few interfaces & end points for services<br />Relevant and connected<br />User experience<br />On-demand generation of info resources, e.g. tutorials for info literacy, RSS, distance learners, etc.<br />Instructions & reference services<br />Liaison services to labs, centers, and departments, etc.<br />Training & being trained<br />
  17. 17. Innovative Approaches to Bibliographic Control (1)<br />A library resource is increasingly becoming an info product, e.g. parts of a book or collection of books aggregated, distributed, and disaggregated in heterogeneous computing environment with end service point on the Web platform geared toward a specific user group community, who are the supporters of the library services (M.V.C. & M.G.C.); <br />Unified/federated approach to bibliographic control of library resources purchased, licensed, in-house developed, or freely available in the public domain through common infrastructures compostable, comparable and maintainable at presentation layer, application layer, service layer, business logic layer, database layer, network layer, content model layer, etc. during design-time, development-time and run-time computing environment; <br />
  18. 18. Innovative Approaches to Bibliographic Control (2)<br />Any collection of electronic data, from library catalogs to collections of full-text packages whether structured or unstructured in any media type on the Internet can be: <br />Interwoven with enterprise-wide resources, processes, services, systems and devices <br />Mined through automated means, e.g. named entity and noun phrases extraction, analysis, association, and interpretation <br />Sliced and diced for better forecasting and decision making using data warehousing and business intelligence packages on things such as library collection development, assessment, and re-organization <br />Bibliographic control is increasingly a matter of managing relationships – among works, names, concepts, and object descriptions across communities with emphasis on reuse, scalability, maintainability, traceability, efficiency, and productivity using Web as Infrastructure<br />
  19. 19. Innovative Approaches to Bibliographic Control (3)<br />Traditional information context <br />Markup <br />Types – Descriptive, Technical, Administrative, Structural, Preservation; <br />Typical library metadata schemes – MARC, TEI, EAD, Dublin Core, VRA, MODS, MIX, METS, PREMIS, CDWA, OAI-PHM <br />A metadata scheme specifies – structure, syntax, content<br />Crosswalks among metadata schemas <br />Maintenance – validation, CRUD (Create, Read, Update, Delete) & archive <br />Digital information context <br />Linked Data & Internet of Things <br />CIA – Confidential, Integrity, Available <br />Process maturity measures <br />Adaptable, maintainable & lifecycle <br />Separation of concerns: rules; patterns; structures, behavior & user experience<br />
  20. 20. LTS Alignment to Changing Need of Library Users and Public Services Staff – Understand Users’ Perspectives (1)<br />What data are involved with the systems?<br />How and what are expected systems behavior?<br />Where are the logistics of the network for the systems?<br />Who are the users, and what are their access rights and<br />privileges for the systems? <br />When and what system procedures will be generated for what business activities? Contextual-level req.?<br />Why or what are purposes for the system functions to be built? <br />
  21. 21. LTS Alignment to Changing Need of Library Users and Public Services Staff – Understand Users’ Perspectives (2)<br />
  22. 22. LTS Alignment to Changing Needs of Users and Public Service Staff -Business Process Management (3)<br />LTS<br />
  23. 23. LTS Alignment to Changing Needs of Users and Public Service Staff - Control Objectives for Info Systems Defined by COBIT 5.0 (4)<br />
  24. 24. LTS Alignment to Changing Needs of Users and Public Service Staff - Enterprise Architecture Best Practices Defined by TOGAF 9.0 (5)<br />
  25. 25. LTS Alignment to Changing Needs of Users and Public Service Staff – Three Dimensions of Process Maturity Measures (6)<br />Source: IT Governance Institute. 2007. “Figure 13 – Generic Maturity Model.” COBIT Framework, p. 19.<br />
  26. 26. LTS Alignment to Changing Needs of Users and Public Service Staff – Three Dimensions of Process Maturity Measures (7)<br />Awareness and communication<br />Policies, plans and procedures<br />Tools and automation<br />Skills and expertise<br />Responsibility and accountability<br />Goal setting and measurement<br />Source: IT Governance Institute. 2007. “Figure 15 – Maturity Attribute Table.” COBIT Framework, p. 21<br />
  27. 27. LTS Alignment to Changing Needs of Users and Public Service Staff – Act Locally (8)<br />Parallel development<br />Global access to data<br />User engagement, activity modeling & behavior analysis<br />Leadership; communication; teamwork of whole brain team; collaboration; analytical skills; quality control; info as product, infrastructure & technologies <br />Appropriate level of cataloging for bibliographic control<br />Reuse 3rd-party bibliographic records<br />Promote new models of access to multi-modal info contents through user experience<br />Integration, analysis, design, measurement, evaluation, refinement, infrastructure<br />
  28. 28. References (1)<br />George Manson University Libraries. Technology Updates, August 2010.<br />Grotophorst, W. (2010, Sept. 24). Academic Research Portal: Integrating Librarians and Academic Programs. Library Advisory Council Briefing.<br />IT Governance Institute. 2007. “Figure 13 – Generic Maturity Model.” COBIT Framework, p. 19.<br />IT Governance Institute. 2007. “Figure 15 – Maturity Attribute Table.” COBIT Framework. p. 21.<br />ISACA. Figure 3 – COBIT 5 Information Reference Model. COBIT 5 Design Paper Exposure Draft, March 18, 2010. <br />Lynch, C. (2009). Digital Dilemmas Symposium: Challenges, Opportunities, Solutions, METRO, New York, NY, April 16, 2009.<br />Lee, Y. W., Pipino, L. L., Funk, J. D., Wang, R. Y. (2006). “Managing information as product.” Journey to Data Quality. Cambridge: MIT Press. pp. 125-135.<br />Marcum, D. B. (2008). “LC Response to On the Record: Report of the Library of Congress Working Group on the Future of Bibliographic Control.” Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/bibliographic-future/news/LCWGResponse-Marcum-Final-061008.pdf. <br />Open Group Adoption Strategy Working Group. (2009, April). “Figure 2: Enterprise architecture capability model.” World-Class Enterprise Architecture Framework Guidance and TOGAF 9 Example.<br />Schonfeld, R. (2009). Digital Dilemmas Symposium: Challenges, Opportunities, Solutions, METRO, New York, NY, April 16, 2009.<br />
  29. 29. References (2)<br />Sowa, J.F., and Zachman, J.A. (1992). “Extending and formalizing the framework for information systems architecture.” IBM Systems Journals, 31 (3), 590-616.<br />U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. A Tutorial on the ZachmanFramework for Enterprise Architecture. Available: http://www.va.gov/oirm/architecture/EA/theory/tutorial.ppt<br />Xu, A. (2009). “FocusOn Search and CategoryMap: An Integrated Approach for Discovery of University Resources and Libraries on the Web” – poster presentation at the Faculty Research Forum of St. John’s University, Queens, NY, April 2, 2009.<br />--. “Vision of Library Technical Services: FocusOn Search and CategoryMap” – presented to University Libraries, University of California Santa Cruz, June 8, 2009, Santa Cruz, CA.<br />--. “Online Surveys for Collecting, Analyzing, Tracking and Evaluating User Responses on FocusOn Search and CategoryMap” – a position paper presented at ACM/IEEE Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, Austin, Texas, June 19, 2009. Available: http://www.dlib.org/dlib/july09/khoo/Xu.pdf<br />--. “Mending the Gap Between the Library’s Electronic and Print Collections on Library’s Web Site Using Semantic Web: Progress Report” – presented for ExLibrisEndUser Meeting 2007, Schaumburg, IL, April 26 & 27, 2007.<br />WRLC. ALADIN Technology. Retrieved 12/6/2010 from www.wrlc.org/dlib/cns/<br />

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