დაბერება

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დაბერება

  1. 1. organizmisa da ujredis dabereba. SeiZleba Tu ara viyoT ukvdavni? konstantine WiWinaZe (sakontaqto el. fosta [email_address] ) i. beritaSvilis sax. fiziologiis instituti; i. javaxiSvilis sax. Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti
  2. 2. Older, But Wiser
  3. 3. <ul><li>dabereba – organizmis Sinagani resursebis gamofitvis da fiziologiuri procesebis Senelebis procesia. </li></ul>
  4. 4. asakTan erTad organizmSi metabolizmis intensivobis daqveiTebis grafiki
  5. 5. mamakacis sasqeso hormonis – testosteronis koncentraciis Semcireba sisxlSi asakTan erTad
  6. 6. Zvlis sisqe 25 da 75 wlis adamianebSi
  7. 7. smenis daqveiTebis maCveneblebi 75 wlis adamianSi (25 wlianTan SedarebiT)
  8. 9. daberebis procesis mizezebze ori tradiciuli midgoma arsebobs: 1. dabereba winaswar daprogramebuli procesia (TeoriaTa umravlesobaSi – genetikurad daprogramebuli). informacia daberebis Sesaxeb Cawerilia sxvadasxva matareblebze (ZiriTadad dnm-Si). garemo faqtorebs SedarebiT umniSvnelo roli aqvT am procesSi. 2. dabereba – organizmze moqmedi sxvadasxva destruqciuli Zalebis zemoqmedebis Sedegia. organizmi erTgvarad “cvdeba”.
  9. 10. dabereba organizmis ujredis paTologiuri normaluri replikaciuri (dakavSirebuli gayofasTan) droiTi (dakavSirebuli drois xangrZlivobasTan)
  10. 11. mravalujrediani organizmis dabereba praqtikulad gauyofadi ujredebis (nervuli da kunTovani) “ Sromisunarianobis” daqveiTeba gayofadi ujredebis prolifireciis (gayofis) unaris daqveiTeba
  11. 12. sicocxlis maqsimaluri xangrZlivoba sxvadasxva saxeobebSi
  12. 13. sicocxlis saSualo xangrZlivoba sxvadasxva epoqaSi 19,0 21,5 20–30 27,5 29,0 28,5 35,6 40,6 44,8 56,0 59,8 57,7 73 qvis xana brinjaos xana antikuri xana XVI  s . XVII  s . XVIII  s . 1801–1880  ww . 1891–1900  ww . 1901–1910  ww . 1924–1926  ww . 1932–1936  ww . 1946–1947  ww . 1970–1980  ww . asaki (w.) saukuneebi, wlebi
  13. 14. sicocxlis saSualo xangrZlivobis dinamika ruseTsa da did britaneTSi (1965-2000 ww.) 14 w 3 w Britain Russia
  14. 15. mozrdilTa progeria <ul><li>16 wlis </li></ul>
  15. 16. mozrdilTa progeria <ul><li>23 wlis </li></ul>
  16. 17. mozrdilTa progeria (verneris sindromi)
  17. 18. bavSvTa progeria (hatCinson-hilfordis sindromi)
  18. 19. hatCinson-hilfordis sindromiT daavadebuli bavSvebi iRupebian saSualod 12-13 wlis asakSi adamianis normaluri siberisTvis damaxasiaTebeli daavadebebisgan. Tumca maTi gonebrivi ganviTareba Seesabameba maT qronologiur asaks
  19. 20. hatCinson-hilfordis sindromiT daavadebuli bavSvi 3 Tvis, 13 Tvis, 3 wlisa da 11 Tvis, 6 wlisa da 6 Tvis, 9 wlis asakSi
  20. 21. daberebuli fibroblastebi axalgazrda fibroblastebi
  21. 22. ujredis daberebis telomeruli Teoria* <ul><li>* am mimarTulebiT Sesrulebuli Sromebi 2009 wels dajildovebuli iqnen nobelis premiiT </li></ul>
  22. 23. qromosomul boloebs specializirebuli struqturebi – telomerebi warmoadgenen Blue = chromosomes White = Telomere protein
  23. 24. dnm-is replikaciis sqema – Svileuli molekulebis warmoqmna
  24. 25. replikaciuri makrateli
  25. 26. replikaciur makratelSi dnm-is kopiebis warmoqmnis sqema
  26. 27. qromosomis arareplicirebuli 5 ’ bolos warmoqmnis amsaxveli sqema
  27. 28. telomeruli bolos damatebis sqema
  28. 29. telomerebi, ujredis gayofa da replikaciuri sibere
  29. 30. telomerebi da simsivne
  30. 31. daberebis Tavisufal-radikaluri Teoria
  31. 32. <ul><li>Jangbadi – sicocxlisTvis umniSvnelovanesi komponenti, amave dros Tavisufali radikalebis mTavari wyaroa. </li></ul><ul><li>Tavisufali radikalebi – molekulebi an molekulis fragmentebi, romlebsac gare eleqtronul Sreze gauwyvilebeli eleqtroni gaaCniaT da amitom uaRresad maRali reaqciis unarianni arian. maT miekuTvneba ОН ’, O’, da sxva. </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>daJangviTi stresi – paTologiuri mdgomareoba, romelic organizmSi didi raodenobiT Tavisufali radikalebis an/da antioqsidanturi sistemebis dabal efeqturobasTan aris dakavSirebuli. </li></ul>
  33. 34. Tavisufali radikalebiT inicirebuli procesebi ОН ’ radikali proteinebi - kargaven Tavis funqciebs lipidebi – ziandebian yvelaze metad. warmoiqmneba “ lipiduri xaze” nukleinmJavebi – mTlianad an nawilobriv kargaven Tavis funqciebs
  34. 35. Jangbadis reaqtiuli formebiT (ROS) da Tavisufali radikalebiT inicirebuli procesebi
  35. 36. intaqturi (marcxniv) da Tavisufali radikalebis zemoqmedebis myofi ujredi (marjvniv)
  36. 37. daberebis Tavisufal-radikaluri Teoria <ul><li>ZiriTadi postulatebi: </li></ul><ul><li>daberebis procesis universaluroba miuTiTebs imaze, rom misi bioqimiuri meqanizmebi sxvadasxva organizmebSi SesaZlebelia msgavsia; </li></ul><ul><li>arsebobs kavSiri sicocxlis ciklis sididesa da metabolizmis intensivobas Soris; </li></ul><ul><li>organizmTa dasxivebas mivyavarT mutaciebis, simsivnisa da daberebis ganviTarebamde . OH, O 2 .- radikalebis formirebis gziT; </li></ul><ul><li>Tavisufali radikalebis warmoqmna ZiriTadad xdeba qsovilovani sunTqvis sistemaSi. swored isini azianeben da abereben ujredsa da organizms; </li></ul>
  37. 39. organuli dazianebebi oqsidaciuri stresis dros <ul><li>kanis, sisxlZarRvebisa da Sinagani organoebis dabereba; </li></ul><ul><li>dabali simkvrivis lipoproteidebis daJangva (aTerosklerozis ganviTareba); </li></ul><ul><li>ujredTa dnm-is dazianeba; </li></ul><ul><li>anemia; </li></ul><ul><li>ujredTa apoptozuri sikvdili; </li></ul>
  38. 40. Tavisufali radikalebis generaciis mitoqondriuli gzebi
  39. 41. oqsidaturi stresi da dabereba: aqvT mitoqondriebs kritikuli roli?
  40. 42. Tavisufali radikalebis Semakavebeli antioqsidanturi sistemebi
  41. 43. Caenorhabditis elegans sicocxlis xangrZlivobis grafiki. Savi – normaluri egzemplarebi lurji da wiTeli – gamorTuli sxvadasxva mitoqondrialuri sod-ebiT ( Van Raamsdonk J.M., Hekimi S. Deletion of the Mitochondrial Superoxide Dismutase sod-2 Extends Lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans // PLoS Genetics. 2009 . 5 ( 2 ): e1000361 )
  42. 45. Pathways that Impact Mammalian Aging
  43. 46. ujredis daberebis centrosomuli (centrioluri) Teoria
  44. 47. <ul><li>ujredis diferencirebisa da replikaciuri daberebis ganmapirobel centralur struqturas – ujredis “gayofaTa mTvlels” ( счетчик делений ) warmoadgens centrosoma (centriolebi). </li></ul><ul><li>centrosomis aRniSnuli zemoqmedeba ujredze xorcieldeba ramodenime sxvadasxva meqanizmis: </li></ul><ul><li>1) centrosomuli rnm-is (romelic mcire rnm-ebs (siRNA) tips miekuTvneba), </li></ul><ul><li>2) centrosomasTan dakavSirebuli matriculi rnm-is, </li></ul><ul><li>3) centrosomis mier formirebuli citoConCxis saSualebiT. </li></ul><ul><li>Sedegebi gamoqveynebulia Semdeg gamocemebSi: Cell Biology International (2005), Biochemistry (Moscow) (2005), Успехи геронтологии (2008) da sxva . </li></ul>
  45. 48. centrosomis agebulebis gamartivebuli sqema ( ZuZumwovarTa interfazul ujredi)
  46. 49. eukariotebis citoConCxi. aqtinuri filamentebi SeRebilia wiTlad, tubulinuri filamentebi – mwvaned, birTvi - cisfrad
  47. 50. eukariotebis citoConCxi. keratinuli gardamavali filamentebi.
  48. 51. statiebi, romlebSic moyvanilia monacemebi centrosomuli rnm-is aRmoCenis Sesaxeb: <ul><li>Alliegro MC, Alliegro MA, Palazzo RE. Centrosome-associated RNA in surf clam oocytes // Proc Natl Acad Sci USA . 2006;103(24):9034-8. </li></ul><ul><li>Pederson T. The centrosome: built on an mRNA? // Nature Cell Biology . 2006. Vol. 8. № 7. P. 652–654. </li></ul><ul><li>M. Chapman and M.C. Alliegro A symbiogenetic basis for the centrosome? // Symbiosis . Vol. 44, Nos. 1–3 (2007) 23–31. </li></ul><ul><li>Alliegro MC, Alliegro MA. Centrosomal RNA correlates with intron-poor nuclear genes in Spisula oocytes // Proc Natl Acad Sci USA . 2008 May 13; 105(19):6993-7. </li></ul><ul><li>Alliegro MC. The implications of centrosomal RNA // RNA Biol . 2008 Oct-Dec; 5(4):198-200. </li></ul>
  49. 52. <ul><li>Spradling A. C., Zheng Y. The mother of all stem cells? // Science . 2007. Vol. 315. P. 469–470. </li></ul><ul><li>Yamashita Y. M., Mahowald A. P., Perlin J. R., Fuller M. T. Asymmetric inheritance of mother versus daughter centrosome in stem cell division // Science . 2007. Vol. 315. P. 518–521. </li></ul>statiebi, romlebSic gamoTqmuli iqna mosazreba embrionaluri Rerovani ujredebis diferencirebis procesSi centrosomis centralur rolis Sesaxeb :
  50. 55. gmadlobT yuradRebisaTvis!

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