ზეგამტარობა

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ზეგამტარობა

  1. 1. Aaleqsandre Sengelaia iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti zegamtarobis saocari samyaro 3.04.2009
  2. 2. eleqtruli deni <ul><li>metalebSi eleqtronebi sustad arian dakavSirebuli birTvTan da SeuZliaT Tavisufali moZraoba. </li></ul><ul><li>Tavisufali eleqtronebi </li></ul><ul><li>metalebi kargad atareben dens </li></ul>deni aris eleqtronebis mowesrigebuli moZraoba © John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  3. 3. eleqtruli deni  V I A v d q v d  t
  4. 4. winaRoba <ul><li>Tavisufali eleqtronebis </li></ul><ul><li>cxovreba ar aris advili ! </li></ul>winaRobis arsebobis gamo eleqtronebis energia ikargeba (gadadis siTburSi). winaRoba mcirdeba temperaturis SemcirebasTan erTad. http://regentsprep.org/Regents/physics/phys03/bresist/default.htm
  5. 5. Kamerlingh Onnes, 1911 metalebis winaRoba dabal temperaturebze Teoriuli modelebi:
  6. 6. ra aris temperatura ? civi neli atomebi cxeli : swrafi atomebi
  7. 7. temperaturuli Skalebi <ul><li>ori mTavari Skala (celsiusi da kelvini) </li></ul>100 celsiusi 373.15 kelvini 0 273.15 wylis duRili yinuli 0 -273.15 absoluturi nuli
  8. 8. temperaturuli Skala kelvinebSi 0 K ( absoluturi nuli ) 295 K ( oTaxis temperatura ) 273 K ( wylis gayinva ) 184 K ( yvelaze dabali temperatura antarqtikaSi ). 77 K ( Txevadi azoti ) 2.7 K ( kosmosis temperatura ) 255 K ( Zalian civi amindi )
  9. 9. Absolute Zero must mean “stopped” slide 1 … da “civi” niSnavs nels Tu “cxeli” niSnavs swrafs absoluturi nuli unda niSnavdes uZravs . Termodinamikis kanonebis Tanaxmad absoluturi nulis miRweva SeuZlebelia, magram SeiZleba usasrulod mivuaxlovdeT mas. amJamad dabali temperaturis rekordia 10 -10 K anu 0.1 nanokelvini !
  10. 10. ramodenime tipiuri temperatura temperatura Celsius ( º C) Absolute (K) tropikebi adamiani oTaxis temperatura yinulis wertili antarqtikis zamTari myari CO 2 Txevadi Jangbadi Txevadi azoti Txevadi heliumi absoluturi nuli 45 37 20 0 - 50 - 78 - 183 - 196 - 269 - 273 318 310 293 273 223 195 90 77 4 0
  11. 11. Cveulebrivi macivari siTxe (freoni) moZraobs sistemaSi. kompresori amoZravebs siTxes kondensoris konturSi maRali wnevis qveS (~ 10 atm. ). siTxe ifrqveva gafarToebis Sedegad aorTqlebis konturSi sadac wneva SedarebiT naklebia (~ 2 atm. ). cold reservoir (fridge interior) T=5 0 C hot reservoir (fridge exterior) T=25 0 C P V liquid gas liquid+gas 1 2 3 4 compressor condenser throttling valve evaporator processes at P = const,  Q=dH
  12. 13. Kamerlingh Onnes, 1911 idealuri gamtaroba – zegamtaroba ! T c
  13. 14. deni wredSi ibrunebs minimum 10 10 weli ! marTlac nulia Tu ara winaRoba ? I B
  14. 15. zegamtarobis meqanizmi : eleqtronebis dawyvileba - kuperis wyvilebi
  15. 17. eleqtruli energiis Senaxva zegamtarebSi
  16. 18. maRaltemperaturuli zegamtaroba Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 (La 1.85 Ba .15 )CuO 4 YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 Hg 0.8 Tl 0.2 Ba 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 8.33 Tl 2 Ba 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10 kritikuli temperatura ( K ) wlebi
  17. 19. Power Transmission in USA <ul><li>2001: Detroit, USA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detroit Edison at the Frisbie Substation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>three 400-foot HTS cables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100 million watts of power </li></ul></ul>http://www.ornl.gov/sci/fed/applied/htspa/cable.htm
  18. 21. Large HTS Power cable Bi-2223 cable -Albany New York – commissioned fall 2006 February 2008 updated with YBCO section
  19. 24. Detecting 100 fT magnetic fields using SQUIDs, S uperconducting Q uantum I nterference D evices Prototype of a SQUID-based magnetoencelography system developed at the Chieti University (courtesy of G.L. Romani).
  20. 27. Zlieri magnituri velebis Seqmna solenoidi B I
  21. 28. magnetorezonansuli tomografia (MRI) zegamtarobis gamoyeneba medicinaSi
  22. 29. magnetorezonansuli tomografia (MRI) zegamtarobis gamoyeneba medicinaSi
  23. 30. 1500 tona zegamtari kabelebi 27 km gvirabi 3286 mtz kontaqti Large Hadron Collider 15000 MJ of magnetic energy 1232 zegamtari magniti didi adronuli kolaideri- CERN Switzerland France Mont Blanc Jenevis tba
  24. 31. zegamtarebis meore saocari Tviseba: sruliad gamodevnis magnitur velsB meisneris efeqti
  25. 33. zegamtari matarebeli MagLev 500 km/sT <ul><li>Yamanashi Test Site, Japan </li></ul><ul><li>33 km long, >500 Km/hr </li></ul><ul><li>Segment of Tokyo-Osaka new line </li></ul>Japanese railways MagLev train First LTS, now HTS
  26. 34. The End
  27. 35. winaRoba <ul><li>Tavisufali eleqtronebis </li></ul><ul><li>cxovreba ar aris martivi ! </li></ul><ul><li>winaRobis gamomwvevi mizezebi : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eleqtronebis dajaxeba erTmaneTTan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sxva atomebTan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>minarevebTan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>winaRobis arsebobis gamo energia ikargeba. </li></ul>
  28. 36. Nb 3 Sn zegamtari kabeli
  29. 37. zegamtari mavTulebi da lentebi Cross sections filamentary BSCCO wire
  30. 38. MagLev Yamanashi

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