RUOCHEN YANG Oct. ~ Nov. 2012 OF MUMBAI ANALYSIS
GEOGRAPHY -The city of Mumbai is situated on India’s west coast, on the Arabian Sea, roughly 500 km south of the Tropic of Cancer. Originally, the city rested upon seven small islands. These islands are now connected to one another by reclaimed land.THE CITY MUMBAI ECONOMY -Mumbai is Indias largest city (by population) and is the financial and commercial capital of the country as it generates 6.16% of the total GDP.
POPULATION DENSITY Table of Population Density Comparison Between Mumbai And Madrid MUMBAI MADRID Superficial 603.4 km2 604.3 km2THE CITY MUMBAI Population 12.5 million 3.2 million Population Density 20,500 persons/km ² 5,30 persons/km ² Living Space 4.5 m ²/person 188.8 m ²/person
THE CLIMATE The Climate of Mumbai is a tropical wet and dry climate. Mumbais climate can be best described as moderate temperatures with high level of humidity. Its average temperature is 27.2 °C and averageTHE CITY MUMBAI precipitation of 242.2cm. The temperatures in average about 30 °C in summer and 18 °C in winter. Between June and September, the south west monsoon rains lash the city.
CAUSE OF FORMATION -The growth of immigration: according to the official survey in 2001, the population of Mumbai reached 12million. The rapid population growth is one of the main reasons of Mumbai’s housing tension. -Severe gap between the rich and the poor: the colonial malformed economic rule left, as well as uneven economic development, resulting in the severe gap between the rich and the poor. Table of The Poor Population in India 1960 1970 1980 1990 Population of the poor (million) 172 245 340 270 The proportion of the total population 39% 45% 52.4% 48.3%SLUM
- Housing shortage: with the increase of population density and the rise of real estate prices, Mumbai’s housing problems is worsening. Table of Investigation of House Situation in Mumbai 1961 1971 1981 1991 Population (million) 4.2 5.09 8.2 9.9 House (million) 1.09 1.45 2.23 2.92 Person per house 3.7 4.0 3.7 3.4 (person/house) Proportion of the family 72.3% 77.4% 68.9% 72.9% that only one room -Inappropiate urban planning: during Mumbai’s colonial period, the initial urban development didn’t have any formal . Then the independent MumbaiSLUM government made several new plans, but due to the limited level of productivity and urbanization, or wrongly expected the future of urban development, those new planes could not be realized well.
PROPOSED POSITION PROPOSED POSITION -- Jijamata Nagar
LIVING CONDITION -1.68 acres -68,400m² -3500 slum housesPROPOSED POSITION
TRANSPOTATION & CIRCUMSTANCE Dr. E Moses Marg Rd Dr. Annie Besant RdPROPOSED POSITION Alleys inside the slums Water Canal
BMC Quarters Butterfly BooksPROPOSED POSITION Harmony Tower Panchashil Building
RubbishPROPOSED POSITION Containers’ Centre Love Grove Waste Water Treatment Plant Worli
Readymoney Terrace Worli Garage OfficePROPOSED POSITION National Environmental Engineering Research Building
MCGM School Ashwin Stationary & XeroxPROPOSED POSITION EX. Eng. WSSD
PROBLEMSPROPOSED POSITION -Ocean of slums: -Lack of public -Shortage of full of houses -Narrow space: services: no - Low-efficient slum makes it very proper houses: not hardly to see drainage difficult to distance sanitation and system: when everyone intervene any hygiene has houses between monsoon projects. in this area. houses and the maintained. comes, the roads are slum area narrow. becomes to a mass.
EXISTING TYPES OF HOUSE 1. Chawls & Patra chawls: -constructed in abundance in the early 1900s, now facing the threaten of collapse. 1.1 Chawl •They are often 4 to 5 stories with about 10 to 20 tenements; •A usual tenement in a chawl consists of one all-PROPOSED POSITION purpose room, that functions both as a living and sleeping space, and a kitchen that also serves as a dining room; •People living in a chawl have little privacy. Due to the close nature of the quarters, trivial news and gossip travels quickly. On the other hand, however, this intimate living situation also leads to a friendly atmosphere, with support networks akin to familial relationships. 1.2 Patra chawl Consists mainly of semi-permanent structures – both authorized and unauthorized.
2. Zopadpattis (squatter housing) •Zopadpattis are squatters in vernacular. •They are essentially poor neighborhood areas or “blights” and the most pre-dominant informalPROPOSED POSITION settlements falling under the category of slum. •Consist of various waste firm materials: wood, tin, clay, and tile, etc.
3. Pavement dwellings: •Pavement dwellings are shanties built on footpath alongside the road, close to workplace. •The living conditions in pavementPROPOSED POSITION dwellings are worse than those in squatters. •Most of the pavement dwellers pay rents to local strongmen who informally control the pavements.
OBJETIVES -Propose the restructuring and reorganization of these places to improve their basic needs, referring to their culture, environmental factors, climate, materials, structure and infrastructure; -To find feasible house forms for slum dwellers;PROPOSED POSITION -Definite habitable green spaces, focusing on methods involving sustainable technologies; -Creating multifunctional places to enrich the city life of the slum dwellers.
GENERAL SITUATION Chawl buildings typically have two to four stories with ten to twenty units on each floor. Each unit has one or two rooms and opens in a common corridor. These units are typically 15- 20m² each. Each roomHOUSE FORM PROTOTYPE of 2.75m×2.75m are used as multifunctional areas. The toilets are outside the units. The overall placement of the toilets differ from chawl to chawl but typically, four to five toilets are located towards the end of the chawl. There is one common bathing area or a common washing area. Every unit also has one bathing area called ‘mori’. CHAWL
-The overall layout of this chawl CHAWL FORM A is a ‘C’. At one end of the ‘C’ shaped chawl are the four common toilets on each floor. -The internal courtyard inHOUSE FORM PROTOTYPE formed by the ‘C’ shape of the building was originally used by children to play. Now it is mostly used by the residents to hang clothes, park cycles and carry out other daily chores. Activities like cultural events also happen in the courtyards. The internal courtyards form a very significant parts of the chawl complexes from a social as well CHAWL as spatial point-of-view.
CHAWL FORM B -This chawl is linear and has toilets on either ends of the chawl. There are two toilets onHOUSE FORM PROTOTYPE each end for eight units in all. -- -Although the shapes of the chawls are slightly different, their overall layouts are very similar in that they have common corridors that circle internal courtyards and provide access to individual dwelling units as well as shared toilets and staircases. CHAWL
CHAWL FORM A PLAN & SECTIONHOUSE FORM PROTOTYPE CHAWL
CHAWL FORM B PLAN & SECTIONHOUSE FORM PROTOTYPE CHAWL
MULTIFUNCTION The corridors or balconies at least 1.8m wide are ideal but in fact the balconies or corridorsHOUSE FORM PROTOTYPE of 0.9-1.2m wide are used the most. This is true in the case of chawl corridors that are less than 1.8m wide, yet are one of the most multi-functional areas in the buildings. It is used for sitting, sleeping, reading, storing and playing. The families often make a sitting cabinet with storage in it and keep it in the CHAWL corridor.
MULTIFUNCTION Other multi-functional areas of the chawls are the rooms of the unitsHOUSE FORM PROTOTYPE themselves. -The living room is typically used for entertaining, sitting, studying , sleeping, watching TV, chatting and so on. -The kitchen is used for cooking, dining, bathing, slee ping, sitting, changing and storing. CHAWL
STRENGTHS -Social network The analysis shows that a dense social-network between theHOUSE FORM PROTOTYPE residents is one of the main reasons for them to live in the chawls. The building form of the chawls contributes substantially to the close-knit social life that the residents lead. The combination of all common areas like courtyards, corridors, staircases and so on provide ample scope for social interaction in these cohesive chawl communities. This social network is the support system of the residents and CHAWL needs to be maintained.
Research has shown that social The combination of spaces like the networks often play an important corridors, courtyards, staircases and so role in the development of people on, are spaces where the social in life and that their connections are created. If the current neighborhoods of residence can residents are taken out from this shape these networks. environment and put into newer high-HOUSE FORM PROTOTYPE rise apartment buildings, the social connections will be lost. CHAWL
STRENGTHS -Affordable rent for middle class; Currently, the rent is not more than Rupees (Rs) 250. The rents ofHOUSE FORM PROTOTYPE newer one bedroom 710 square feet apartments in the same case study areas are anywhere from Rs. 25000 to Rs. 50000. In a dense city like Mumbai, with a lack of affordable housing, chawls provide a sustainable model for middle class housing that should be maintained and can potentially serve as a model for future housing projects. -Good location. Everyday amenities lie within walking distance of chawls. CHAWL
WEAKNESS The residents do find using the common toilets awkward and inconvenient, especially the women, but they have become accustomed toHOUSE FORM PROTOTYPE this condition. Including the toilets in the units of the existing structure would be difficult because this would require significant structural and utility changes. If these changes were possible, many chawls in Mumbai would have already made them. This suggests that simply adding a toilet in each unit is not possible unless it is reconstructed or is a new chawl building. It is very inconvenient for the person living on the other end of the ‘C’ to pass all the units CHAWL just to reach the other end to use the toilets.
WEAKNESSHOUSE FORM PROTOTYPE Many of the original timber ceiling joists have been replaced with steel members. In some places, steel W-sections are used as additional columns. These structural additions were the result of strengthening work conducted by an engineer ten to fifteen years ago when cracks were seen in the original CHAWL timber columns and beams.
SWOT ANALYSIS STENGTHS WEAKNESSES S W -Social network; -Structurally weak;HOUSE FORM PROTOTYPE -Affordable rent for middle class; -Lack of sanitation; -Good location. -Dangerous to live in. CHAWL O T OPPORTUNITIES THREATS Creating opportunities for The residents of the Jijamata Chawl economically and socially are concerned that the old chawl sustainable living for the middle has become structurally weak and CHAWL class in the central city. may get pulled down one day.
SUPPORT Both DB Realty and Lokhandwala Builders are looking forward for redevelopment of this huge slum of about 1.68 acres and residents areHOUSE FORM PROTOTYPE tired of waiting since last 8 years now. Many have sold out their homes in less cost because of need of money. In Worlis Jijamata Nagar, a hut costs Rs 45 lakh. DB Realty and Lokhandwala Builders are eyeing this slum settlement spread over 68,400 square metres. DB Realty has already spent Rs 16 crore on buying several shanties. "The land will be worth Rs 1 lakh a square foot after redevelopment so they can afford to spend crores," says Datta Navghane, chairman of the slum society. A builder has already offered Rs 45 lakh per shanty in Worlis Mahatma Phule Nagar. CHAWL
ATTITUDE -WOMEN -OLD PEOPLE An interesting phenomenon where Old people are as equally involved in the women who have spent their entire chawl activities as the young. Since childhoods in chawls do not want to many families have old people residingHOUSE FORM PROTOTYPE leave the chawls and live in apartment with them, old people can group buildings where residents hardly know together to socialize. each other. These women typically -YOUNG PEOPLE prefer to marry men either from the The younger, wage-earning participants same chawl or a different chawl nearby. are open to the idea of redevelopment as -NEIGHBOURS long as the chawl culture, neighbors and The residents of both the chawls the location of their building is not genuinely love the communities they live changed. The younger generation wants in because “everyone cares for one the builder to provide them with self- another” as one participant puts it. All the sufficient units so that they can buy a unit residents in general are so attached adjacent to theirs or anywhere in the CHAWL emotionally to the chawl life that the idea same community if they feel like of living in another place scares them. expanding.