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Articles and determiners   Maria R & Antea C
Articles and determiners   Maria R & Antea C
Articles and determiners   Maria R & Antea C
Articles and determiners   Maria R & Antea C
Articles and determiners   Maria R & Antea C
Articles and determiners   Maria R & Antea C
Articles and determiners   Maria R & Antea C
Articles and determiners   Maria R & Antea C
Articles and determiners   Maria R & Antea C
Articles and determiners   Maria R & Antea C
Articles and determiners   Maria R & Antea C
Articles and determiners   Maria R & Antea C
Articles and determiners   Maria R & Antea C
Articles and determiners   Maria R & Antea C
Articles and determiners   Maria R & Antea C
Articles and determiners   Maria R & Antea C
Articles and determiners   Maria R & Antea C
Articles and determiners   Maria R & Antea C
Articles and determiners   Maria R & Antea C
Articles and determiners   Maria R & Antea C
Articles and determiners   Maria R & Antea C
Articles and determiners   Maria R & Antea C
Articles and determiners   Maria R & Antea C
Articles and determiners   Maria R & Antea C
Articles and determiners   Maria R & Antea C
Articles and determiners   Maria R & Antea C
Articles and determiners   Maria R & Antea C
Articles and determiners   Maria R & Antea C
Articles and determiners   Maria R & Antea C
Articles and determiners   Maria R & Antea C
Articles and determiners   Maria R & Antea C
Articles and determiners   Maria R & Antea C
Articles and determiners   Maria R & Antea C
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Articles and determiners Maria R & Antea C

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  • 1. María Robles Rueda Antea Cabanellas Arroyaga
  • 2.  
  • 3.
    • Especific uses related to groups.
    • Uses on objects.
    • Emphatic use.
    • Most and the most.
    • Importance of context.
  • 4.
    • Classes:
    • This is one way to refer to classes, and it is perhaps more formal than using a plural.
    • The tiger is threatened with extinction.
  • 5.
    • National groups:
      • Group as a whole:
        • The French eat in restaurants more than the English .
      • Single examples are not formed in the same way:
        • A Frenchman/ woman, an Englishman/woman.
  • 6.
    • Other groups:
    • If they are clearly plural:
      • The social Democrats, the Rolling Stones
  • 7.
    • Geographical names:
      • The following use the :
        • Rivers: the Thames.
        • Mountain ranges: the Alps.
        • Oceans: the Mediterranean.
        • Unique features: the Channel, the Artic.
        • Compass point/ areas: The East, the Middle East.
        • Countries (Collective or plural): the United Kingdom, the Netherlands.
      • This does not apply to:
        • Mountain peaks: Everest (but The Matterhorn)
        • Lakes: Lake Genova.
        • Continents: Asia.
        • Countries: France, Spain.
  • 8.
    • Place names:
    • Post- modification, especially with… of… place a role in place names.
        • Leeds University/ the University of Leeds.
    • If the first part of a place-name is another name, the normal rules about zero article are applied. The same applies in geographical names
        • Bronw’s restaurant
        • Canvey Island.
  • 9.
    • Unique objects:
      • The moon, the sun.
    • Note that there are other suns and moons in the universe.
      • This planet has a small moon.
  • 10.
    • Titles:
    • This tend to be ‘unique’.
        • The director of studies.
    • If the title is post-modified (have a description coming after the noun), the is more likely, but not essential. Compare:
        • She became President in 2008.
        • She became ( the ) president of the country in 2008.
  • 11.
    • Other titles:
    • The may be part of the title, and so is capitalized.
        • Newspapers: The Independent, The Sunday Times
  • 12.
    • Musical instruments:
        • Jane plays the flute (in general).
        • The guitar is my favourite instrument (in general).
      • It is, of course, still possible to use an article when we refer to an object.
        • There was a small brown flute in the window of the shop.
  • 13.
    • This is heavily stressed and emphasizes the following noun.
        • This hotel is the place to stay.
  • 14.
      • Most hotels in England are very expensive. (making a generalization)
      • This is the most expensive hotel in town. (talking about a specific hotel)
  • 15.
    • The definite article refers to already mentioned items, and so its use depends on context.
        • The Smiths had a son and a daughter. The son was in the Army and the daughter was training to be a doctor.
        • On the Saturday, there was a terrible storm.
      • Here, the Saturday refers to a day in an area of time already mentioned.
        • On the Saturday of that week…
  • 16.
    • Indefinite articles
  • 17.
    • A boy An apple A car
    A / AN Use ' a' with nouns starting with a consonant (letters that are not vowels), 'an' with nouns starting with a vowel ( a,e,i,o,u ) NOTE: An before an h mute - an hour, an honour. A before u and eu when they sound like 'you': a eu ropean, a u niversity, a u nit
  • 18.
    • to refer to something for the first time
      • An elephant and a mouse fell in love.
      • Would you like a drink ?
      • I've finally got a good job .
  • 19.
    • with names of jobs
      • John is a doctor .
      • Mary is training to be an engineer .
    • with nationalities and religions
      • John is an Englishman .
      • Kate is a Catholic .
    • with musical instruments
      • Sherlock Holmes was playing a violin when the visitor arrived.
      • ( BUT to describe the activity we say "He plays the violin.")
    • with names of days
      • I was born on a Thursday
  • 20.
    • to refer to a kind of, or example of something
      • the mouse had a tiny nose
      • the elephant had a long trunk
      • it was a very strange car
    • with singular nouns, after the words 'what' and 'such'
      • What a shame !
      • She's such a beautiful girl .
  • 21.
    • meaning 'one', referring to a single object or person
      • I'd like an orange and two lemons please.
      • The burglar took a diamond necklace and a valuable painting .
    • Notice also that we usually say a hundred , a thousand , a million .
    NOTE: that we use 'one ' to add emphasis or to contrast with other numbers: I don't know one person who likes eating elephant meat. We've got six computers but only one printer .
  • 22.
    • Cases in which there is no need of the article
  • 23.
    • After the 's possessive case:
      • His brother's car .
      • Peter's house .
    • With uncountable nouns:
      • Rice is the main food in Asia.
      • Milk is often added to tea in England.
      • War is destructive.
  • 24.
    • with the names of languages
      • French is spoken in Tahiti.
      • English uses many words of Latin origin.
      • Indonesian is a relatively new language.
    • with names of countries (if singular)
      • Germany is an important economic power.
      • He's just returned from Zimbabwe .
      • ( But: I'm visiting the United States next week.)
  • 25.
    • with the names of meals .
      • Lunch is at midday.
      • Dinner is in the evening.
      • Breakfast is the first meal of the day.
    • with people's names (if singular)
      • John ' s coming to the party.
      • George King is my uncle.
      • ( But: we're having lunch with the Morgans tomorrow.)
  • 26.
    • with titles and names :
      • Prince Charles is Queen Elizabeth's son.
      • President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas.
      • Dr. Watson was Sherlock Holmes' friend.
      • ( But: the Queen of England, the Pope . )
    • with professions :
      • Engineering is a useful career.
      • He'll probably go into medicine .
  • 27.
    • with names of shops :
      • I'll get the card at Smith's .
      • Can you go to Boots for me?
    • with years :
      • 1948 was a wonderful year.
      • Do you remember 1995 ?
  • 28.
    • with the names of individual mountains, lakes and islands :
      • Mount McKinley is the highest mountain in Alaska.
      • She lives near Lake Windermere .
      • Have you visited Long Island ?
    • with most names of towns, streets, stations and airports :
      • Victoria Station is in the centre of London.
      • Can you direct me to Bond Street?
      • They're flying from Heathrow.
  • 29.
    • by car by train by air on foot on holiday on air (in broadcasting) at school at work at University in church in prison in bed
  • 30.  
  • 31.
    • Determiners are words placed in front of a noun to make it clear what the noun refers to. The word ' people ' by itself is a general reference to some group of human beings. If someone says ' these people', we know which group they are talking about, and if they say ' a lot of people' we know how big the group is.
  • 32.
    • Definite and Indefinite articles the, a, an Demonstratives this, that, these, those
    • Possessives my, your, his, her, its, our, their
    • Quantifiers a few, a little, much, many, a lot of, most, some, any, enough, etc.
    • Numbers one, ten, thirty, etc.
    • Distributives all, both, half, either, neither, each, every
    • Difference words other, another
    • Question words Which, what, whose
    • Defining words which, whose
    • The following words are pre-determiners . They go before determiners, such as articles: such and what, half, rather, quite
  • 33.  

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