- series of strategies that students can undertake before
reading a text
- can help students understand the material the
they go through it so that they don't have to read
it several times.
- students can save by reading more efficiently
- students can have a more solid basis of
knowledge when exam time comes around.
It is Important to organize
yourself before you read.
a group or individual
creativity technique by
which efforts are made
to find a conclusion for
a specific problem by
gathering a list of ideas
contributed by its
-is to talk about a subject in detail.
-help us develop a better
perspective on issues by bringing
out diverse view points.
views on an issue,
we get a clearer
picture of the
problem and are
Developing a diagram to visually outline information.
Often chapters in texts
You can also write out a
series of questions you
expect to be answered
Pictures and other visual material can
activate your prior knowledge. Use the
Internet to search for
pictures related to your
title/topic to give you
visual images of what
you are about to read.
- are not an overview, but
rather a presentation of
information (either verbal or
visual) that are "umbrellas"
for the new material to be
- can be as simple as a
introducing a new concept or
a list of tasks to be done by
Unfamiliar key words need to be
taught to students before reading
so that new words, background
information, and comprehension
can improve together.
basic frameworks included in the text should
be pointed out: cause-effect or problem-
solution, signal words, main idea sentences,
highlighted phrases, headings and subtitles.
A Purpose for Reading
they find that purpose not only
directs their reading towards a
goal, but helps to focus their
attention. It is a good idea to pose
predictions of the outcome and
problems which need to be
Depending upon the content
area, a discussion of the author
of the particular work can be
helpful to the understanding of
I Want to
How I will
Reading the Intro and Conclusion
All books are written to be read in a specific order, but that
order often reveals meaning in a sequence that makes the
information difficult to remember. Teach students to manage
their texts by reading the introduction and conclusion first.
Get students in the habit of spending a
few minutes doing research on the topic
before attacking a book
Students create a story map
and then refer to the map to
answer student or teacher
As students read, they develop questions for the author, about
the author’s intent for the selection of his or her success at
communicating it. One format uses these questions:
- Why is the author telling you that…?
- Does the author say it clearly?
- How could the author have said things more clearly?
- What would you say instead?
Students record their questions about the text
in their notebook, journal, or by using sticky
notes. They write their reaction during reading
and after reading the text.
Before reading the text, students write down
their questions in the left-hand page or
column, after reading, they answer the
questions in the right-hand column.
These are teacher-constructed questions that
helps students focus on essentials of the text
to be read.
The purpose is to capture the students’
thinking about the text during reading process.
While reading the text aloud, the teacher asks herself
questions such as “Why did this character say that:
Maybe if I keep reading I will find out.”
Using the title of the text and the pictures,
students generate questions. They ask
questions before they start to read and then
stop at different sections to answer their
questions and ask new ones.
Students are given questions. They think about
the answer individually, in pairs, and then in
small groups to reach a consensus.
Students participate in open ended discussions
in small self-selected groups. Teacher guide
pupils toward insights or interpretations
particularly suited to the text.