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Persuasion and argument in writing

Persuasion and argument in writing






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    Persuasion and argument in writing Persuasion and argument in writing Document Transcript

    • 2CONTENTS:INTRODUCTION ………………………………….………………….………... 3Chapter I. WRITING AS A PROCESS IN LANGUAGE STUDY …….......... 61.1The Importance of Writing …………………………………….………..….… 71.2 Five Steps of the Writing …………………………….…………….…….… 121.3 Principles of Effective Writing …………….………………………...……... 20Chapter II. PERSUASION AND ARGUMENT IN WRITING ……………. 272.1 Using Rhetorical Strategies for Persuasion …………………………….….. 322.2 Logical Fallacies ……………………………………………………….…… 472.3 Types of Evidence ………………………………………………………..… 522.4 Argumentation ………………………………………………………….…... 592.4.1Presenting an Argument …………………………………………………… 662.5 Persuading Effectively ………………………………………………….…... 71Chapter III. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF PERSUASION ANDARGUMENT IN TEACHING WRITING …………………………………... 823.1 Description of the course of the experimental work …………………..….… 823.2 Results of the experiment ………………………………………….………. 109CONCLUSIONS ……………………………………….……………………... 114BIBLIOGRAPHY …..……………………………………….….…………..… 117APPENDIX …………………………………………….……….…..... 121
    • 3INTRODUCTIONThe Master‘s Paper is devoted to the topic ―PERSUASION ANDARGUMENT IN WRITING‖. The conducted investigation is from the field ofmethods of teaching foreign languages.Writing is the active thinking process of understanding the author`s ideas,connecting those ideas to what you already know, and organizing all the ideas soone can put them on paper. Writing is a complex developmental challenge to beintertwined with many other developmental accomplishments: attention, memory,language, and motivation. Being a good writer in English means that a student hasgained a functional knowledge of the principles of the English grammar andwriting system. Most teachers agree that writing skills are increasingly importantand often not adequately taught, writing instruction often takes a backseat tophonics, handwriting skills, and reading comprehension. Many scholars find thatteaching writing may be more challenging than other subjects where there is ananswer key. Effective writing is one of the most important abilities that an English-speaker needs. Such ability is a crucial tool that aids the learning process and it isimportant in the nowadays ever-changing world. Additionally, a lot of internationalstandardized tests increasingly contain a writing component, and in some casesthese include a requirement to write an essay on a timed test.Writing is usefully described by scholars as a process, something whichshows continuous change in time like growth in organic nature. Different thingshappen at different stages in the process of putting thoughts into words and wordsonto paper. Todays world requires that the goal of teaching writing shouldimprove students communicative skills, because, only in that way, students canexpress themselves and learn how to follow the social and cultural rulesappropriate in each communicative circumstance.Many successful language learners know that one of the most importantabilities to possess is the ability to persuade and influence others. Persuasion iswidely perceived as a skill reserved for social influence, the process of guidingothers toward the adoption of an idea, attitude or action by rational and symbolic,
    • 4though not always logic, means. It is also commonly seen as just another form ofmanipulation – devious and to be avoided. But persuasion can be a force forenormous good, it can pull people together, move ideas forward, galvanize change,and forge constructive solutions. To do all that, however, people must understandpersuasion for what it is – it means to win others over, not to defeat them.Furthermore, it must be seen as an art form that requires commitment and practice,especially as today‘s world makes persuasion more necessary than ever.The actuality of the research work is to understand better teaching writingconcepts and strategies for developing persuasive and argumentative skills.Second, it is quite useful to enrich our knowledge on methods of teaching aimed atdeveloping writing skills when we teach English. Third, this research is quiteuseful and can have practical value for teaching and studying English as a foreign(second) language.The main objectives of the Work are the following:1. to give general notion on writing concepts, presenting the process of writing,strategies forming writing skills while studying English.2. to describe in details activities which are used in teaching persuasivewriting.3. to show the practical use of different writing activities.4. to show principles and stages in developing persuasive writing skills.While writing this Master’s Paper the following research methods wereused:1) Analysis.2) Comparison.3) Description.4) Generalization.5) Selection.6) Synthetical method.The analytical method has been applied for making an overview of theexisting teaching writing concepts. Comparison was used for finding out common
    • 5features and distinctions in the viewpoints of professional teachers who dealt withthe problem of teaching writing. Descriptive method is the leading one for thewriting of this Paper and is used within each point both in theoretical and practicalparts. Selection is also widely used for the writing practical part, namely when allthe selected activities, methods and strategies were collected and described. Formaking general conclusions we have applied synthetical method.While writing this Paper different scientific works were used. The Workconsists of the Introduction, three Chapters, Conclusion, Bibliography andAppendix.The Introduction includes the main goal and objectives of the investigation,the actuality of the topic and the motives for its choice.Chapter І presents the general idea of what writing is and the teachingwriting components. It also contains the description of methods, activities andstrategies for developing writing skills.Chapter ІІ contains an overview of persuasive and argumentative writing,and such activities used in mastering persuasive skills. The main focus is made onpractical use of the writing activities during the lesson.Chapter ІІІ contains Experimental Analysis of ―Persuasion and ArgumentTechniques in Writing‖ and its results.The Conclusion contains the results of the investigation on the topic.Bibliography presents the materials that helped the researcher in the overallstudy of the certain topic and finally to realize the objectives of investigation.
    • 6Chapter I. WRITING AS A PROCESS IN LANGUAGE STUDYWriting which was once considered the domain of the elite and welleducated, has become an essential tool for people of all walks of life in today‘sglobal community. Whether used in reporting analyses of current events fornewspapers or web pages, composing academic essays, business reports, letters, ore-mail messages, the ability to write effectively allows individuals from differentcultures and backgrounds to communicate. Furthermore it is now widelyrecognized that writing plays a vital role not only in conveying information, butalso in transforming knowledge to create new knowledge. It is thus of centralimportance to students in academic and second language programs throughout theworld. In many of these settings, the assessment of writing ability is of criticalimportance. Employers, academic instructors and writing teachers need to makedecisions about potential employees and students, based on how well they cancommunicate in writing.Writing is normally a continuing and sustained act of communication. Thisis not true of most spoken contexts especially those most commonly experiencedby children, who are most accustomed to ‗short burst‘ utterances and the give andtake interruptions, questioning and replies from their listeners. Writing is incontrast a more solitary and demanding activity. The writer seeks to maintain anindependent and if possible uninterrupted flow of language sometimes over anextended period of time before the final written product is achieved. Compared tospeech writing is ‗painfully slow‘. In contrast to speaking, writing is normallymuch more organized and coherent. The writer is expected to edit out digressionsand repetitions. In most written texts there is no place for ‗fillers‘ and only verylimited opportunities exist to communicate the subtleties of intonation, facialexpression and gesture (by means of underlining, for example, exclamation marksor block capitals). In fact in creating a written text of any length the writer isnormally expected to choose language forms that are more concise than those used
    • 7in spoken contexts, but at the same time expression is often more complex in itssyntax and more varied in its vocabulary.Since writing is a complex and cognitively demanding activity, to besuccessful, writers need an understanding of the components of a qualitytest as well as knowledge of writing strategies that can be used to shapeand organize the writing process. The following subchapters examine thenature of writing as a process which involves a variety of activities, as wellas analyse writing components in order to increase the reader’s awarenessof what appears to happen when a student attempts to create a written text.[31, pp.10-16]§1.1 The Importance of WritingThe ability to write effectively is becoming increasingly important in ourglobal community, and instruction in writing is thus assuming an increasing role inforeign-language education. As advances in transportation and technology allowpeople from nations and cultures throughout the world to interact with each other,communications across languages becomes ever more essentials. As a result, theability to speak and write a second language is becoming widely recognized as animportant skill for educational, business, and personal reasons. Writing has alsobecome more important as tenets of communicative language teaching-that is,teaching language as a system of communication rather than as an object of study-have taken hold in both second-and foreign-language settings. The traditional viewin language classes that writing functions primarily to support and reinforcepatterns of oral language use, grammar, and vocabulary, is being supplanted by thenotion that writing in a second language is a worthwhile enterprise in and of itself.Wherever the acquisition of a specific language skill is seen as important, itbecomes equally important to test that skill, and writing is no exception. Thus, asthe role of writing in second- language education increases, there is an ever greaterdemand for valid and reliable way to test writing ability, both for classroom use
    • 8and as a predictor of future professional or academic success. Writing is put bypeople in different situations are so varied that no single definition can cover allsituations. For example, the ability to write down exactly what someone else saysis quite different from the ability to write a persuasive argument. Instead ofattempting an all-encompassing definition, then, it may be more useful to begin bydelineating the situations in which people learn and use second languages ingeneral and second-language writing in particular, and the types of writing that arelikely to be relevant for second-language writers. While virtually all children areable to speak their native language when they begin school, writing must beexplicitly taught. Furthermore, in comparison to speaking, listening, and reading,writing outside of school settings is relatively rare, and extensive public writing isreserved for those employed in specialized careers such as education, law, orjournalism. In first-language settings, the ability to write well has a very closerelationship to academic and professional success.Writing as compared to speaking, can be seen as a more standardized systemwhich must be acquired through special instruction. Mastery of this standardsystem is an important prerequisite of cultural and educational participation and themaintenance of one‘s rights and duties. The fact that writing is more standardizedthan speaking allows for a higher degree of sanctions when people deviate fromthat standard. Thus, in first-language education, learning to write involves learninga specialized version of a language already known to students. This specializedlanguage differs in important ways from spoken language, both in form and use,but builds upon linguistic resources that students already possess. The ultimategoal of learning to write is, for most students, to be able to participate fully inmany aspects of society beyond school, and for some, to pursue careers thatinvolve extensive writing. [52, pp.32-46]The value of being able to write effectively increases as students‘ progressthrough compulsory education on to higher education. At the university level inparticular, writing is seen not just as a standardized system of communication butalso as an essential tool for learning. At least in the English-speaking world one of
    • 9the main functions of writing at higher levels of education is to expand one‘s ownknowledge through reflection rather than simply to communicate information.Writing and critical thinking are seen as closely linked, and expertise in writing isseen as an indication that students have mastered the cognitive skills required foruniversity work. Or to phrase it somewhat more negatively, a perceived lack ofwriting expertise is frequently seen as a sign that students do not possess theappropriate thinking and reasoning skills that they need to succeed. In first-language writing instruction, therefore, particularly in higher education, a greatdeal of emphasis is placed on originality of thought, the development of ideas, andthe soundness of the writer‘s logic. Conventions of language {voice, tone, style,accuracy, mechanics} are important as well, but frequently these are seen assecondary matters, to be addressed after matters of content and organization. Whilethe specific goals of writing instruction may vary from culture to culture, it is clearthat writing is an important part of the curriculum in schools from earliest gradesonward, and that most children in countries that have a formal education systemwill learn to write, at least at a basic level, in that setting. In this sense, we can saythat first language writing instruction is relatively standardized within a particularculture. [27, pp.44-61]In contrast, the same cannot be said of second-language writing because ofthe wide variety of situations in which people learn and use second languages, bothas children and as adults, in schools and in other settings. We can distinguishbetween at least five main groups of second- language learners {adapted fromBernhardt, 1991}. The first group consists of children from a minority languagegroup receiving their education in the majority language. These children need tolearn to read and write in a language that is not spoken in their home in order tosucceed in school and ultimately in the workplace. A second group of children aremajority language speakers in immersion programs or otherwise learning a secondlanguage in school. In this case, mastery of the second language enhances theireducation but is not critical to ultimate educational success, in contrast to the firstgroup. A common factor for both groups of children is that their first language id
    • 10drill developing, and that, like first- language writers, writing is very much aschool-based and school-oriented activity.There are also three distinct groups of adult second-language learners. Thefirst group consists of immigrants to a new country, who are frequently from alower-prestige language background and may or may not be literate in their firstlanguage. For these learners, writing at a basic functional level is essential forsurvival in the workplace. In marked contrast to this group is a second group ofadults: those who have left their home countries to seek an advanced universitydegree. These adults are already highly educated and literate in their first language,and their writing needs are very sophisticated. Finally, there is a third group of L2learners: majority language group members who are learning a second language forpersonal interest and/ or career or educational enhancement. Like the secondgroup, this third group is generally well educated; unlike the second group,however, they may not have as great a need to write in their second language, andcertainly the writing that they will do is less complex and demanding than that ofthe second group. To summarize, then, groups of second-language learners can bedistinguished by age, by level of education and first-language literacy, and by thereal-world need for writing outside of the classroom. In addition to these factors,the ability and opportunity to write in a second language are also determined byother considerations. An additional factor is the relative similarity or differencebetween the two languages: writing in a language that is closely related to one‘snative language in terms of grammar, vocabulary, and writing system is clearlyeasier than writing in a language that is vastly different. Finally, an importantconsideration, which is related to the real-world need for writing discussed above,is the role of the second language as a language of wider communication: someonelearning English as a foreign language will probably have more realistic needs forwriting in that language than someone learning Russian.Effective writing skills are to a writer what petrol is to a car. Like the petroland car relationship, without solid skills writers cannot move ahead. These skillsdon‘t come overnight, and they require patience and determination. You have to
    • 11work smart and hard to acquire them. Only with experience, you can enter therealm of effective, always-in-demand writers.Of course, effective writing requires a good command of the language inwhich you write or want to write. Once you have that command, you need to learnsome tips and tricks so that you can have an edge over others in this hard-to-succeed world of writers. There are some gifted writers, granted. But gifted writersalso need to polish their skills frequently in order to stay ahead of competition andearn their livelihood. [41, pp.212-242]Good writing stays sharply focused. The writer knows what the subject is,and never veers far away from that subject. Think of the writer as a rower of a boattrying to row ashore. That rower must keep his eyes acutely focused on an objecton the shore in order to row straight. If he shifts focus, hell shift course and missthe dock. The same holds true for the writer. Good writing is also simple and clear,one should leave no doubt in the minds of his readers about what he or she is tryingto say to them. Unfortunately, some people seem to forget this principle, especiallywhen they write.In academic writing, students struggle to achieve a style of writing that doesnot come naturally to them. Learners imagine that they must follow a convolutedstyle based on vague impressions of what they read in the scientific literature.Nothing could be further from the truth and it is here that many of the models thatthey use in the literature let them down.There are just three immutable characteristics of good academic writing thatdistinguish it from all other literature. It must always be:• precise• clear• brief... and in that order.If it is vague, it is not academic writing; if it is unclear or ambiguous, it isnot academic writing and if it is long winded and unnecessarily discursive, it ispoor academic writing. But precision or clarity should not be sacrificed in order to
    • 12be brief. So, if it has to take a few more words to make the thoughts crystal clear toas many readers as possible, then one should use those words. The good news isthat, if one is precise, clear and brief, then he or she does not have to conform toany other specific rules to be a good scientific writer. The style of academicwriting is plain and simple English, similar to that one would use in a conversationwith a colleague. [30, pp.24-51]§1.2 Five Steps of WritingWriting is a complex process that allows writers to explore thoughts andideas, and make them visible and concrete. It encourages thinking and learning forit motivates communication and makes thought available for reflection. Whenthought is written down, ideas can be examined, reconsidered, added to,rearranged, and changed. Writing is most likely to encourage thinking and learningwhen students view writing as a process. By recognizing that writing is a recursiveprocess, and that every writer uses the process in a different way, studentsexperience less pressure to ‗get it right the first time‘ and are more willing toexperiment, explore, revise, and edit. Yet, novice writers need to practice ‗writing‘or exercises that involve copying or reproduction of learned material in order tolearn the conventions of spelling, punctuation, grammatical agreement, and thelike. Furthermore, students need to ‗write in the language‘ through engaging in avariety of grammar practice activities of controlled nature. Finally, they need tobegin to write within a framework ‗flexibility measures‘ that include:transformation exercises, sentence combining, expansion, embellishments, ideaframes, and similar activities. [59]Writing may be described as a five-step process: generating ideas,organizing ideas, writing a draft, revising and rewriting, and proofreading.
    • 13Generating IdeasWhatever type of writing a student is attempting, the prewriting stage canbe the most important. This is when students gather their information, and begin toorganize it into a cohesive unit. Prewriting is the most creative step and moststudents develop a preferred way to organize their thoughts. Step 1, GeneratingIdeas, may be accomplished by using one or more of the following activities:FreewritingThis term was used by Peter Elbow (Writing Without Teachers, Oxford,1973) to describe what is essentially free - association writing, where the writerstarts in one direction or another but lets the writing take whatever direction itseems to want. In freewriting, the teacher sets a page limit or time limit, and thenstudents simply write about the general topic until the time limit is expired or untilthey have met the page limit. Start a class in either composition or literature byinviting the students to write for five minutes in response to a prompt that hassomething directly to do with the days agenda (What makes writing hard? When isit easy for you? What is the best [or worst] writing you‘ve ever done? Etc.)Directions for freewriting are simple and students usually do it easily thefirst time they try:1. Write fast for a limited period of time (five or ten minutes).2. Dont stop moving your pen or typing on the keyboard to make sure new wordshelp generate ideas.3. Write for the whole time period since good ideas often come late in the writingprocess.4. Don‘t worry about spelling, punctuation, organization, or style since you are theaudience.As learners write, they do not have to worry about spelling, grammar,punctuation, etc. They simply write down whatever comes to mind regarding the
    • 14general topic. Once students have free written, it s a good idea to have them sharewith nearby classmates and simply talk about what they were writing about. Theycan also examine what was written, looking for categories into which ideas may begrouped, ideas that show a cause-effect relationship, and so on. The informationgenerated in this manner may form the basis for developing your topic. Once theclass fills up with student voices, you can interrupt and ask for volunteers to sharethoughts with the class as a whole.When students free write as a regular part of each writing class, instructorscommonly ask that these informal writings be kept in "journals"--so that each freewrite becomes, in essence, a journal entry. If you plan for students to keepjournals, ask them to buy loose-leaf notebooks, so that the first writing they do inclass can be inserted as the first entries in their journals.BrainstormingOn a given topic, students simply list ideas as they occur to them instead ofengaging in continuous writing ideas in a limited time. Depending on the context,either individual or group brainstorming is effective and learners generate ideasquickly and freely. The good characteristics of brainstorming are that the studentsare not criticized for their ideas so students will be open to sharing new ideas.BranchingWith branching, you use a large sheet of paper and write the general topicin the center of the paper and draw a circle around it. Then, as new ideas related tothe general topic come to mind, you draw a short line extending outward from thecenter circle; at the end of the line, you draw another circle and write the relatedidea in this new circle, forming what resembles a spoked wheel. Each new ideamay, in turn, cause new related ideas to come to mind. If so, simply draw newspokes outward from the circle containing the related idea, draw a new circle at theend of the line, and write the new, related idea in the circle. At some point in the
    • 15process, you may identify a main topic for your essay in a center circle andsupporting ideas in the surrounding, spoked circles.QuestioningQuestioning works very well when you have a general topic in mind. Inthis case, you simply find answers to questions such as: Who? What? When?Where? Why? How? The answers to these questions are the supporting detailsused to develop the main topic.Other sources of ideas may include:JournalsIf you maintain a personal journal/diary, this may be a tremendous sourceof ideas. After all, the events and observations you record reflect things that youknow and things about which you have not only knowledge, but also strongfeelings.Conversations with FriendsRecalling recent conversations with friends may be an excellent source ofideas for topics. The topics you discuss with friends will be topics of interest toyou and your audience. Selecting interesting topics is a very important aspect oftopic selection; it will help you keep the reader involved.ReadingsRecalling things you have read recently may provide ideas for topics justas recalling recent conversations with friends.Organizing IdeasStep 2, Organizing Your Ideas, is a two-part step. First, it involvesnarrowing the number of supporting details to a reasonable size. As you do this,
    • 16remember to select an appropriate number of details to accomplish your purpose inwriting. You should also ensure your supporting details are specific, relevant, andtypical. Then, arrange the selected details in a reasonable order. If you are writinga narrative essay, then arrange details in chronological order. If you are writing adescriptive essay, then spatial (geographical) order may be best (e.g. left-to-right,top-to-bottom, near-to-far, etc.). For a persuasive essay, arranging detailsaccording to importance (least-to-most or most-to-least) may work best. Whenworking with examples, work from general to specific or from least complex tomost complex.Writing the First DraftThe actual writing stage is essentially just an extension of the prewritingprocess. The student transfers the information they have gathered and organizedinto a traditional format. This may take the shape of a simple paragraph, a one-page essay, or a multi-page report. Up until this stage, they may not be exactlycertain which direction their ideas will go, but this stage allows them to settle onthe course the paper will take. Teaching about writing can sometimes be as simpleas evaluation good literature together, and exploring what makes the pieceenjoyable or effective. It also involves helping a student choose topics for writingbased on their personal interests. Modeling the writing process in front of yourchild also helps them see that even adults struggle for words and have to work atputting ideas together. [20, p.38]Unlike freewriting or journal writing, the writers aim drafts at audiencesother than themselves. Most drafting is done by a writer alone, most often outsideof class-- though sometimes class time is allotted for writers to start or work ondrafts in class—a quiet, supportive environment. It is fair to expect early drafts tobe rough; when reading these, instructors usually attend to larger intentions (topic,organization, evidence) and skip over surface problems (spelling, punctuation,wordiness), since students will go beyond these language constructions in
    • 17subsequent drafts; to attend to matters of editing too early is a waste of bothinstructor and student time.In the third step, Writing a Draft, the goal is to express your ideas in anorganized, focused form. A simple way to begin is to first construct a sentenceoutline of your essay. To accomplish this, you write one sentence that expressesyour main idea (this is the thesis). Then, you write one sentence for eachsupporting/developing idea in the order you have already determined. From thisoutline, you can easily construct a simple draft of your essay.Begin the draft with a general introduction. This may be backgroundinformation, a quotation from an expert on the topic, a personal anecdote, orwhatever else will allow you to lead into the thesis statement. Once you haveintroduced the subject and included your thesis, you are ready for the draft of thebody of the essay.In the body, you will write one paragraph for each supporting idea. Thesentences you wrote for the supporting details in the sentence outline will serve astopic sentences for the paragraphs in the body. Generally, each paragraph of thebody will begin with a topic sentence, which will be followed by additionalclarification/explanation. If you have doubts about an idea‘s value in the body,include it. If new ideas come to mind while you are writing the draft, includethem. You can always eliminate unwanted items later.Once the body is drafted, you are ready for the final part of the essay, theconclusion. In the conclusion, you need to provide a sense of closure. This isoften accomplished by summarizing the main elements of the body, restating themain point from the thesis, and/or adding any final observations about the topic(such as a warning or a statement to urge the reader to action).
    • 18Revision and RewritingRevising and Rewriting, the fourth step in the writing process, generallybegins with a review of the supporting details in your essay. First, review thethesis (sentence that expresses the main idea of the essay) to make sure it is clear,direct, and complete. Next, reread the topic sentences for the paragraphs in thebody to ensure they relate to the main idea contained in the thesis. Review thesupporting details to make sure they are specific, relevant, typical, and sufficient innumber to accomplish your purpose. Then review the order of presentation toensure it is reasonable.Next, make sure paragraphs have beginnings and endings. Transitions(linking expressions such as first, second, next, later, above, and below) arecommonly used to introduce new paragraphs. Also, make sure sentences withinparagraphs are connected to each other. Introduce examples used to illustratesupporting ideas with transitions (such as for example, in contrast, also, therefore,and consequently). Then, review all sentences with each paragraph. Delete, revise,or combine sentences that say the same thing.Replace vague, unclear words with more descriptive ones.Finally, revise wording, grammar, spelling, and punctuation to ensure theyare in Standard English form and are appropriate for the audience and purpose ofthe essay. You should continue to revise your essay until you are satisfied withwhat you have said and how you have said it.Rewriting implies returning to a draft one or more times to make sure thatthe language says exactly what the writer intends it to say. After some number ofdrafts, the writer lets the piece go and calls it finished. It is common in writingclasses for students to actually finish only a small number of formal papers (3-5) inseveral drafts each, since many instructors believe that its the in-depth
    • 19involvement with a single topic that lets a writer master and advance that topic--and in the process learn the tricks of the writers trade.Revision is conceptual work. It is attending to the larger conceptual matters ofwriting: organization, ideas, how an argument works, whether its well supported,what to include and exclude from a paragraph or paper. Editing is primarilysentence level work, making sure that ideas are articulated clearly, precisely, andcorrectly for a given audience.Revising, or editing is usually the least favorite stage of the writing process,especially for beginning writers. Critiquing one‘s own writing can easily createtension and frustration. But as you support your young writers, remind them thateven the most celebrated authors spend the majority of their time on this stage ofthe writing process. Revising can include adding, deleting, rearranging andsubstituting words, sentences, and even entire paragraphs to make their writingmore accurately represent their ideas. It is often not a one-time event, but acontinual process as the paper progresses. When teaching revision, be sure to allowyour child time to voice aloud the problems they see in their writing. This may bevery difficult for some children, especially sensitive ones, so allow them to startwith something small, such as replacing some passive verbs in their paper withmore active ones. [69]ProofreadingIn the fifth step in the writing process, Proofreading, check for errors withmechanics. Your final essay is to be in Standard English form, so you shouldreview it a final time to ensure it does not contain any errors in English usage.Run-on sentences and fragments should be eliminated. You should also ensurethere are no errors in spelling, punctuation, grammar, and capitalization. [54]Proofreading - is a chance for the writer to scan his or her paper formistakes in grammar, punctuation, and spelling. Although it can be tempting forparents to perform this stage of the writing process for the child, it is important that
    • 20they gain proofreading skills for themselves as this improves a student‘s writingover time. And because children want their writing to be effective, this can actuallybe the most opportune to teach some of the standard rules of grammar andpunctuation. When students learn the rules of mechanics during the writing processthey are much more likely to remember to use them in the future. [1, pp.48-62]§1.3 Principles of Effective WritingWriting is the art of making an utterance perfectly natural through theperfectly unnatural process of making every word and phrase again and again,cutting here and adding there, until it is just so. It is contrived spontaneity. Whatthe writer wants is something just like speech only more compressed, moremelodic, more economical, more balanced, more precise.According to Aristotle: ―To write well, express yourself like the commonpeople, but think like a wise man.‖ What makes a good writer is that he knows thedifference between those of his sentences that work and those that don‘t; betweenthose he gets nearly right and those he nails; between those that sing and swing andthose that mumble and fail. Sentences fail for many reasons. You may not knowenough about what a sentence is, for instance, to reach the end with poise. Or youmay know more than enough, but you give them too much weight to carry; youwork them too hard. And they break. [18, pp.3-55]Students must express their ideas clearly, concisely, and completely whenspeaking and writing. If their written messages arent clear or lack importantdetails, people will be confused and will not know how to respond. In addition, iftheir written messages are too lengthy, people simply dont read them.The process of good writing involves three basic steps - preparing, writing, andediting. Practicing the following 16 principles will help anyone be a more effectivewriter.
    • 21Know your objectiveThink before you write. Whats your goal? Make sure you fully understandthe assignment. Are you writing a one-paragraph executive summary or a five-page report? Try answering this question: What specifically do I want the reader toknow, think, or do?Make a listWrite down the ideas or points you want to cover. Why? This helps you getstarted in identifying the key ideas you want to discuss. If you have trouble gettingstarted, try discussing your ideas with someone else. "Kicking an idea around"often helps you clarify your objective and fine-tune what you are trying toaccomplish.Organize your ideasJust as its difficult to find what you want in a messy, disorganized deskdrawer, its hard to find important ideas in a poorly organized message. Here are afew ways you can organize your ideas:Importance - Begin with the most important piece of information and thenmove on to the next most important.Chronological order - Describe what happened first, second, third.Problem-Solution - Define the problem, then describe possible alternativesor the solution you recommend.Question-Answer - State a question and then provide your answer.Organize your ideas so the reader can easily follow your argument orthe point you are trying to get across.Back it upHave an opinion but back it up - support with data. There are a number ofways you can support your ideas, including explanations, examples, facts, personal
    • 22experiences, stories, statistics, and quotations. Its best to use a combination ofapproaches to develop and support your ideas.Separate main ideasEach paragraph should have one main point or idea captured in a topicsentence. The topic sentence is normally the first sentence in the paragraph. Eachparagraph should be started by an indentation or by skipping a line.Use bullets or numbersIf you are listing or discussing a number of items, use bullets or numberyour points like I have done in this paper. Heres an example of using bullets.Join the Business Club to:Increase salesGain new marketing ideasMake new friendsGive back to your professionWrite complete sentencesA sentence is about someone doing something - taking action. The‗someone‘ may be a manager, employee, customer, etc. The "doing something -taking action" can include mental processes such as thinking, evaluating, anddeciding, or physical actions such as writing and talking. A good rule to practice isto have subjects closely followed by their verbs.Use short sentencesSentences should be a maximum of 12 to 15 words in length. Accordingto the American Press Institute, sentences with 15 or fewer words are understood90% of the time. Sentences with eight or fewer words are understood 100% of thetime.
    • 23Be precise and accurateWords like "large", "small", "as soon as possible", "they", "people","teamwork", and "customer focus" are vague and imprecise. The reader mayinterpret these words to mean something different than what you intended.Reduce communication breakdowns by being specific and precise. Defineterms as needed. The reader may not understand certain acronyms andabbreviations.Use commas appropriatelyA comma should be used: to separate the elements in a series of three or moreitems: His favorite colors are red, white, and blue; to set off introductoryelements: After coffee and donuts, the meeting will begin; to separateadjectives: That tall, distinguished, good-looking professor teaches history.Use the correct wordHere are several words that cause confusion.Youre is a contraction for "you are" Your means possession, such as "yourcoat."Its is a contraction for "it is." ‗Its‘ indicates possession.Their means possession/ownership-"their house." There means location.Theyre is a contraction for "they are."Avoid redundanciesIt is a redundancy to use multiple words that mean or say the same thing. Forexample, consider the following:Redundant - My personal beliefs… Beliefs are personal, so just state, Mybeliefs...Redundant - I decided to paint the machine gray in color. Gray is a color,so just state, I decided to paint the machine gray.
    • 24NumbersWhen using numbers in the body of your paper, spell out numbers onethrough nine, such as "Three men decided…" When using numbers 10 or above itsproper to write the number, such as "The report indicated 68 customers…"Have a conclusionWould you really enjoy watching a movie or sporting event that had noconclusion? No. The conclusion ties your points together. The reader wants toknow the final score - the bottom line message.Edit your workRead what you have written several times.On your first read, focus on organization and sentence structure. Shortenlong sentences. Cross out unnecessary words and phrases. Reorganizematerial as needed.Read it again and make sure commas are used appropriately and that there isa punctuation mark at the end of every sentence.Read it a third time and focus on word choice. Are there certain words thatare vague or unclear? Replace them with specific words.Read what you have written aloud to yourself or to a friend to see if he orshe (and you) can understand it and improve it in any way.A significant part of good writing involves editing. Very few people can sitdown and write a perfect paragraph on their first try. It requires multiple rewrites.Get helpThere are several web sites that can help improve students‘ writingproviding useful articles and tips on good writing, other sites also offer help with
    • 25spelling and making sure the use of words is correct, and also have links to lots ofother resources.Good writers take almost too much care with their work. This led ThomasMann to say that ―a writer is somebody for whom writing is more difficult than itis for other people‖. To be a writer you don‘t have to be the smartest soul on earth;you don‘t have to know the biggest words. You just have to commit yourself tosaying what it is you have to say as clearly as you can manage; you have to listento it and remake it till it sounds like you at your best; you just have to makeyourself hard to please, word after word. Until you make it seem easy. Work hardto make your writing seem to have cost you no effort at all. Struggle gamely tomake it seem that your words came as naturally to you as the sun to the sky in themorning. Just as though you opened your mouth and spoke. ―The end of allmethod,‖ said Zeno, ―is to seem to have no method at all.‖ [26, pp.43-59]Of all the arts writing is the most vulgar — and the least like art. It makes artout of words, out of the stuff we conduct our lives in: it makes art, not out of paintor textiles, but out of speech, out of what we use to buy the paper and scold thechildren and write the report. The best writing sounds just like speech, only better.Good writing is a transcendent kind of talking. But because writing isn‘t, in fact,speaking, we have to take more care with it: writing lasts, and we have only thewords with which to make our point and strike our tone. [23, pp.24-52]To overcome the fear that you don‘t know how to write, the best thing to dois the most important writing step of all — start writing, uncomfortable though itmay feel, as though you were talking. Don‘t think of it as writing at all — think ofit as talking on paper, and start talking with your fingers. Once you‘ve trickedyourself into trusting the words your ―speaking mind‖ suggests, once you‘vestopped thinking about it as writing, you‘ll be surprised how much more easily thewriting comes to you, and how much better it works.
    • 26Writing, as Carol Gelderman put it, is the most exact form of thinking. Itexacts — from those of us who want to do it well — precision, discernment,fineness of observation and detachment. By its nature, true writing practicescritical thinking. ‗Critical’ has come to mean to most people something like―negative.‖ It also means ―very important.‖ But its primary meaning is ―exacting,‖―skeptical,‖ ―disinterested,‖ ―discerning,‖ ―analytical.‖ We take it from the Greekword ‗kritikos’, meaning ―one who is skilled in judging; one who takes thingsapart.‖ The writer is the ‗kritikos’, but she‘s also skilled at putting things backtogether again. Good, sustained critical thinking underlies good, clear writing: youcould almost say that good writing is critical thinking. It is critical thinkingresolved and put down on paper — elegantly.―What you‘re saying is that you want it said short and right and nice.‖ Thesentences, though they may still work, lose their life and their capacity to inform,let alone delight, anyone, including ourselves, who makes them. The shapelier andelegant one‘s sentences are, the sounder they are structurally, the better one‘swriting will be. The leaner and clearer and livelier one‘s sentences are, the biggeris their effect and paragraphs will simply rock and roll. Writing is both creativityand discipline; it is freedom within bounds. You need to know the constraints inorder to know how to be free within them. [38, p.37-88]Summing all up, one doesnt have to be a great writer to be successful.However, he or she must be able to clearly and succinctly explain his/hers thoughtsand ideas in writing. Strive to be simple, clear, and brief. Like any skill,"good writing" requires practice, feedback, and ongoing improvement.
    • 27Chapter II. PERSUASION AND ARGUMENT IN WRTITINGEvery day we are confronted by persuasion. Food makers want us to buytheir newest products, while movie studios want us to go see the latestblockbusters. Because persuasion is such a pervasive component of our lives, it iseasy to overlook how we are influenced by outside sources. Due to the usefulnessof influence, persuasion techniques have been studied and observed since ancienttimes, but social psychologists began formally studying these techniques early inthe 20th-century. The goal of persuasion is to convince the target to internalize thepersuasive argument and adopt this new attitude as a part of their core beliefsystem. When we think of persuasion, negative examples are often the first tocome to mind, but persuasion can also be used as a positive force. Public servicecampaigns that urge people to recycle or quit smoking are great examples ofpersuasion used to improve people‘s lives. [55]Every single human requires the art of persuasion at some point in theirlives. As a child, one might use persuasion for the attainment of a toy or as an adultfor the acquiring of other objects. A person might whine, throw tantrums, but thisbehavior never seems to attain what is wanted by the person and just makes thingsworse. What one needs is persuasion as it is the only method that can be pursuedby one to achieve what he wants. While the art and science of persuasion has beenof interest since the time of the Ancient Greeks, there are significant differencesbetween how persuasion occurs today and how it has occurred in the past. [70]In his book The Dynamics of Persuasion: Communication and Attitudes inthe 21st Century, Richard M. Perloff outlines the five major ways in which modernpersuasion differs from the past:1. The number of persuasive message has grown tremendously. Think for amoment about how many advertisements you encounter on a daily basis.According to various sources, the number of advertisements the average U.S.adult is exposed to each day ranges from around 300 to over 3,000.
    • 282. Persuasive communication travels far more rapidly. Television, radio andthe Internet all help spread persuasive messages very quickly.3. Persuasion is big business. In addition to the companies that are in businesspurely for persuasive purposes (such as advertising agencies, marketing firms,public relations companies), many other business are reliant on persuasion tosell goods and services.4. Contemporary persuasion is much more subtle. Of course, there are plentyof ads that use very obvious persuasive strategies, but many messages are farmore subtle. For example, businesses sometimes carefully craft very specificimage designed to urge viewers to buy products or services in order to attainthat projected lifestyle.5. Persuasion is more complex. Consumers are more diverse and have morechoices, so marketers have to be savvier when it comes to selecting theirpersuasive medium and message. [32, pp.45-58]All of the written texts have to a greater or lesser degree stressed persuasion,or what language scholars call rhetoric, the use of persuasive language to influencereaders or listeners. For example, asking readers to accept your interpretation of adescription or your idea about how two things compare or contrast involves a mildform of persuasion even if the discussion is largely factual and objective. So toodoes having someone accept your definition of an important idea or term or ofwhat you think is comparable or analogous to that term. The point is that almostevery form of writing except the listing of purely factual information tries topersuade the reader to some degree. Furthermore, even a completely objective listmay try to be persuasive if those facts have been carefully selected with theultimate goal of changing the reader‘s mind. Imagine a list of ‗top restaurants intown‘ published by the local restaurant owners association: Would the eateries ofnon-members be included? Some less reputable newspapers and magazines dofavorable features stories on establishments in their pages. Persuasion, even inseemingly objective forms, is all around us.
    • 29According to definition, ―Persuasion is a form of influence. It is the processof guiding people toward the adoption of an idea, attitude, or action by rational andsymbolic (though not only logical) means. It is a problem-solving strategy andrelies on ―appeals‖ rather than force‖. Dictionary.com site describes the verb‗persuade‘ as to induce to believe by appealing to reason or understanding;convince; a symbolic process in which communicators try to convince other peopleto change their attitudes or behaviors regarding an issue through the transmissionof a message in an atmosphere of free choice. Put simply, persuasion isconvincing another person of your conclusions. You want to agree with you, evenchampion your cause. The key elements of this definition of persuasion are that:Persuasion is symbolic, utilizing words, images, sounds, etcIt involves a deliberate attempt to influence others.Self-persuasion is key. People are not coerced; they are instead free to choose.Methods of transmitting persuasive messages can occur in a variety of ways,including verbally and nonverbally via television, radio, Internet or face-to-facecommunication. [15, pp.49-78]Persuasion of the type required in many college and university courses issimilar to these forms of persuasion, but is more forceful, more argumentative.Tailored definitions, example and classification categories, and carefully chosencause/effect relationships are common developmental methods used in persuasivearguments.When describing serious writing, the word ‗argument‘ does not mean ‗verbaldisagreement‘ but rather the logical steps or reasons given in support of a positionor a series of statements or ideas in an essay or a discussion. In formal writing andin oral presentations in law courts, in scientific and medical seminars, and informal business meetings, a special discipline is imposed on discussions. Thediscipline is the discipline of argument or argumentation, and its purpose is todiscover the truth or at least the closest possible approximation to the truth.
    • 30In Western cultures, argumentation has been heavily influenced by theclassical rhetorical tradition of ancient Greece and Rome. Thus, even todayfreshman English students may study the logic of the Greek philosopher Aristotle,who lived over 2000 years ago. However, whether an argument follows the strictclassical rule or whether it is more modern and casual, its goal is to use language topersuade readers to a particular point of view.One may find the concept of argument-to-discover-the-truth very similar towhat is practiced in different cultures, and one may think it alien and peculiar. TheWestern tradition underlies the legal, political, and social systems of a greatnumber of European-influenced countries, and especially the US. The idea goesback, in part, to ‗trial by combat‘, the practice of allowing medieval knights toliterally fight in defence of their positions, with God and fate determining thewinner. Argument-to-discover-truth also reflects the capitalist notion of the‗marketplace of ideas‘, where competing theories and philosophies are tested in anopen ‗market‘ to see which will be ‗bought‘ and which will be left ‗bankrupt‘ andfailed. Presumably, this testing by a wide variety of ‗consumers‘ allows thestrongest and most promising ideas to survive and succeed, although whether thisis always true is a good question. What is certain is that the practice is highlyculture-bound, determined by Western tradition and history.From the point of view of the individual student writer, the importance ofunderstanding ‗argument-to-discover-truth‘ lies in accepting the role of advocateand forceful defender of a position. In many cultures, especially those influencedby Confucian and other Asian traditions, the role of aggressive advocate may seemrude and egotistical, the placing of individual interests before those of the group.The acceptance of such a role is sometimes psychologically painful for studentsfrom cultures that stress cooperation and group satisfaction. In fact, evenAmericans sometimes become upset with lawyers who defend unpopular positions;therefore, it is worth repeating the rules of the game. A person presenting anargumentative position, whether that position is freely chosen or assigned, issupposed to argue as forcefully and as energetically as possible.
    • 31Rhetorical modes are based on the ways human brains process information.Choosing the one mode that matches your topic helps you organize your writingand helps the reader process the information you want to discuss. Using key wordsthat emphasize the chosen mode helps reinforce your essays coherence.[19, pp.24-67]What is Persuasive Writing?The purpose of persuasive writing is to convince the reader to accept aparticular point of view or to take a specific action. If it is important to presentother sides of an issue, the writer does so, but in a way that makes his or herposition clear. The unmistakable purpose of this type of writing is to convince thereader of something. In well-written persuasion, the topic or issue is clearly statedand elaborated as necessary to indicate understanding and conviction on the part ofthe writer. [60]Persuasive writers use persuasion to make people conform to their ideas thathe or she presents in his work. To write persuasively, first of all the writer needs tohave an argument. The argument has to be one-sided and the other side of theargument or the opposite answer is disregarded, but another fact is that persuasivewriting is never related to the pros and cons of the topic, but general facts related toits factuality. According to sources, ―It can‘t be a fact. If you were to choose asyour topic, ―Vipers are dangerous,‖ you wouldn‘t have to persuade anyone of that.However, if your topic was, ―Vipers should be eliminated from the animalkingdom,‖ then you would have presented an opinion that could be debated. Yourpersuasive work/essay will focus on only one side–your chosen side–of theargument. This will not be a pros-and-cons essay. Also, it won‘t be a personalopinion essay. You must be prepared to back up your logic with evidence collectedin research that supports your position‖. [74]Persuasive writing moves the reader to take an action or to form or changean opinion. This type of writing is assessed for three reasons:
    • 321) it requires thinking skills such as analysis, synthesis and evaluation;2) it requires writers to choose from a variety of situations and to take astand; and 3) it is a skill frequently used in school and the workplace.Persuasive writing has several functions: to state and support a position,opinion or issue; to defend, refute or argue. A persuasive writing chart is presentedin the Appendix 1.Early rhetoricians dealt with persuasive writing and oration. Cicero mostnotably defined persuasive writing as the grand style in his work ‗Orator‘. Cicerostated, ―This eloquence has power to sway man‘s mind and move them in everypossible way‖. He also stated, however, that the most effective orator, or in thiscase, writer, uses a combination of the plain, middle, and this grand style to suit thecontext.2.1Using Rhetorical Strategies for PersuasionAristotle defines the rhetorician as someone who is always able to see whatis persuasive. Correspondingly, rhetoric is defined as the art of discovering, theability to see what is possibly persuasive in every given case. This is not to say thatthe rhetorician will be able to convince under all circumstances. Rather he is in asituation similar to that of the physician: the latter has a complete grasp of his artonly if he neglects nothing that might heal his patient, though he is not able to healevery patient. Similarly, the rhetorician has a complete grasp of his method, if hediscovers the available means of persuasion, though he is not able toconvince everybody.There are three types of rhetorical appeals, or persuasive strategies, used inarguments to support claims and respond to opposing arguments. A good argumentwill generally use a combination of all three appeals to make its case.
    • 33✦ LogosLogos or the appeal to reason relies on logic or reason. Logos often dependson the use of inductive or deductive reasoning.Inductive reasoning takes a specific representative case or facts and thendraws generalizations or conclusions from them. Inductive reasoning must bebased on a sufficient amount of reliable evidence. In other words, the facts youdraw on must fairly represent the larger situation or population.Example: Fair trade agreements have raised the quality of life for coffeeproducers, so fair trade agreements could be used to help other farmers as well.In this example the specific case of fair trade agreements with coffee producers isbeing used as the starting point for the claim. Because these agreements haveworked the author concludes that it could work for other farmers as well.Deductive reasoning begins with a generalization and then applies it to aspecific case. The generalization you start with must have been based on asufficient amount of reliable evidence.Example: Genetically modified seeds have caused poverty, hunger, and adecline in bio-diversity everywhere they have been introduced, so there is noreason the same thing will not occur when genetically modified corn seeds areintroduced in Mexico.In this example the author starts with a large claim, that genetically modified seedshave been problematic everywhere, and from this draws the more localized orspecific conclusion that Mexico will be affected in the same way.Logic is a formal system of analysis that helps writers invent, demonstrate,and prove arguments. It works by testing propositions against one another todetermine their accuracy. People often think they are using logic when they avoidemotion or make arguments based on their common sense, such as "Everyone
    • 34should look out for their own self interests" or "People have the right to be free."However, unemotional or common sense statements are not always equivalent tological statements. To be logical, a proposition must be tested within a logicalsequence. Winkler & McCuen said that ‗your argument is logical when you candemonstrate that anyone using the same reasoning process and the same evidencemust inevitably come to the same conclusion.‖The most famous logical sequence, called the syllogism, was developed bythe Greek philosopher Aristotle. His most famous syllogism is:Premise 1: All men are mortal.Premise 2: Socrates is a man.Conclusion: Therefore, Socrates is mortal.In this sequence, premise 2 is tested against premise 1 to reach the logicalconclusion. Within this system, if both premises are considered valid, there is noother logical conclusion than determining that Socrates is a mortal.Logic is a very effective tool for persuading an audience about the accuracyof an argument. However, people are not always persuaded by logic. Sometimesaudiences are not persuaded because they have used values or emotions instead oflogic to reach conclusions. But just as often, audiences have reached a differentlogical conclusion by using different premises. Therefore, arguments must oftenspend as much time convincing audiences of the legitimacy of the premises as thelegitimacy of the conclusions.For instance, assume a writer was using the following logic to convince anaudience to adopt a smaller government:Premise 1: The government that governs least, governs best.Premise 2: The government I am proposing does very little governing.Conclusion: Therefore, the government I am proposing is best.
    • 35Some members of the audience may be persuaded by this logic. However,other members of the audience may follow this logic instead:Premise 1: The government that governs best, governs most.Premise 2: The government proposed by the speaker does very little governing.Conclusion: Therefore, the government proposed by the speaker is bad.Because they adhere to a different logical sequence, these members of theaudience will not be persuaded to change their minds logically until they arepersuaded to different values through other means besides logic.It is important to remember that logic is only one aspect of a successfulargument. Non-logical arguments, statements that cannot be logically proven ordisproved, are important in argumentative writing, such as appeals to emotions orvalues. Illogical arguments, on the other hand, are false and must be avoided.Understanding how to create logical syllogisms does not automatically meanthat writers understand how to use logic to build an argument. Crafting a logicalsequence into a written argument can be a very difficult task. Dont assume that anaudience will easily follow the logic that seems clear to you. When convertinglogical syllogisms into written arguments, remember to:lay out each premise clearly;provide evidence for each premise;draw a clear connection to the conclusion.Supposing a writer was crafting an editorial to argue against using taxpayerdollars for the construction of a new stadium in the town of Mill Creek. Theauthors logic may look like this:Premise 1: Projects funded by taxpayer dollars should benefit a majority of thepublic.Premise 2: The proposed stadium construction benefits very few members of the
    • 36public.Conclusion: Therefore, the stadium construction should not be funded by taxpayerdollars.This is a logical conclusion, but without elaboration it may not persuade thewriters opposition, or even people on the fence. Therefore, the writer will want toexpand her argument like this:Historically, Mill Creek has only funded public projects that benefit thepopulation as a whole. Recent initiatives to build a light rail system and anew courthouse were approved because of their importance to the city. Lastelection, Mayor West reaffirmed this commitment in his inauguration speechby promising "I am determined to return public funds to the public." This isa sound commitment and a worthy pledge.However, the new initiative to construct a stadium for the local baseballteam, the Bears, does not follow this commitment. While baseball is anenjoyable pastime, it does not receive enough public support to justifyspending $210 million in public funds for an improved stadium. Attendancein the past five years has been declining, and last year only an average of400 people attended each home game, meaning that less than 1% of thepopulation attends the stadium. The Bears have a dismal record at 0-43which generates little public interest in the team.The population of Mill Creek is plagued by many problems that affect themajority of the public, including its decrepit high school and decaying waterfiltration system. Based on declining attendance and interest, a new Bearsstadium is not one of those needs, so the project should not be publiclyfunded. Funding this project would violate the mayors commitment to usepublic money for the public.Notice that the piece uses each paragraph to focus on one premise of the syllogism(this is not a hard and fast rule, especially since complex arguments require far
    • 37more than three premises and paragraphs to develop). Concrete evidence for bothpremises is provided. The conclusion is specifically stated as following from thosepremises.Consider this example, where a writer wants to argue that the state minimumwage should be increased. The writer does not follow the guidelines above whenmaking his argument.It is obvious to anyone thinking logically that minimum wage should beincreased. The current minimum wage is an insult and is unfair to the peoplewho receive it. The fact that the last proposed minimum wage increase wasdenied is proof that the government of this state is crooked and corrupt. Theonly way for them to prove otherwise is to raise minimum wageimmediately.The paragraph does not build a logical argument for several reasons. First, itassumes that anyone thinking logically will already agree with the author, which isclearly untrue. If that were the case, the minimum wage increase would havealready occurred. Secondly, the argument does not follow a logical structure. Thereis no development of premises which lead to a conclusion. Thirdly, the authorprovides no evidence for the claims made.In order to develop a logical argument, the author first needs to determinethe logic behind his own argument. It is likely that the writer did not consider thisbefore writing, which demonstrates that arguments which could be logical are notautomatically logical. They must be made logical by careful arrangement.The writer could choose several different logical approaches to defend this point,such as a syllogism like this:Premise 1: Minimum wage should match the cost of living in society.Premise 2: The current minimum wage does not match the cost of living in
    • 38society.Conclusion: Therefore, minimum wage should be increased.Once the syllogism has been determined, the author needs to elaborate each step inwriting that provides evidence for the premises:The purpose of minimum wage is to ensure that workers can provide basicamenities to themselves and their families. A report in the Journal ofEconomic Studies indicated that workers cannot live above the poverty linewhen minimum wage is not proportionate with the cost of living. It isbeneficial to society and individuals for a minimum wage to match livingcosts.Unfortunately, our states minimum wage no longer reflects an increasingcost of living. When the minimum wage was last set at $5.85, the yearlysalary of $12,168 guaranteed by this wage was already below the povertyline. Years later, after inflation has consistently raised the cost of living,workers earning minimum wage must struggle to support a family, oftentaking 2 or 3 jobs just to make ends meet. 35% of our states poor populationis made up of people with full time minimum wage jobs.In order to remedy this problem and support the workers of this state,minimum wage must be increased. A modest increase could help alleviatethe burden placed on the many residents who work too hard for too little justto make ends meet.This piece explicitly states each logical premise in order, allowing them to build totheir conclusion. Evidence is provided for each premise, and the conclusion isclosely related to the premises and evidence. Notice, however, that even thoughthis argument is logical, it is not irrefutable. An opponent with a differentperspective and logical premises could challenge this argument. [28, pp.74-98]
    • 39Example of logos:‗Let us begin with a simple proposition: What democracy requires is publicdebate, not information. Of course it needs information too, but the kind ofinformation it needs can be generated only by vigorous popular debate. Wedo not know what we need to know until we ask the right questions, and wecan identify the right questions only by subjecting our ideas about the worldto the test of public controversy. Information, usually seen as theprecondition of debate, is better understood as its by product. When we getinto arguments that focus and fully engage our attention, we become avidseekers of relevant information. Otherwise, we take in information passively– if we take it in at all.‘Christopher Lasch, ‗The Lost Art of Political Argument‘✦EthosEthos or the ethical appeal is based on the character, credibility, or reliability ofthe writer. There are many ways to establish good character and credibility as anauthor:Use only credible, reliable sources to build your argument and cite thosesources properly.Respect the reader by stating the opposing position accurately.Establish common ground with your audience. Most of the time, this can bedone by acknowledging values and beliefs shared by those on both sides ofthe argument.If appropriate for the assignment, disclose why you are interested in thistopic or what personal experiences you have had with the topic.Organize your argument in a logical, easy to follow manner. You can use asimple pattern such as chronological order, most general to most detailedexample, earliest to most recent example, etc.
    • 40Proofread the argument. Too many careless grammar mistakes cast doubt onyour character as a writer.According to Aristotle, writers can invent a character suitable to an occasion--this is invented ethos. However, if writers are fortunate enough to enjoy a goodreputation in the community, they can use it as an ethical proof--this is situatedethos. [11, pp. 18-34]The status of ethos in the hierarchy of rhetorical principles has fluctuated asrhetoricians in different eras have tended to define rhetoric in terms of eitheridealistic aims or pragmatic skills. For Plato the reality of the speakers virtue ispresented as a prerequisite to effective speaking. In contrast,Aristotles Rhetoric presents rhetoric as a strategic art which facilitates decisions incivil matters and accepts the appearance of goodness as sufficient to inspireconviction in hearers. The contrasting views of Cicero and Quintilian about theaims of rhetoric and the function of ethos are reminiscent of Platos and Aristotlesdifferences of opinion about whether or not moral virtue in the speaker is intrinsicand prerequisite or selected and strategically presented. [10, pp.28-32]If Aristotles study of pathos is a psychology of emotion, then his treatmentof ethos amounts to sociology of character. It is not simply a how-to guide toestablishing ones credibility with an audience, but rather it is a careful study ofwhat Athenians consider to be the qualities of a trustworthy individual. [21, p.45]Some types of oratory may rely more heavily on one type of proof than another.Today, for example, we note that a great deal of advertising uses ethos extensivelythrough celebrity endorsements, but it might not use pathos. It is clear fromAristotles discussion in Rhetoric, however, that, overall, the three proofs work inconjunction to persuade. Moreover, it is equally clear that ethical character is thelynch pin that holds everything together. As Aristotle stated, moral character …constitutes the most effective means of proof. An audience is just not likely to
    • 41respond positively to a speaker of bad character: His or her statementof premises will be met with skepticism; he or she will find it difficult to rouse theemotions appropriate to the situation; and the quality of the speech itself will beviewed negatively. [49, pp.22-46]Fundamental to the Aristotelian concept of ethos is the ethical principle ofvoluntary choice: the speakers intelligence, character, and qualities comprehendedby good will are evidenced through invention, style, delivery, and likewiseincorporated in the arrangement of the speech. Ethos is primarily developed byAristotle as a function of rhetorical invention; secondarily, through style anddelivery. [61]The appeal of our good character can occur on one or more of the followinglevels in any given argument: Are you a reasonable person? (That is, are you willing to listen, compromise,concede points?) Are you authoritative? (Are you experienced and/or knowledgeable in the fieldyou are arguing in?) Are you an ethical/moral person (Is what youre arguing for ethicallysound/morally right) Are you concerned for the well-being of your audience? (To what extent willyou benefit as a result of arguing from your particular position?)The ethical appeal is based on the audiences perception of the speaker.Therefore, the audience must trust the speaker in order to accept the arguments.Dont overlook ethical appeal, as it can be the most effective of the three.Example of ethos:If, in my low moments, in word, deed or attitude, through some error oftemper, taste, or tone, I have caused anyone discomfort, created pain, orrevived someones fears, that was not my truest self. If there were occasions
    • 42when my grape turned into a raisin and my joy bell lost its resonance, pleaseforgive me. Charge it to my head and not to my heart. My head - so limitedin its finitude; my heart, which is boundless in its love for the human family.I am not a perfect servant. I am a public servant doing my best against theodds." (Jesse Jackson, Democratic National ConventionKeynote Address, 1984)✦PathosPathos, or emotional appeal, appeals to an audiences needs, values, andemotional sensibilities.Argument emphasizes reason, but used properly there is often a place foremotion as well. Emotional appeals can use sources such as interviews andindividual stories to paint a more legitimate and moving picture of reality orilluminate the truth. For example, telling the story of a single child who has beenabused may make for a more persuasive argument than simply the number ofchildren abused each year because it would give a human face to the numbers.The logical appeal is certainly an extremely persuasive tool. However, ourhuman nature also lets us be influenced by our emotions. Emotions range frommild to intense; some, such as well-being, are gentle attitudes and outlooks, whileothers, such as sudden fury, are so intense that they overwhelm rationalthought. Images are particularly effective in arousing emotions, whether thoseimages are visual and direct as sensations, or cognitive and indirect as memory orimagination, and part of a writers task is to associate the subject with such images.[24, pp.128-136]Example (to my father who smokes): "I remember when Grandma died oflung cancer. It was the first time I had ever seen you cry Dad. I remember that youalso made me promise not to start smoking." You could also offer vivid examples
    • 43in support of your argument. Use language and images that are emotionallycharged: You might detail the pain of going through chemo therapy. You could use Xrays of diseased lungs, or photos of cancerous gums.Be careful, however, that when you use emotional appeal, you use it"legitimately." James D. Lester states that ―raw emotion cannot win the dayagainst opponents who demand factual evidence, yet the dull recitation ofstatistical facts may be meaningless unless you motivate readers and get theminvolved.‖ You should not use it as a substitute for logical and/or ethical appeals.Dont use emotional appeals to draw on stereotypes or manipulate our emotionalfears. Dont use emotional appeal to get an automatic, knee-jerk reaction fromsomeone. If you use emotionally charged language or examples simply to upset oranger an audience, you are using emotion illegitimately. Your use of emotionalappeal shouldnt oversimplify a complicated issue. [65]"The man who can carry the judge with him, and put him in whatever frameof mind he wishes, whose words move men to tears or anger, has always been arare creature. Yet this is what dominates the courts, this is the eloquence that reignssupreme. . . . Where force has to be brought to bear on the judges feelings andtheir minds distracted from the truth, there the orators true work begins." takenfrom Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, c. 95 A.D.Hillary Clinton used a moment of brilliantly staged emotion to win the NewHampshire Democratic primary. As she answered questions in a diner on themorning before the election, Mrs. Clintons voice began to waver and crack whenshe said: Its not easy. This is very personal for me. Emotions can be anelectoral trump card, especially if one can show them as Mrs. Clinton did, withouttears. The key is to appear stirred without appearing weak. [62]
    • 44It is perilous to announce to an audience that we are going to play on theemotions. As soon as we apprise an audience of such an intention, we jeopardize, ifwe do not entirely destroy, the effectiveness of the emotional appeal. It is not sowith appeals to the understanding. [57]A brilliant young woman was asked once to support her argument in favorof social welfare. She named the most powerful source imaginable: the look in amothers face when she cannot feed her children. Can you look that hungry child inthe eyes? See the blood on his feet from working barefoot in the cotton fields. Ordo you ask his baby sister with her belly swollen from hunger if she cares abouther daddys work ethics?Only use an emotional appeal if it truly supports the claim you are making,not as a way to distract from the real issues of debate. An argument should neveruse emotion to misrepresent the topic or frighten people.Emotional and ethical appeals prompt your audience to care about an issueon more than an intellectual level. As with introductions, conclusions are anexcellent place to do this because it reminds your audience that your position is notmerely an academic one, but one that has consequences for real people.Concluding on emotional and ethical grounds provides an opportunity tostrengthen the appeal of you position.For example:The safety of our society is directly influenced by the correct handling of ourhousehold hazardous waste. Everyone uses dangerous chemicals every dayand the dangers are astounding when they arent disposed of in a proper andprofessional manner. In an age of many chemicals, we must be careful not toput each other, our pets, and our environment in harms way: We do not needsanitation workers losing their lives or are pets poisoned. In a country with apopulation the size of the United States, it is necessary that everyhomeowner ensure a healthy environment for everyone-plants and animalsincluded-by taking precautions when disposing of hazardous waste. It is the
    • 45job of every responsible citizen to ensure that others are not put at risk whendisposing of chemicals. [64]Examples of pathos:"This is the lesson: Never give in. Never give in. Never, never, never, never--in nothing, great or small, large or petty--never give in, except toconvictions of honor and good sense. Never yield to force. Never yield to theapparently overwhelming might of the enemy. We stood all alone a year ago,and to many countries it seemed that our account was closed, we werefinished. All this tradition of ours, our songs, our School history, this part ofthe history of this country, were gone and finished and liquidated. Verydifferent is the mood today. Britain, other nations thought, had drawn asponge across her slate. But instead our country stood in the gap. There wasno flinching and no thought of giving in; and by what seemed almost amiracle to those outside these Islands, though we ourselves never doubted it,we now find ourselves in a position where I say that we can be sure that wehave only to persevere to conquer."Below are three quotes from President Clintons 1996 State of the Union speechto consider as an example which includes all three types of appeals. Here Clintoncombines all of the available means of persuasion for his given thesis:Ethical appeal (ethos)"Before I go on, I would like to take just a moment to thank my own family,and to thank the person who has taught me more than anyone else over 25years about the importance of families and children — a wonderful wife, amagnificent mother and a great First Lady. Thank you, Hillary" — showinghimself to be a sensitive family man;Emotional appeal (pathos)
    • 46"I have heard Mrs. Gore say that its hard to be a parent today, but its evenharder to be a child" — reminding listeners of the challenges children face;andRational appeal (logos)"To the media, I say you should create movies and CDs and televisionshows youd want your own children and grandchildren to enjoy. I call onCongress to pass the requirement for a V-chip in TV sets so that parents canscreen out programs they believe are inappropriate for their children. Whenparents control what their young children see, that is not censorship; that isenabling parents to assume more personal responsibility for their childrensupbringing. And I urge them to do it."Those three examples above appeared early in the address. To get a bettersense of how Clinton used those appeals, look at the whole passage from whichthose examples were drawn:"Our first challenge is to cherish our children and strengthen Americas families.Family is the foundation of American life. If we have stronger families, we willhave a stronger America. Before I go on, I would like to take just a moment tothank my own family, and to thank the person who has taught me more thananyone else over 25 years about the importance of families and children — awonderful wife, a magnificent mother and a great First Lady. Thank you, Hillary.All strong families begin with taking more responsibility for our children. I haveheard Mrs. Gore say that its hard to be a parent today, but its even harder to be achild. So all of us, not just as parents, but all of us in our other roles — our media,our schools, our teachers, our communities, our churches and synagogues, ourbusinesses, our governments — all of us have a responsibility to help our childrento make it and to make the most of their lives and their God-given capacities.
    • 47To the media, I say you should create movies and CDs and television shows youdwant your own children and grandchildren to enjoy. I call on Congress to pass therequirement for a V-chip in TV sets so that parents can screen out programs theybelieve are inappropriate for their children. When parents control what theiryoung children see, that is not censorship; that is enabling parents to assume morepersonal responsibility for their childrens upbringing. And I urge them to do it.The V-chip requirement is part of the important telecommunications bill nowpending in this Congress. It has bipartisan support, and I urge you to pass it now.To make the V-chip work, I challenge the broadcast industry to do what movieshave done — to identify your programming in ways that help parents to protecttheir children. And I invite the leaders of major media corporations in theentertainment industry to come to the White House next month to work with us ina positive way on concrete ways to improve what our children see on television. Iam ready to work with you." [63]2.2 Logical FallaciesFallacies are common errors in reasoning that will undermine the logic ofyour argument. Fallacies can be either illegitimate arguments or irrelevant points,and are often identified because they lack evidence that supports their claim. Avoidthese common fallacies in your own arguments and watch for them in thearguments of others.Slippery slopeThis is a conclusion based on the premise that if A happens, then eventuallythrough a series of small steps, through B, C,..., X, Y, Z will happen, too, basicallyequating A and Z. So, if we dont want Z to occur A must not be allowed to occureither.
    • 48Example: If we ban Hummers because they are bad for the environmenteventually the government will ban all cars, so we should not ban Hummers.In this example the author is equating banning Hummers with banning allcars, which is not the same thing.Hasty GeneralizationThis is a conclusion based on insufficient or biased evidence. In other words,you are rushing to a conclusion before you have all the relevant facts.Example: Even though its only the first day, I can tell this is going to be aboring course.In this example the author is basing their evaluation of the entire course ononly one class, and on the first day which is notoriously boring and full ofhousekeeping tasks for most courses. To make a fair and reasonable evaluation theauthor must attend several classes, and possibly even examine the textbook, talk tothe professor, or talk to others who have previously finished the course in order tohave sufficient evidence to base a conclusion on.Post hoc ergo propter hocThis is a conclusion that assumes that if A occurred after B then B musthave caused A.Example: I drank bottled water and now I am sick, so the water must havemade me sick.In this example the author assumes that if one event chronologically followsanother the first event must have caused the second. But the illness could havebeen caused by the burrito the night before, a flu bug that had been working on thebody for days, or a chemical spill across campus. There is no reason, without moreevidence, to assume the water caused the person to be sick.
    • 49Genetic FallacyA conclusion is based on an argument that the origins of a person, idea,institute, or theory determine its character, nature, or worth.Example: The Volkswagen Beetle is an evil car because it was originallydesigned by Hitlers army.In this example the author is equating the character of a car with thecharacter of the people who built the car.Begging the ClaimThe conclusion that the writer should prove is validated within the claim.Example: Filthy and polluting coal should be banned.Arguing that coal pollutes the earth and thus should be banned would belogical. But the very conclusion that should be proved, that coal causes enoughpollution to warrant banning its use, is already assumed in the claim by referring toit as "filthy and polluting." [29, pp.165-176]Circular ArgumentThis restates the argument rather than actually proving it.Example: George Bush is a good communicator because he speakseffectively.In this example the conclusion that Bush is a "good communicator" and theevidence used to prove it "he speaks effectively" are basically the same idea.Specific evidence such as using everyday language, breaking down complexproblems, or illustrating his points with humorous stories would be needed toprove either half of the sentence.
    • 50Either/orThis is a conclusion that oversimplifies the argument by reducing it to onlytwo sides or choices.Example: We can either stop using cars or destroy the earth.In this example where two choices are presented as the only options, yet theauthor ignores a range of choices in between such as developing cleanertechnology, car sharing systems for necessities and emergencies, or bettercommunity planning to discourage daily driving.Ad hominemThis is an attack on the character of a person rather than their opinions orarguments.Example: Green Peaces strategies arent effective because they are all dirty,lazy hippies.In this example the author doesnt even name particular strategies GreenPeace has suggested, much less evaluate those strategies on their merits. Instead,the author attacks the characters of the individuals in the group.Ad populumThis is an emotional appeal that speaks to positive (such as patriotism,religion, democracy) or negative (such as terrorism or fascism) concepts ratherthan the real issue at hand.Example: If you were a true American you would support the rights ofpeople to choose whatever vehicle they want.In this example the author equates being a "true American," a concept thatpeople want to be associated with, particularly in a time of war, with allowing
    • 51people to buy any vehicle they want even though there is no inherent connectionbetween the two.Red HerringThis is a diversionary tactic that avoids the key issues, often by avoidingopposing arguments rather than addressing them.Example: The level of mercury in seafood may be unsafe, but what willfishers do to support their families.In this example the author switches the discussion away from the safety ofthe food and talks instead about an economic issue, the livelihood of those catchingfish. While one issue may effect the other, it does not mean we should ignorepossible safety issues because of possible economic consequences to a fewindividuals.Straw ManThis move oversimplifies an opponents viewpoint and then attacks thathollow argument.Example: People who dont support the proposed state minimum wageincrease hate the poor.In this example, the author attributes the worst possible motive to anopponents position. In reality, however, the opposition probably has morecomplex and sympathetic arguments to support their point. By not addressing thosearguments, the author is not treating the opposition with respect or refuting theirposition.
    • 52Moral EquivalenceThis fallacy compares minor misdeeds with major atrocities.Example: That parking attendant who gave me a ticket is as bad as Hitler.In this example, the author is comparing the relatively harmless actions of aperson doing their job with the horrific actions of Hitler. This comparison is unfairand inaccurate. [12, pp.227-286]2.3 Types of EvidenceEvidence is the information that helps in the formation of a conclusion orjudgment. Whether we know it or not, we provide evidence in most of ourconversations – they‘re all the things we say to try and support our claims. Forexample, when you leave a movie theater, turn to your friend, and say ―That moviewas awesome! Did you see those fight scenes?! Unreal!‖, you have just made aclaim and backed it up.Evidence is required so as to support the claim made by the writer. Theevidence cannot be general statements but have to be valid with good sources.Apart from evidence, persuasion needs to be sequential with one fact of the topicleading to the other for the betterment of the reader, as this would help him or herin understanding the topic as well as the claim. For example, if one is writing anessay on the above mentioned statement that is, ―Vipers should be eliminated fromthe animal kingdom,‖ the writer needs to begin by the dangers posed by the vipersand then move on to numerical data as to how much disaster is caused by them andthen carry this argument forward.The effectiveness of such arguments – whether they are persuasive or not –depends on two main factors, the credibility of the evidence and the validity of theargument itself, with ‗validity‘ meaning how well the argument is put together.Most people think of ―evidence‖ as numbers and quotes from famous
    • 53people. While those are valid types of evidence, there are more to choose fromthan just statistics and quotes, though. Before you make a choice, review thepoints you made and decide if your statements can be backed up by evidence.Types of evidence include:Facts - a powerful means of convincing, facts can come from your reading,observation, or personal experience. Note: Do not confuse facts with truths. A"truth" is an idea believed by many people, but it cannot be proven. Nancy R.Comley writes that ―facts do not speak for themselves, nor do figures add up ontheir own. Even the most vividly detailed printout requires someone to make senseof the information it contains.‖Statistics - these can provide excellent support. Be sure your statistics comefrom responsible sources. Statistical evidence is the kind of data people tend tolook for first when trying to prove a point. That‘s not surprising when youconsider how prevalent it is in today‘s society. Remember those McDonald‘ssigns that said ―Over 1 billion served‖? How about those Trident chewing gumcommercials that say ―4 out of 5 dentists recommend chewing sugarless gum‖?Every time you use numbers to support a main point, you‘re relying on statisticalevidence to carry your argument. [8, pp.83-95]Quotes - direct quotes from leading experts that support your position areinvaluable.Examples - Examples enhance your meaning and make your ideas concrete.They are the proof. Sometimes making an argument can be strengthened by beingspecific. If I tell you in class that not having insurance is a problem, this is a claim,but does not have any evidence supporting it. I may then go on and describe thatpeople without insurance often delay going to the doctor, go to emergency roomsfor routine care instead of to clinics or doctors offices, or go without care at all.These last points are examples. The examples could further be strengthened bystatistics on how often uninsured people delay care, go to the emergency room, orgo without care. The information could be strengthened yet further by comparingthese statistics to similar statistics on people who have insurance. And so on.
    • 54Expert Testimony – Testimonial evidence is another type of evidence thatis commonly turned to by people trying to prove a point. Commercials that usespokespersons to testify about the quality of a company‘s product, lawyers whorely on eye-witness accounts to win a case, and students who quote an authority intheir essays are all using testimonial evidence. You will probably run acrossstudies conducted by clinicians, economists, or other types of researchers. Theinformation they provide will be one of three types: facts, informed opinions, andspeculation. Factual information is incontrovertible; anyone could find the sameinformation. Informed opinions and speculation will be the interpretation that theresearcher applies to the information. For instance, a researcher might concludethat treatment Y is cost-effective, based on a cost-effectiveness ratio of $50,000per quality of life year saved. Another researcher might think that an appropriatecut-off for "cost-effectiveness" is $10,000 per QUALY, and would disagree. Theconclusion that the treatment is cost-effective is an informed opinion. Speculationis another form of interpretation. Often, the answers many economists get arebased on information from a select sample of individuals, lets say middle-agewomen. Applying these results to another group of the population, for example,elderly women, would call for "out-of-sample" predictions, and these are really justspeculation. Another potential problem is that predictions might be based on aparticular statistical technique and using a different method might give onedifferent predictions. I dont expect you to know all of these nuances in statistics,but be aware that the conclusions you read in others research are not hard-and-fastrules. The first thing to do is to check the credentials of the expert. Check forpossible conflicts of interest (did a pharmaceutical company fund the research?) Ifyou find many different researchers coming to the same opinion, that lends greaterweight to the evidence.Personal/anecdotal experience - Often dismissed as untrustworthy andmeaningless, anecdotal evidence is one of the more underutilized types ofevidence. Anecdote is evidence that is based on a person‘s observations of theworld. It can actually be very useful for disproving generalizations because all
    • 55you need is one example that contradicts a claim. Be careful when using this typeof evidence to try and support your claims. One example of a non-native Englishspeaker who has perfect grammar does NOT prove that ALL non-native Englishspeakers have perfect grammar. All the anecdote can do is disprove the claim thatall immigrants who are non-native English speakers have terrible grammar.You CAN use this type of evidence to support claims, though, if you use itin conjunction with other types of evidence. Personal observations can serve aswonderful examples to introduce a topic and build it up – just make sure youinclude statistical evidence so the reader of your paper doesn‘t question whetheryour examples are just isolated incidents. There are appropriate ways to use thistype of evidence. It may focus an argument, provide an example, or illuminate. Itmay make the reading more interesting. Just dont rely on this type of informationonly. [66]Analogy - is mainly useful when dealing with a topic that is under-researched. If you are on the cutting edge of an issue, you‘re the person breakingnew ground. When you don‘t have statistics to refer to or other authorities on thematter to quote, you have to get your evidence from somewhere. Analogicalevidence steps in to save the day. Take the following example: You work for acompany that is considering turning some land into a theme park. On that landthere happens to be a river that your bosses think would make a great white-waterrafting ride. They‘ve called on you to assess whether or not that ride would be agood idea. Since the land in question is as yet undeveloped, you have no casualtyreports or statistics to refer to. In this case, you can look to other rivers with thesame general shape to them, altitude, etc. and see if any white-water raftingcasualties have occurred on those rivers. Although the rivers are different, thesimilarities between them should be strong enough to give credibility to yourresearch. Realtors use the same type of analogical evidence when determining thevalue of a home.Analogy may be a writing tool to make your points clear and interesting, but
    • 56you may also use analogies as evidence. For instance, if you are studying arelatively new government policy or a new trend in health care markets, you mayneed to speculate on the benefits/costs of the policy based on results from similarpolicies that have been instituted in the past or in trends from other markets that aresimilar. You will need to use reasoning and logic to make the connections. Youshould also describe the possible differences between past policies and today ornon-health markets and healthcare markets, etc... and how these differences mightaffect your conclusions, but this type of evidence can be very persuasive.When you use analogies to support your claims, always remembertheir power. [67]Evidence provides support for claims. Evidence is subcategorized accordingto how it is used to support the claim. Evidence that focuses on our ability to thinkis classified as rational appeal, evidence that focuses on our ability to feelis emotional appeal, and evidence that focuses on our ability to trust those we findto be credible is ethical appeal.TYPES OF EVIDENCE[63]Rational AppealsFactsCase studiesStatisticsExperimentsLogical reasoningAnalogiesAnecdotesEmotional AppealsHigher emotions- Altruism- Love …Base emotions- Greed- LustEthical AppealsTrustworthinessCredibility:-expert testimony-reliable sourcesFairness
    • 57At least in theory, arguments should avoid the personal and the emotional. Anargument may try to move the feelings of its listeners or hearers – pictures ofburned forests to persuade campers to be careful about smoking and putting outcampfires would be an example – but it should use evidence to do so. The evidencecould be of many kinds: statistics, examples, illustrations, the testimony of experts,the results of experiments, quotes from documents, and so on. The nature of theevidence used in arguments is probably less important than its sources, which aresupposed to be objective and fair, and its appropriateness to the subject. Forexample, U.S. supermarkets sell many tabloid newspapers filled with fantasticstories and revelations: Men from Mars have a cure for cancer might be a typicalheadline. However, few people take this ‗news‘ seriously because the tabloidnewspapers themselves have little credibility, and the evidence used to back uptheir claims is inadequate or nonexistent. One of the most important ways weevaluate the truth of a statement is by considering its source.Arguments need not be based on factual evidence; they may instead use aseries of generally accepted statements to move the reader toward a conclusion.For example, to convince students that the tuition they pay for class should beraised, a college might compile statistics about rising costs and examples ofcomparable costs at other institutions; or the argument could consist of a series ofassertions which students might be likely to accept as true: This college has alwayscharged the minimum possible for its classes; the college‘s costs go up at the samerate as everyone else‘s; we will have to raise tuition. [48, pp.142-151]Solid evidence is:Relevant: speaks directly to the point.Representative: you cannot make a point for the whole U.S. populationbased on information about one state, for example. If information is onlyavailable for one state, present the evidence, but note the problems.Accurate: try to find the same information in more than one place, ifpossible.
    • 58Detailed: provide as much as possible. If you know how many thousands ofpeople smoke, tell us the exact number, dont just say "thousands smoke."Adequate: Figure out which are the most important points in your argumentsand support these in the most detail. Lesser points also need evidence, butdont get bogged down on debating a minor detail of the policy.Using EvidenceDistinguish facts from informed opinion or speculation.Use statistics carefully.Use examples to clarify meaning, demonstrate why, or to entertain.Use logic and reason to connect the evidence to the points.Use personal experience or anecdotal evidence sparingly. [67]CredibilityThe credibility of an argument means whether or not others believe it is true.Credibility is obviously an important value in everyday life as well as in writing,and it is worth considering what makes us believe or disbelieve the statements ofour friends, of salespeople, of teachers, and other authority figures. Obviously,some people evoke more trust than others, but that is a circular argument, for itsuggests that some people have credibility because they create trust and that wetrust some people because they have credibility. It is more helpful to ask whatcauses these trusting feelings in the first place.Belief is usually created when what people claim to be is true is confirmedlater on, when it is verified by later events or by other people. These verificationsby other people also affect our initial belief; we tend to go along with the majority,placing a great deal of trust in respected sources such as The New York Times or auniversity or government agency and very little in the supermarket tabloidsmentioned above. This is because it is impossible for average individuals to verifyfacts themselves; we must trust authorities for most of our information, and welearn which authorities have credibility from the opinions of other people. For
    • 59instance, consider an example like, ‗There are over four billion people in the worldtoday.‘ This statement is impossible to verify directly: no one could count theworld‘s population alone. Yet it is clearly ‗factual‘ since the various agencieswhich keep track of such figures, such as the United Nations, confirm this figure. Itwould also be possible to decide that some sources – say a poetry journal or asports magazine – might not have much credibility in estimating the world‘spopulation, were they do so, although, of course, they might have great credibilityin their own field. Thus, careful writers are also careful readers of sources ofinformation and ask themselves whether their sources are considered credible byothers, whether these ‚others‘ themselves are credible, and whether the sources areoperating within their fields of expertise. [46, pp.186-204]2.4 ArgumentationWhile some teachers consider persuasive papers and argument papers to bebasically the same thing, it‘s usually safe to assume that an argument paperpresents a stronger claim—possibly to a more resistant audience. For example:while a persuasive paper might claim that cities need to adopt recycling programs,an argument paper on the same topic might be addressed to a particular town. Theargument paper would go further, suggesting specific ways that a recyclingprogram should be adopted and utilized in that particular area. To write anargument paper or essay, you’ll need to gather evidence and present a well-reasoned argument on a debatable issue. [71]The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 3rdEdition givesthe following definition to ‗argument‘:putting forth reasons for or against; debating;attempting to prove by reasoning; maintain or content;giving evidence of; indicate;persuading or influence (another), as by presenting reasons.
    • 60The argumentative writing requires that the student will investigate a topic,collect, generate, and evaluate evidence, and establish a position on the topic in aconcise manner. The argumentative essay is commonly assigned as a capstone orfinal project in first year writing or advanced composition courses and involveslengthy, detailed research. Argumentative essay assignments generally call forextensive research of literature or previously published material. Argumentativeassignments may also require empirical research where the student collects datathrough interviews, surveys, observations, or experiments. Detailed researchallows the student to learn about the topic and to understand different points ofview regarding the topic so that s/he may choose a position and support it with theevidence collected during research. Regardless of the amount or type of researchinvolved, argumentative essays must establish a clear thesis and follow soundreasoning. [51, pp.287-320]The word "argument" does not have to be written anywhere in the assignmentfor it to be an important part of the task. In fact, making an argument—expressinga point of view on a subject and supporting it with evidence—is often the aim ofacademic writing. Many instructors may assume that students know this and thusmay not explain the importance of arguments in class.Most material one learns in college or university is or has been debated bysomeone, somewhere, at some time. Even when the material you read or hear ispresented as simple "fact," it may actually be one persons interpretation of a set ofinformation. Instructors may call on you to examine that interpretation and defendit, refute it, or offer some new view of your own. In writing assignments, you willalmost always need to do more than just summarize information that you havegathered or regurgitate facts that have been discussed in class. You will need todevelop a point of view on or interpretation of that material and provide evidencefor your position. [76]One may think that "fact," not argument, rules intelligent thinking, below is anexample for consideration. For nearly 2000 years, educated people in many
    • 61Western cultures believed that bloodletting—deliberately causing a sick person tolose blood—was the most effective treatment for a variety of illnesses. The "fact"that bloodletting is beneficial to human health was not widely questioned until the1800s, and some physicians continued to recommend bloodletting as late as the1920s. We have come to accept a different set of "facts" now because some peoplebegan to doubt the effectiveness of bloodletting; these people argued against it andprovided convincing evidence. Human knowledge grows out of such differences ofopinion, and scholars like your instructors spend their lives engaged in debate overwhat may be counted as "true," "real," or "right" in their fields. In their courses,they want you to engage in similar kinds of critical thinking and debate.Argumentation is not just what your instructors do. We all use argumentationon a daily basis, and you probably already have some skill at crafting an argument.The more you improve your skills in this area, the better you will be at thinkingcritically, reasoning, making choices, and weighing evidence.In academic writing, an argument is usually a main idea, often called a "claim"or "thesis statement," backed up with evidence that supports the idea. In themajority of college papers, you will need to make some sort of claim and useevidence to support it, and your ability to do this well will separate your papersfrom those of students who see assignments as mere accumulations of fact anddetail. It is time to stake out a position and prove why it is a good position for athinking person to hold.The thesis statement or main claim must be debatableAn argumentative or persuasive piece of writing must begin with adebatable thesis or claim. In other words, the thesis must be something that peoplecould reasonably have differing opinions on. If your thesis is something that isgenerally agreed upon or accepted as fact then there is no reason to try to persuadepeople.
    • 62Example of a non-debatable thesis statement: Pollution is bad for theenvironment.This thesis statement is not debatable. First, the word pollution means thatsomething is bad or negative in some way. Further, all studies agree that pollutionis a problem, they simply disagree on the impact it will have or the scope of theproblem. No one could reasonably argue that pollution is good.Example of a debatable thesis statement: At least twenty-five percent ofthe federal budget should be spent on limiting pollution.This is an example of a debatable thesis because reasonable people could disagreewith it. Some people might think that this is how we should spend the nationsmoney. Others might feel that we should be spending more money on education.Still others could argue that corporations, not the government, should be paying tolimit pollution.Another example of a debatable thesis statement: Americas anti-pollution efforts should focus on privately owned cars.In this example there is also room for disagreement between rational individuals.Some citizens might think focusing on recycling programs rather than privateautomobiles is the most effective strategy.The thesis needs to be narrowAlthough the scope of your paper might seem overwhelming at the start, generallythe narrower the thesis the more effective your argument will be. Your thesis orclaim must be supported by evidence. The broader your claim is, the moreevidence you will need to convince readers that your position is right.Example of a thesis that is too broad: Drug use is detrimental to society.
    • 63There are several reasons this statement is too broad to argue. First, what isincluded in the category "drugs"? Is the author talking about illegal drug use,recreational drug use (which might include alcohol and cigarettes), or all uses ofmedication in general? Second, in what ways are drugs detrimental? Is drug usecausing deaths (and is the author equating deaths from overdoses and deaths fromdrug related violence)? Is drug use changing the moral climate or causing theeconomy to decline? Finally, what does the author mean by "society"? Is theauthor referring only to America or to the global population? Does the author makeany distinction between the effects on children and adults? There are just too manyquestions that the claim leaves open. The author could not cover all of the topicslisted above, yet the generality of the claim leaves all of these possibilities open todebate.Example of a narrow or focused thesis: Illegal drug use is detrimentalbecause it encourages gang violence.In this example the topic of drugs has been narrowed down to illegal drugs and thedetriment has been narrowed down to gang violence. This is a much moremanageable topic. We could narrow each debatable thesis from the previousexamples in the following way:Narrowed debatable thesis 1:At least twenty-five percent of the federal budget should be spent on helpingupgrade business to clean technologies, researching renewable energysources, and planting more trees in order to control or eliminate pollution.This thesis narrows the scope of the argument by specifying not just the amount ofmoney used but also how the money could actually help to control pollution.
    • 64Narrowed debatable thesis 2:Americas anti-pollution efforts should focus on privately owned carsbecause it would allow most citizens to contribute to national efforts andcare about the outcome.This thesis narrows the scope of the argument by specifying not just what the focusof a national anti-pollution campaign should be but also why this is the appropriatefocus.Qualifiers such as "typically," "generally," "usually," or "on average" also help tolimit the scope of your claim by allowing for the almost inevitable exception to therule. [73]Types of Thesis Statements/ ClaimsClaims typically fall into one of four categories. Thinking about how you want toapproach your topic, in other words what type of claim you want to make, is oneway to focus your thesis on one particular aspect of you broader topic.Claims of fact or definition: These claims argue about what the definition ofsomething is or whether something is a settled fact. Example:What some people refer to as global warming is actually nothing more thannormal, long-term cycles of climate change.Claims of cause and effect: These claims argue that one person, thing, or eventcaused another thing or event to occur. Example:The popularity of SUVs in America has caused pollution to increase.Claims about value: These are claims made about what something is worth,whether we value it or not, how we would rate or categorize something. Example:
    • 65Global warming is the most pressing challenge facing the world today.Claims about solutions or policies: These are claims that argue for or against acertain solution or policy approach to a problem. Example:Instead of drilling for oil in Alaska we should be focusing on ways to reduceoil consumption, such as researching renewable energy sources.Which type of thesis or claim you use for your argument will depend on yourposition and knowledge on the topic, your audience, and the context of your paper.You might want to think about where you imagine your audience to be on thistopic and pinpoint where you think the biggest difference in viewpoints might be.Even if you start with one type of claim you probably will be using several withinthe paper. Regardless of the type of claim you choose to utilize it is key to identifythe controversy or debate you are addressing and to define your position early onin the paper!There are two types of evidence that should be used while writing anargument. First hand research is research you have conducted yourself such asinterviews, experiments, surveys, or personal experience and anecdotes. Secondhand research is research you are getting from various texts that has been suppliedand compiled by others such as books, periodicals, and websites. Regardless ofwhat type of sources you use, they must be credible. In other words, your sourcesmust be reliable, accurate, and trustworthy.You can ask the following questions to determine if a source is credible:Who is the author? Credible sources are written by authors respected theirfields of study. Responsible, credible authors will cite their sources so that you cancheck the accuracy of and support for what theyve written. (This is also a goodway to find more sources for your own research.)
    • 66How recent is the source? The choice to seek recent sources depends onyour topic. While sources on the American Civil War may be decades old and stillcontain accurate information, sources on information technologies, or other areasthat are experiencing rapid changes, need to be much more current.What is the authors purpose? When deciding which sources to use, youshould take the purpose or point of view of the author into consideration. Is theauthor presenting a neutral, objective view of a topic? Or is the author advocatingone specific view of a topic? Who is funding the research or writing of this source?A source written from a particular point of view may be credible; however, youneed to be careful that your sources dont limit your coverage of a topic to one sideof a debate.What type of sources does your audience value? If you are writing for aprofessional or academic audience, they may value peer-reviewed journals as themost credible sources of information. If you are writing for a group of residents inyour hometown, they might be more comfortable with mainstream sources, suchas Time or Newsweek. A younger audience may be more accepting of informationfound on the Internet than an older audience might be.Be especially careful when evaluating Internet sources! Never use Websites where an author cannot be determined, unless the site is associated with areputable institution such as a respected university, a credible media outlet,government program or department, or well-known non-governmentalorganizations. Beware of using sites like Wikipedia, which are collaborativelydeveloped by users. Because anyone can add or change content, the validity ofinformation on such sites may not meet the standards for academic research.[4, pp.58-72]
    • 672.4.1Presenting an ArgumentUse an organizational structure that arranges the argument in a way that will makesense to the reader. The Toulmin Method of logic is a common and easy to useformula for organizing an argument.The basic format for the Toulmin Method is as follows:Claim: The overall thesis the writer will argue for.Data: Evidence gathered to support the claim.Warrant (also referred to as a bridge): Explanation of why or how the datasupports the claim, the underlying assumption that connects your data to yourclaim.Backing (also referred to as the foundation): Additional logic or reasoning thatmay be necessary to support the warrant.Counterclaim: A claim that negates or disagrees with the thesis/claim.Rebuttal: Evidence that negates or disagrees with the counterclaim.Including a well thought out warrant or bridge is essential to writing a goodargumentative essay or paper. If you present data to your audience withoutexplaining how it supports your thesis they may not make a connection betweenthe two or they may draw different conclusions.Dont avoid the opposing side of an argument. Instead, include the opposing side asa counterclaim. Find out what the other side is saying and respond to it within yourown argument. This is important so that the audience is not swayed by weak, butirrefutable arguments. Including counterclaims allows you to find common groundwith more of your readers. It also makes you look more credible because youappear to be knowledgeable about the entirety of the debate rather than just being
    • 68biased or uniformed. You may want to include several counterclaims to show thatyou have thoroughly researched the topic.Example:Claim: Hybrid cars are an effective strategy to fight pollution.Data1:Driving a private car is a typical citizens most air polluting activity.Warrant 1:Because cars are the largest source of private, as opposed to industryproduced, air pollution switching to hybrid cars should have an impact on fightingpollution.Data 2: Each vehicle produced is going to stay on the road for roughly 12 to 15years.Warrant 2: Cars generally have a long lifespan, meaning that a decision to switchto a hybrid car will make a long-term impact on pollution levels.Data 3: Hybrid cars combine a gasoline engine with a battery-powered electricmotor.Warrant 3: This combination of technologies means that less pollution isproduced. According to ineedtoknow.org "the hybrid engine of the Prius, made byToyota, produces 90 percent fewer harmful emissions than a comparable gasolineengine."Counterclaim: Instead of focusing on cars, which still encourages a culture ofdriving even if it cuts down on pollution, the nation should focus on building andencouraging use of mass transit systems.Rebuttal: While mass transit is an environmentally sound idea that should beencouraged, it is not feasible in many rural and suburban areas, or for people who
    • 69must commute to work; thus hybrid cars are a better solution for much of thenations population.The structure of the argumentative piece of writing is held together by thefollowing:A clear, concise, and defined thesis statement that occurs in the firstparagraph of the essay.In the first paragraph of an argument essay, students should set the context byreviewing the topic in a general way. Next the author should explain why the topicis important (exigency) or why readers should care about the issue. Lastly, studentsshould present the thesis statement. It is essential that this thesis statement beappropriately narrowed to follow the guidelines set forth in the assignment. If thestudent does not master this portion of the essay, it will be quite difficult tocompose an effective or persuasive essay.Clear and logical transitions between the introduction, body, andconclusion.Transitions are the mortar that holds the foundation of the essay together. Withoutlogical progression of thought, the reader is unable to follow the essay‘s argument,and the structure will collapse. Transitions should wrap up the idea from theprevious section and introduce the idea that is to follow in the next section.Providing additional arguments one can use the following transitions: what ismore, in addition to, further, not only will … but … will also .., etc. Showingcontrast: however, on the other hand, although, unfortunately. Ordering: first ofall, then, next, finally. Summarizing: to sum up, in conclusion, in summary,all things considered. Expressing opinion: in my opinion, I feel / think that ...,personally.
    • 70Body paragraphs that include evidential support.Each paragraph should be limited to the discussion of one general idea. This willallow for clarity and direction throughout the essay. In addition, such concisenesscreates an ease of readability for one‘s audience. It is important to note that eachparagraph in the body of the essay must have some logical connection to the thesisstatement in the opening paragraph. Some paragraphs will directly support thethesis statement with evidence collected during research. It is also important toexplain how and why the evidence supports the thesis (warrant).However, argumentative essays should also consider and explain differing pointsof view regarding the topic. Depending on the length of the assignment, studentsshould dedicate one or two paragraphs of an argumentative essay to discussingconflicting opinions on the topic. Rather than explaining how these differingopinions are wrong outright, students should note how opinions that do not alignwith their thesis might not be well informed or how they might be out of date.Evidential support (whether factual, logical, statistical, or anecdotal).The argumentative essay requires well-researched, accurate, detailed, and currentinformation to support the thesis statement and consider other points of view.Some factual, logical, statistical, or anecdotal evidence should support the thesis.However, students must consider multiple points of view when collectingevidence. As noted in the paragraph above, a successful and well-roundedargumentative essay will also discuss opinions not aligning with the thesis. It isunethical to exclude evidence that may not support the thesis. It is not the student‘sjob to point out how other positions are wrong outright, but rather to explain howother positions may not be well informed or up to date on the topic.
    • 71A conclusion that does not simply restate the thesis, but readdresses it inlight of the evidence provided.It is at this point of the essay that students may begin to struggle. This is theportion of the essay that will leave the most immediate impression on the mind ofthe reader. Therefore, it must be effective and logical. Do not introduce any newinformation into the conclusion; rather, synthesize the information presented in thebody of the essay. Restate why the topic is important, review the main points, andreview your thesis. You may also want to include a short discussion of moreresearch that should be completed in light of your work. [9, pp.138-144]2.5 Persuading Effectively―They who influence the thoughts of their times, influence all the times thatfollow. They have made their impression on eternity.‖ AnonymousPersuasion requires technique. No one would believe anything said byanother until and unless he or she is persuaded into believing it. Whether you arewriting an advertisement, an email to a friend or an essay trying to convince agroup of people to come over to your way of thinking, you need to know themethods top persuaders use to change people‘s thinking and get them to takeaction. Persuasion can be done by certain methods.Here is a collection of the most persuasive techniques used by politicians,advertising copywriters, spin-doctors, propaganda writers, lawyers etc., anybodywho has to change an individual‘s mind–or groups of people‘s minds–quickly.A student could use these techniques to get people to do things theywouldn‘t ordinarily do, change their beliefs, get them to change their minds, getthem to take action.
    • 72■ Appeal to Their IdentityWho a person is and how they see themselves is an incredibly importantinfluence tool, maybe the most important of them all. If you can tie in what youwant with what their identity would do in a similar situation, you‘d have a verygood chance of getting him or her to do it. As a matter of fact, if you‘re convincingenough, you would cause inner conflict that would compel them to act in the wayyou want. Of course people have more than one identity. They combine with theirroles in life and how they see themselves. Many of these are fairly universal: beinga good parent, a good friend, a good manager, being interesting, honest, etc.Another use of the Appeal to Their Identity is the use of Labels. Whatpositive label could you put on the person(s) you are writing to? Here are someframes you can use for labeling someone:* You‘re a natural _______. (―You’re a natural entrepreneur.‖)* You‘re not the type of person who _______. (―You’re not the type of person whowould lie .‖ The label here - Honest.)* One thing I really like about you is _______. (―One thing I really like about youis your open-mindedness.―)* Unlike other ______, you‘re ________. (―Unlike other managers, you’regenerous.―)The above frames are very useful in buttering a person up before askingthem to do something for you. You would use one of the above frames and thenmake a request that would cause a conflict with the label you gave them. So, if Iused the, ―Unlike other managers, you‘re generous, ‖ I would then, later on, ask fora raise or a loan of some sort.While you‘re writing, ask yourself, ―Who is this person?‖ Who does shethink she is?‖ ―What roles are important to him?‖ ―What positive, complimentarylabel can I apply to him or her?‖
    • 73■ Use Their Hierarchy of ValuesThis technique can tie into the one above. People place a value on practicallyeverything. And that includes time, goods, ideas, people, etc. But they do havepriorities. They will compare the characteristics of one thing to another todetermine which one is more valuable to them, especially if they have to make achoice. How can you tie in what you‘re offering with one or more of their highestvalues?Some of the fairly universal values are these: love, health, attractiveness,security, safety of family, pleasure, impressing others, happiness.Think of something fairly expensive you bought recently. Why did you buyit? What value(s) of yours made it appeal to you? What would have stopped youfrom buying it? What would have had to happen for you to pay twice the moneyfor it? Whatever your answers to these questions, they show the values you appliedto your purchase.An example:• What’s more important to you, saving a few bucks or your health?Questions to ask yourself while writing: ―What‘s important to this person?‖ ―Howcan I make my offer just as valuable?‖■ Invoke EmotionsAs any professional advertising copywriter knows, you sell something bygetting the prospective customers‘ emotions involved. Propagandists and spin-doctors know this too. Positive emotions like hope, anticipation, love, and negativeemotions like anger, loneliness, disgust can spur people into action.You also need to use emotionally charged words that add impact to yourwriting. Try to pull out bland words and head to a thesaurus to find words that havea punch.Example: Show the love for your dog that he or she shows you.Ask yourself, ―What emotions do I want to invoke, and how can I do it?‖
    • 74■ Motivate Your ReaderWhy should they do what you ask them? What‘s in it for your reader? Whatdo they get? What‘s the incentive? What are the major benefits of doing what youare asking them to do? Make big promises. Promises you can keep if you don‘twant major fallout later. A great way to get your readers motivated is to use a listof benefits, just pile on all the great benefits of what you are offering or what theywill get when they do what you are asking.Here‘s an example: When you exercise, you’ll notice you will:* Be more content and happier* Sleep better* Be less likely to get sick* Recover from injuries faster* Have cleaner breathWhile writing, ask yourself, ―How can I motivate my reader(s) to act now? Howcan I light a fire under them? What are all the benefits they will get if they act?‖■ Show Them the ConsequencesHow will your readers lose out by not doing what you suggest? Paint a wordpicture for them. What pain will they experience if they don‘t do as you ask. Thisdoesn‘t mean make threats. That will set up resistance. Just tell them some of thenegatives of not doing what you want, choosing an alternative to what you areoffering…or doing nothing.Example: Many foods are not nutritionally balanced, especially imported food.The last thing you need is for you to get sick, start losing hair, becoming listless,just because you have been serving canned food that isn’t as healthy.An important point when using this technique is to NOT dwell on thenegatives for too long. People are exposed to negative news all day long. If youspend too much time on the consequences, you might lose them. Keep it short.Ask yourself, ―How will they lose out if they don‘t act now?‖ ―What painwill they experience if they don‘t do as I ask?‖
    • 75■ Ask QuestionsWhen you ask lots of questions of your readers, you get them involved. Andonce they are involved, you can lead them where you want them to go. One oldtime use of questions in sales and copywriting is to ask several questions in a rowthat get the prospective customer to say ―Yes‖. This will, more often than not, getthem into a positive mood and more receptive to your request. Another good wayto use questions in your writing is to make suggestions rather than orders.―Why not order now while you are still on this website, instead of just using―Order now!!‖. Questions are an ideal way to insert embedded commands.Some examples:• How do you know you are getting the proper nutrition you deserve?• Why not treat yourself to a Special dinner today?When writing try to put in a few questions to get your readers involved.■ Reframe Possible ObjectionsWhat would stop someone from doing what you want them to do? Whatpossible anxiety could they feel about doing what you ask? Write down all theycould possibly reject about your offer or request. Then take your list of possibleobjections and reframe them. Put a spin on them or change their perspective.Example: Special-J Food contains micro-capsules to release nutrients into yourbody all throughout the day, keeping your immune system running at peak levels,lessening the chance to get sick. (THE POSSIBLE OBJECTION IS: ―All food isthe same.‖)What you DON‘T want to do is ignore any possible objections. By notbringing them up, you risk looking like you‘re hiding something, or you aremaking your offer sound too good to be true by leaving those objections out.Ask yourself, ―What would stop this person from doing what I want? How can Iput a more positive spin on this objection? What else could this mean? What‘s notapparent to them?‖
    • 76■ Use QuotesAuthority and Social Proof are incredibly convincing ways to persuade. Justby quoting an expert or a celebrity (in the form of quotations), or satisfiedcustomers (in the form of testimonials) you ramp up the persuasive content of yourwriting quite a few notches. Another benefit of using quotes in your writing is thatthey attract the eye when put inside quotation marks.Example:• ―Nine out of ten veterinarians feed their dogs Special Food.‖• ―My dogs love Special-J Dog Food. They’re healthier, happier, and look great!‖~ Marlin PerkinsWhen writing your piece, ask yourself where you can find quotes andtestimonials that will support your case.■ Employ MetaphorMetaphors (analogies and similes) have been used to influence, persuade,educate, and convince for thousands of years. Most of the Bible and other religiousbooks are written in metaphor. It‘s another powerful technique. How is what youwant them to do like something they love to do? What are the parallels between thetwo?If you are selling a product, how is your product like something else verydesirable? The classic advertising positioning statement ―ABC is the Rolls-Royce ofprinter inks‖ uses metaphor for this effect.Here are some examples:• Omega 3 fatty acids act like immunity boosters shot for you.• It’s the Fountain of Youth!Ask yourself, ―What is my offer like?‖
    • 77■ Compliment and FlatterIf you can pull it off, make your reader feel special. This technique might bea bit transparent when writing to cold audiences (people you don‘t know), but ifyou know them or you know the type of people they are (like a certain car owner),you should compliment them, especially if you have something negative to tellthem. If you can‘t think of anything nice to tell your reader, you can always dowhat Joe Gerard (Guinness Book of Records‘ World‘s Greatest Salesman used todo: mail them cards that said ―I like you!‖ inside. He swore that this techniqueworked miracles. It also ties in quite well with Technique 1 (―Appeal to TheirIdentity‖).Ask yourself, ―What do I appreciate about this person? What do I like aboutthis person? How can I compliment them with sounding like a brown-nose?‖■ Show No Gray AreaPoint out to your readers that there really isn‘t any choice in what you haveto offer. They have only a very positive outcome if they do as you say or a verynegative one if they don‘t. Which one are you going to choose? You can (or will)do/have/be (POSITIVE), or (NEGATIVE).An example of this technique: You can eat nutritious, balanced meals, or you canget weaker every month.When you are writing your piece, ask yourself how your readers don‘t havea choice. It‘s only black or white.■ Belong to a Special GroupBecause of our tribal nature, we almost always seek out people who aresimilar to us. Veterans, collectors, artists, even people who have the same illnessesare all groups that come together in rapport.
    • 78There are a few variations on this technique that you can use alone or incombination:a) People who already belong to a special, desirable groupb) People who don‘t belong to a special group…BUT WANT TOb) Having a mutual enemyc) Getting on the bandwagon or being left outEach one would require a different approach.Here are some examples using each of the variations above:a) To all you pit bull owners out there….b) Here’s how you can become a pit bull terrier lover too…c) The State wants to take your pit bull away!d) If you own a pit bull terrier, this is your last chance to join Pit Bull Owners ofAmerica.―A sharply defined enemy is a far stronger argument for your side than all thewords you could possibly put together.‖ ~ Robert GreeneOf course this technique works well with Technique 1 (―Appeal to TheirIdentity‖) because when you are part of a group, it‘s also a party or your identity ora role you take on. When using this, ask yourself, ―What groups of people does myoffer appeal to? What are their interests and desires? What group of people wouldmy target want to belong to?‖ ―Can I start a desirable group of my own?‖■ Have Them Make a CommitmentWhen people make a commitment to an idea, they tend to find it verydifficult to change their minds without creating conflict or anxiety (called,Cognitive Dissonance). This is a little more difficult to do in one-way writing (sayan advertisement or a sales letter), but it can be done. For an advertisement, youwould first ask your readers a question where they would most likely say yes. Thenyou‘d continue with your writing. Finally, you‘d remind them of what they saidyes to.
    • 79For example: Do you love your dog? (THEN I‘D CONTINUE WITH THE BODYCOPY OF THE AD.) Earlier in this article (letter/ad), I asked you if you lovedyour dog. What better way to show your love for her by giving her a delicious andnutritious meal...For a more personal correspondence, say an email, online chatting, or aletter, you could ask one of these questions:• I thought you said you were….,―I thought you said you were a Conservative. That‘s not what a Conservativewould say.‖• Didn’t you say you…,―Didn‘t you say you loved animals? Why would you eat meat…‖• Don’t you think (UNDESIRABLE TRAIT or TYPE OF PERSON) is (NEGATIVELABEL)? IF THEY AGREE…LATER FOLLOW UP.YOU: Don‘t you think being a cheapskate is a horrible?HE: Yeah, sure.…LATER…YOU: Hey, can I borrow twenty bucks?When writing your piece, find out how you can get your reader to make acommitment, even a small one: donating a little money, trying something, evensaying ―yes‖ to something, etc.■ Change their lifeMost people are unhappy with their lives or at least a some aspect of it.Many of them want change. But they don‘t know how to change, or if they do, theyare too afraid or lazy to do so.How can what you are offering change your target‘s life for the better? Youroffer must do more than change lives though, it has to change lives with the leastamount of effort. What many people are looking for is the Magic Pill. Somethingwhere they wake up and their lives are magically different.
    • 80• As you know, your health affects your whole family. You, your spouse, especiallyyour kids are affected by the condition of your health.Your offer can probably change your readers‘ lives for the better someway,somehow. How?■ Overcome InertiaThe first rule here is to simplify the steps they need to take. Don‘t go intotoo much detail as to what they have to do. Narrow their choices or options down.It‘s been proven that people won‘t take action if they have too many choicesavailable to them. It also helps to show them the consequences of not acting now(See Technique 5 ―Show Them the Consequences‖).Top persuaders often create urgency by telling their readers how scarce theiroffer has become. You can use a time deadline, a limited quantity, a limited supplyof a freebie/bonus/premium, or a soon-to-arrive price increase to get your readersoff their butts.Some examples: Get a 25% discount on jewelry now before November 10th.Receive a bottle of Baby Shampoo with every case of Special Baby Food. Butplease hurry, we only have 53 bottles left.Ask, ―How can I increase the urgency of my offer?‖ ―How can I add a deadline?‖■ Add PresuppositionsThese are compelling ways to put thoughts into people‘s heads without evenverbalizing the thought. Here‘s a quick way to incorporate presuppositions intoyour writing: Use questions. This requires a little more thought than Technique 6(―Ask Questions‖) presented above. Just think of what you want your readers tobelieve about your offer or product. Then put it into a question form.Some examples:
    • 81• Do you know of any other baby food that makes your child healthier than SpecialBaby Food? (NOTE: Whether they answer yes or no, by answering the questionthey imply that Special Baby Food will make their child healthy.)When writing, ask yourself how you are going to imply your claims.■ Use Rhetorical Questions to Make ClaimsThis one is used a lot by the mass media, because it lets claims slip intoreaders‘ minds without resistance. If I say, ―XYZ tablets let you lose weight whileyou sleep,‖ you probably won‘t really believe it; you‘ve heard claims like this allthe time. But if I ask, ―How has XYZ tablets helped thousands of people across theUSA lose weight while they sleep?―, it has a better chance of being acceptedwithout resistance.Take a claim that you want to make, and try out different types of questionsto frame it in.Example: How do Decatrim pills help you boost your self-confidence?When you are writing, ask yourself, ―How can I put some of my claims intoquestion form?‖When working on your project, keep sentences fairly short. One mistake inads and other forms of persuasive writing is sentences that are too long. The longeryour sentences, the more difficult they are too read, and the more likely they willbe ignored. You can mix and match these techniques depending on your project.These were the seventeen ways to influence and persuade, and one now hasa ton of power in his/her hands. Turn your pen (or keyboard) into a formidableweapon and use this power ethically. Because as Clint Eastwood put it “It takestremendous discipline to control the influence, the power you have over otherpeople‘s lives.” [68]
    • 82Chapter III. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF PERSUASION ANDARGUMENT IN WRITING3.1. The Experimental analysis of the master’s paper.The pedagogical practice was carried out at the State Pedagogical University―Ion Creanga‖. Hence the experiment which is necessary for the writing of theMaster‘s Paper had been conducted in the group 302 and 304 from 3rdyearstudents. There were 10 students in group 302, and 7 students in group 304. Group1 (302) was considered a control one, it was taught in a traditional way conformthe methods of teaching characteristic to the course book ―Практический КурсАнглийского Языка 3 курс‖ (authors – В.Д. Аракин, И.А. Новикова, О.В.Афанасьева, and others). Group 2 (304) which is an experimental one, was taughtwith the use of some persuasive strategies on creating workshop in the classroom.For instance, during the process of fulfilling the assignment students wereinvolved in some modern methods of teaching which are not supposed by thenamed textbook. Thus, in teaching writing, the teacher used such activities, asdiscussions, brainstorming, matching, storey-telling, interviews, reading about thetopic, timed writing, listing and categorizing information etc.The students` writing abilities were examined at the pre-experimental stage.A questionnaire whose purpose was to reveal difficulties students face to whileperforming writing assignments were handed to the learners. The sample of thequestionnaire is presented below:Questionnaire which must be filled in before the experiment:Put the numbers from 4 to 1 to show your agreement or disagreement withthe given statements following this pattern:1 – completely disagree; 2 – partially disagree; 3 – partially agree; 4 –completely agree1. It is difficult to write persuasively.2. I cannot always organize my ideas into sentences.
    • 833. I do not know how to connect my sentences into a coherent text.4. I cannot structure an argument.5. My vocabulary is poor.6. I am not sure in appropriateness of my essay to writing standards.The results obtained with the help of the questionnaire are shown in the tablebelow:№Problem areaNumber of points Percentage ofstudentsGroup 1(of 40possible)Group 2(of 28possible)Group1 Group 21. Writing persuasively 38 26 28% 25%2. Organizing ideas intosentences34 20 23.5% 19%3. Organizing a coherenttext34 21 23.5% 19.4%4. Structuring an argument 38 27 28% 25,5%5. Poor vocabulary stock 21 18 14.5% 17%6. Appropriateness of theessay19 23 12.5% 21%As it turned out a big number of students (28% and 25%) are faced to lack theskill of writing persuasively. The other problem illuminated by the learners is thedifficulty of structuring an argument (28% and 25,5%). Once ideas have beengenerated for writing, the selection of appropriate words to communicate precisemeanings is very important. Some students feel that the words they use areunsuitable and the poor word stock does not permit them to replace theinappropriate words with their synonyms or definitions. The next problem forstudents is correct development of ideas (23,5% and 19%) and uncertainty withtext‘s coherence (23,5% and 19,4%).
    • 84In that way the problems that learners have in relation to various features ofpersuasive writing were highlighted and taken into consideration in the process ofinvestigation.The purpose of the experiment was to identify the type of writing activitiesstudents are more successful at and to prove the necessity of creating writingworkshop in the classroom.The first type of writing examined during the experiment was persuasivewriting. The control group (or Group 1) was taught according to the structuresuggested by the above-mentioned course-book. In the experimental group thiswriting activity was viewed as an independent part of the lesson including all thestages. The procedure was the following:1ststage: Pre-writingTASK 1Directions: Comment on the following quotations:1. Children begin by loving their parents. After a time they judge them. Rarely, ifever, do they forgive them. (O. Wilde)2. The childhood shows the man as morning shows the day. (J. Milton)3. It is a wise father that knows his own child. (W. Shakespeare)4. When children are doing nothing, they are doing mischief. (H. Fielding)TASK 2Directions: The word ‗School‘ is recorded on the board. Each student shouldthink about the times when he/she was in school for about one minute and list alltheir thoughts, ideas and associations that the word generates. The best ideas arechosen to make a definition of the word ‗School‘.
    • 85TASK 3Directions: Answer the questions below. The points for discussion are thefollowing:What was your favorite subject at school? Why?What did you do to learn it well?Did you read many books on your favorite subject?Did you have a favorite teacher?What kind of man/woman is he/she?What foreign languages have you studied at school?Is your school large or small?Is your school old or new?How many stories are there in your school?Was there a playground, a garden or a gymnasium?Did you like your school?Where was your classroom situated?Did you often go to the school library? Why? Why not?TASK 4Directions: Work in teams of three or four.1. Each team throws the dice. The team with the highest score starts.2. Teams take turns to throw the dice for the vertical and horizontal axis in order toselect the topic. Each team has to give two reasons in favor of or against the topic –if they take too long or give a bad reason one of their members is out. The nextteam then rolls the dice.3. They continue until one team is left which is the winner.Arguments should be reasonable and valid.
    • 861 2 3 4 5 61 Dogs makebetter petsthan cats.Yourparents areyour bestteachers.You canlearn morefromexperiencethan frombooks.Boys andgirls shouldwear thesame clothes.Learningabout thepast has novaluebecause welive in thepresent.We arebecoming toodependent oncomputers.2 It should beillegal to selljunk food.Happinessis moreimportantthan money.Films withviolence andbad languageshould neverbe shown ontelevision.Books aremoresatisfyingthan films.Childrenshould berequired tohelp withhouseholdtasks.It is cruel tokeep animalsin zoos.3 Naughtychildrenshould bepunished bysmacking.Everybodyshould go tochurch (orparticipatein religion).War isalwayswrong.Every jobshould havethe samesalary.All schoolstudentsshould weara schooluniform.Wealthynations shouldshare theirwealth withpoorer nations.4 Spaceexploration isa waste ofmoney.Childrenshould beallowed towear whatthey like.Britainshouldreplace theroyal familywith apresident.Footballersare overpaid.Aliens havevisitedearth.Laws shouldbe introducedto control carownership anduse.5 Too muchtelevision isbad for you.Childrenshould notbe allowedto bringmobilephones toschool.Factoryfarmingshould beabolished.Childrenunder 11should be inbed by 9o‘clock.Smokingshould betreated as adrug andmadeillegal.Sometimes itsbetter not totell the truth.6 Under 11sshould bebanned fromthe internet.Homeworkis good foryou.Motoristsshould pay todrive in citycenters.The use ofanimals totest drugs andotherproductsshould bebanned.Girls workharder thanboys.Progress isalways good.[16, pp.62-144]TASK 5Directions: Read the following paragraph. Determine what the nextparagraphs should be about based on the preview of main points. Listen to each
    • 87other (desk-mates or partners) and express your opinions by suggesting somerevisions and reconstructions.According to a recent survey conducted in our community, parents andteachers think school uniforms are a good idea. However, the results were quitedifferent when students were asked their opinion. Overwhelmingly, students feelthat school uniforms are a bad idea. I agree. School uniforms take away our abilityto express our unique style through our clothes, cost more to purchase than itemson sale, and can be hot and uncomfortable.What should be discussed in the first body paragraph? __________________________________________________________________________________What should be discussed in the second body paragraph? ________________________________________________________________________________What should be discussed in the third body paragraph? __________________________________________________________________________________2ndstage: WritingThe next stage is o give students the writing assignment with a clearpurpose.TASK 1Directions: Write about why wearing a uniform at school is a good or badidea, include all the reasons we have discussed. Discuss with your partner thesupporting reasons:Firstly………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………………………………
    • 88Secondly...................................................................................……………………........................................................................................................................................Finally……………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………….Use these words to help you link the writing together:Therefore, so, because, if, means that, and, although, however, to start with,the reason why..., thats why..., for this reason..., thats the reason why...,many people think...., some believe that …, considering..., allowing for thefact that..., when you consider that..., moreover…,surely…,it is certain…[17, pp.164-169]TASK 2Directions: Work in groups. Discuss the abstract from the previous task andthe problem of wearing school uniform. One of the groups will insist that childrenshould wear school uniform; the other group will defend the opposite point ofview. Choose one person from your group to persuade others. Think of aninteresting title, and be sure to provide sound reasons for whatever you saysupported by solid evidence. Listen to each other and express your opinions bysuggesting some revisions and reconstructions. Each group has 5 minutes topresent their ideas.Consider the following frame to guide you.Persuasion writing frameTitle ______________________________________________________________Although not everybody would agree, I want to say that _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
    • 89I have several reasons for arguing this point of view.My first reason is ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________A further reason is _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Furthermore ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Therefore though some people might argue that __________________________________________________________________________________________I think that I have shown ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________[13, p.134]Which persuasive techniques will you include?Asking your listeners a question, e.g. Would you like it if......?Using exaggeration, e.g. If this happens, I’ll go wild!Involving facts or numbers to support your ideas, e.g. 75% of children thinkthat......Sentences with groups of 3 adjectives, e.g. Television is fabulous, fun andinformative.Words that involve emotions or feelings e.g. Poor helpless animals suffer whenthey are abandoned......Repeating phrases using pronouns e.g. We have listened. We have learned.We have tried to make things better.
    • 90TASK 3Directions: Persuade your partner to wear formal clothes at university.Listen to each other and express your opinions by suggesting some revisions andreconstructions.Use the following format.Persuade Somebody to Wear Formal Clothes:_______________________________________________________Provide 3 facts that will encourage somebody to wear formal clothes:1. ______________________________________________________2. ______________________________________________________3. ______________________________________________________Provide 3 opinions that will encourage somebody to wear formal clothes:1. ______________________________________________________2. ______________________________________________________3. ______________________________________________________Why might somebody not want to wear formal clothes?________________________________________________________How will you persuade them otherwise?________________________________________________________TASK 4Directions:1. Match up the techniques to their definition and examples by drawing a line tolink them.
    • 912) Imagine you are trying to persuade your parents to allow you to stay out late.Which 4 persuasive techniques would you use?For each one, write a sentence which is persuasive.e.g. Dont you remember what it was like when you were my age? Wheneveryone else was out and you had to sit in? [58]Definition and exampleWhen 3 adjectives or phrases are used toemphasize a point. e.g. Homework is boring,dull and uninteresting.When information is given that is over the top,or slightly untrue. e.g. If I get set one morehomework I am going to move to the moon!When truthful information is given to back up apoint. e.g. 95% of pupils feel that there is toomuch homework.A question that is asked which makes the readerthink. e.g. How would you feel is you had 2hours of homework every night?When words are used to make the reader feel acertain emotion, like sadness or anger. e.g. Weare the poor, helpless children who are forcedto do hours and hours of homework every night.Words or phrases are repeated so that they stickin the reader‘s mind. e.g. remember what is waslike to be at school, remember how much workyou had.Persuasive TechniqueRhetorical questionRepetitionEmotive LanguageExaggerationFacts and StatisticsGroups of Three
    • 92TASK5Directions: Group discussion. Give your own views on the problems belowand speak against your opponents.1) Is school a place for the imparting of knowledge (understood ascertain material to memorize) or a place for the creation anddevelopment of a child‘s personality?2) Do children have opportunities to learn before school? Are the y eagerto find and figure things out? Are they confident, independent orpersistent? Have they achieved a degree of success without any formalinstruction in school to help them solve the mystery of the language?3) Learning – a passive or an active process on the part of a pupil? Don‘tteachers often make children feel that they are inadequate, worthless,unworthy, fit only to take other people‘s orders, a blank sheet of paperto write on? Isn‘t what we say about respect for the child in schoolusually opposed to what teachers do?4) ‗To be wrong, uncertain and confused – is a crime; right answers arewhat the school wants‘ – the motto of certain (if not many) schools.Do children in such schools or classes acquire some undesirablehabits? Do they not learn to dodge, bluff, fake, cheat, to be lazy, to bebored, to work with a small part of their mind, to escape from thereality around them into daydreams and fantasies?[53, pp.105]3rdstage: Post-writingTASK 1Directions: Write a persuasive essay on the topic ‗Children should wearschool uniform‘. You may consider the basic format of the following persuasivemap below. The teacher distributes worksheets to the students.
    • 93PERSUASION MAPBo dy[75]Do… Don’t…-use passionate language -use weak qualifiers like ―I believe,‖ ―I feel,‖or ―I think‖—just tell us!-cite experts who agree with you -claim to be an expert if you‘re not one-provide facts, evidence, and statistics tosupport your position-use strictly moral or religious claims assupport for your argument-provide reasons to support your claim -assume the audience will agree with you aboutany aspect of your argument-address the opposing side‘s argument andrefute their claims-attempt to make others look bad (i.e. Mr.Smith is ignorant—don‘t listen to him!)IntroductionThesis – a statement that describes one side of anarguable viewpoint. What is the thesis or viewpoint youare trying to persuade?Reason 1 Reason 2Facts/Examples for R 11. _____________2. _____________3. _____________Facts/Examples for R21. ______________2. ______________3. ______________Facts/Examples for R31. _____________2. _____________3. _________________Reason 3Conclusion1or 2 sentences that summarize andconclude your writing
    • 94Receiving the assignment students are told to write their draft. The followingset of questions is used to aid students as they cope with the writing assignment.Persuasive Writing ChecklistIntroduction1. Did you use one or two sentences to introduce the topic?2. Did you introduce your issue or controversy?3. Did you provide one or two sentences to show an opponents‘ view?4. Is your own opinion stated clearly?5. Did you give 3 brief reasons for your opinion/position?Body1. Do you have a paragraph for each of your 3 reasons for your opinion?2. Is each reason re-stated at the beginning of each paragraph?3. Did you back up each reason with facts and opinions?4. Did you include closing remarks at the end of each paragraph?Conclusion1. Did you re-state your position/opinion?2. Did you finish with a solution or suggest some action that should be taken?3. Did you leave the reader with a sense of ending?Overall:1. Does your persuasive writing sound convincing enough to change the mind ofan opponent?2. Did you use opinions, facts and logic?3. Do you address what may be wrong with the opponent‘s view?4. Have you really made your readers think?5. Have you touched the hearts of your readers in some way?At the final stage learners read their essays, discuss them and choose the bestone.
    • 95The second type of writing examined during the experiment wasargumentative writing. The work in the control group (Group 1) was carried outaccording to the course-book. The writing assignment in the experimental group(Group 2) was fulfilled according to the following stages:1ststage: Pre-writingTASK 1Directions: Comment on the following quotations:1. Art is magic delivered from the lie of being truth. (T. Adorno)2. Art enables us to find ourselves and lose ourselves at the same time. (T. Merton)3. A man paints with his brains and not with his hands. (Michelangelo)4. Art is a step from what is obvious and well-known toward what is arcane andconcealed. (K. Gibran)5. Art is the only way to run away without leaving home. (Twyla Tharp)6. Art is the stored honey of the human soul, gathered on wings of misery andtravail. (Theodore Dreiser)TASK 2Directions: Answer the questions below. The points for discussion are thefollowing:1. What is your favorite style of art?2. What styles of art don‘t you like?3. When was the last time you went to an art gallery?4. Do you have paintings on your walls at home?5. If you could afford it, what kind of art would you have in yourhome?6. Which is your favorite famous work of art? Why?7. What feelings, moods or ideas does it evoke in you?8. What service do you think the artist performs for mankind?
    • 969. What are some of the qualities a true artist must possess?10. Why does it sometimes happen that an artist is not appreciatedin his lifetime?TASK 3Directions: The word ‗Art‘ is recorded on the board. Each student shouldthink for about one minute and list all their thoughts, ideas and associations that theword generates, as well as think of at least three adjectives to describe the word.The best ideas are chosen to make a definition of the word ‗Art‘.TASK 4Directions: Read the following text. Find in it arguments for includingpopular arts in the art curriculum and against it. Copy them out into two columns‗for‘ and ‗against‘.A new issue in aesthetic education today has to do with the choice of artexamples to use in the classroom, specifically, whether they should berestricted to recognized works of fine art or allowed to include such artforms as posters, album covers, billboards, and particularly cinema andtelevision.Since the popular arts are a reflection and product of popular culture,exploring the popular culture should be a valid method of inquiry. Populararts are already a part of the children‘s lives and they enable the teacher to‗start where the kids are‘. Further, they facilitate the responses the childrenare already having with their preferred art forms rather than imposing adultmiddle class standards on them. We know also that art which studentsencounter in schools – the official or high art embodied in the officialcurriculum – stands in an adversary relation to the media of popularentertainment. A critical analysis of the forms reflected in popular art isimperative if we want to elicit meaningful dialogue about art.
    • 97Not all writers in art education have taken a positive position in regard tothe popular arts. An opinion exists that fine art objects are the only objectswith the power to impart a markedly aesthetic aspect to human experience.Certain scholars ‗refuse to cheapen art‘s magnificent and supremeexcellence by comparing it to comic strips and other essentially vulgarcommodities‘, claiming that popular culture was the result of the public‘sinability to appreciate high art. Even those who recognize popular arts as artforms suggest that the schools should go beyond them, because ‗serious art‘makes more demands on the viewer.Some art educators argue that concepts of fine art and popular art arerelative and that the distinction between the two is slight if not illusory.What we see in art museums and art galleries includes a lot of differentthings from all over the world, from cultures and periods of time in whichthe concept of art, as we know it, did not exist. In their original contexts,such objects often served a variety of functions, such as magical, ritualistic,narrative, or utilitarian but almost never aesthetic.It is well known that many of the things we regard so highly today, suchas Gothic cathedrals, Rembrandts, El Grecos, Goyas or Cezzannes, wereignored or scorned at different periods of time. Many things we ignore orscorn today, such as the work of the French Royal Academies in the 19thcentury, were at one time highly regarded. A work‘s reputation can beaffected precipitously by the accident of reattribution. A highly regardedRembrandt subsequently discovered to be not by Rembrandt drops in valueimmediately. The same thing can happen in reverse. Finally, there are casesin which objects have lost not only their monetary and intrinsic value, butalso their status as objects of art because they are fakes.[53, p.171]
    • 982ndstage: WritingTASK 1Directions: Discuss with your partner and write if ‗Popular arts should beincluded in the art curriculum‘. List the supporting and opposing reasons. Listen toeach other and express your opinions by suggesting some revisions andreconstructions.Pros (+) Cons (-)1. ___________________ 1. ________________________2. ___________________ 2. _______________________3. ___________________ 3. _______________________Below you will find phrases and language helpful in expressing opinions, offeringexplanations and disagreeing.Opinions and Preferences:I think..., In my opinion..., Id like to..., Id rather..., Id prefer..., The wayI see it..., As far as Im concerned..., If it were up to me..., I suppose..., Isuspect that..., Im pretty sure that..., It is fairly certain that..., Imconvinced that..., I honestly feel that, I strongly believe that..., Without adoubt,...,Disagreeing:I dont think that..., Dont you think it would be better..., I dont agree, Idprefer..., Shouldnt we consider..., But what about..., Im afraid I dontagree..., Frankly, I doubt if..., Lets face it, The truth of the matter is...,The problem with your point of view is that...
    • 99TASK 2Directions: Convince your partner to visit an art gallery. Use the followingframe. Listen to your classmates and express your opinions by suggesting somerevisions and reconstructions. The teacher distributes worksheets to the students.Convince Me!!!Issue: ____________________________________________________Clearly stated position: ________________________________________________________________________________________________How will you get the reader‘s interest? ______________________________________________________________________________________Relevant information: _____________________________________________________________________________________________________Research and facts are: _________________________________________________________________________________________________Convincing words you will use are: _________________________________________________________________________________________The arguments against will be: ___________________________________________________________________________________________Reasons you are ready for the counterarguments are: _________________________________________________________________________Consider the following great sentence starters:Most people would agree that…Only a fool would think that…A sensible idea would be to…We ALL know that…Doesn‘t everyone know that…?It wouldn‘t be very difficult to…The REAL truth is that…
    • 100Are we expected to…?Naturally I feel that…The fact is that…EVERBODY knows that…Surely you would agree that…Here are two reasons why…This clearly shows that…We can see from the evidence that…There is a lot of discussion about whether …The people who agree with this idea, claim that …They also argue that …A further point they make is …However there are strong arguments against the point of view …They also say that …After looking at the different points of view and the evidence for them Ithink … [44, pp.6-32]TASK 3Directions: Write an article about the ‘Educational Value of Art’. Usethis outline to format and structure your ideas for your argumentativeassignment. This outline should help to form the argument’s bodyparagraphs that should argue your point with claims and evidence. Youshould have at least one claim and one piece of evidence for each bodyparagraph. However, to make your writing more effective, it may benecessary to have more than one piece of evidence for each claim.Because each claim and its corresponding evidence equals one bodyparagraph, your piece of writing should have at least two body paragraphs.The teacher distributes worksheets to the students.
    • 101Topic:_______________________________________________________Audience:____________________________________________________I. Introductory statement____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________A. Claim #1____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________a. Evidence #1________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________a. Evidence #2________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________B. Claim #2____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________b. Evidence #1______________________________________________________
    • 102__________________________________________________________________b. Evidence #2________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________II. Concluding Statement____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________[39, pp.196-202]TASK4Directions: Group discussion. Give your own views on the problems belowand speak against your opponents. Comment on other persons point of view.1. Is the appreciation of pictures a special faculty which only a few canpossess?2. Does a great painting enrich our experience of life, just as a great poemdoes or a great musical composition?3. Can apparently a dull picture be considered excellent?4. Should the habit of looking at good pictures form someone‘s good taste?5. Might a painting evoke some powerful feelings or moods in someone?6. Does the specific arrangement of the light and shadow in a paintingintensify an effect? Which one?7. Do the main physical features of a character give a psychological insightof the artist‘s soul?3rdstage: Post-writingTASK 1
    • 103Directions: Write an argumentative essay on the topic ‗Art should make ourlife much more colorful‘. You may consider the basic format of the followingorganization pattern presented below.Parts of an argumentParagraph 1: Introduce the Issue – problem or controversy about whichpeople disagree; give some background information. Clearly state the Claim – theposition on the issue (thesis).Paragraph 2: Present the Support – reasons and evidence that the claim isreasonable and should be accepted. Select two or three the most appealing reasons,back them up with relevant evidence (facts, examples, statistics, experttestimonies).Paragraph 3: List the opposing viewpoints = Refutation. Select two or threeof the strongest arguments against the issue, support them with valid examples.Paragraph 4: Conclude the essay – express your personal opinion about thetopic. [2, p.173-175]The argumentative essay may be formatted in several ways:Example 1: Claim/Counter ClaimIntroduce the topic and state orexplain the question. State both theclaim (your position) and the counterclaim (the opposing position).Start building a strong case byrefuting or disproving the opposingposition.Use one paragraph to state eachI. Introduction (Claim and counterclaim statement)II. Body Part IA. First counter point and refutinginformationB. Second counter point and refutinginformation
    • 104counter point, following yourstatement with related evidence thatrefutes the point.Present your case in the secondsection of the body.Use one paragraph to state each ofyour points, following your statementwith the evidence that proves orsupports your point.The conclusion of this format is arestatement of your claim and asummary of the information thatsupports it.C. Third counter point and refutinginformationIII Body Part IIA. First point and supportinginformationB. Second point and supportinginformationC. Third point and supportinginformationIV Conclusion – Restatement of claimand summary of the main ideasExample 2: The Cluster FormatIntroduce the topic and state orexplain the question.Start the first section of the bodywith your statement of claim orposition.In this format, you begin by statingand supporting your points. Use oneparagraph to state each of your points,following your statement with theevidence that proves or supports yourpoint.Follow each point with an opposingview related to that point and evidencethat supports the objection. Use oneparagraph for each counter point andits evidence.After you have finished presentingall points, counter points and evidence,start the second section of the bodywith your rebuttals to each of thecounter points.Back your rebuttals with evidenceand logic that shows why theobjections are invalid. If the opposingI. Introduction (Claim and counterclaim statement)II. Body Part I – Presenting the CaseA. Statement of the claimB. First point and supportinginformationC. First point opposition andrefuting evidenceD. Second point and supportinginformationE. Second point opposition andrefuting evidenceF. Third point and supportinginformationG. Third point opposition andrefuting evidenceIII. Body Part II– Author‘s rebuttal
    • 105view is valid, acknowledge it as so butuse your evidence to show that it‘ssomehow unattractive and that yourposition is the more desirable of thetwo.Use one paragraph to rebut eachcounter claim.The conclusion of this format is arestatement of your claim, a summaryof supporting information and anassessment of rebuttals.A. First point rebuttalB. Second point rebuttalC. Third point rebuttalIV ConclusionExample 3: The Alternating FormatIntroduce the topic and state orexplain the question.Start the body with your statement ofclaim or position.In this format, you begin by statingand supporting your points. Use oneparagraph to state each of your points,following your statement with theevidence that proves or supports yourpoint.Follow each point with an opposingview related to that point and evidencethat supports the objection. Use oneparagraph for each counter point andits evidence.Follow each objection with yourrebuttal. Use one paragraph to rebuteach counter claim.The conclusion of this format is arestatement of your claim, a summaryof supporting information and anassessment of rebuttals.I. Introduction (Claim and counterclaim statement)II. BodyA. Statement of the claimB. First point and supportinginformationC. First point opposition andrefuting evidenceD. First rebuttal and supportinginformationE. Second point and supportinginformationF. Second point opposition andrefuting evidenceG. Second rebuttal and supportinginformationIII Conclusion[77]Use these key words to help you link the writing together:
    • 106Apparently, firstly, secondly, finally, because, therefore, as a result, as aconsequence, in addition, one reason is, another reason is, one point of view is, analternative point of view is, furthermore, boldly, clearly, definitely, obviously,unmistakably, speaks for itself, goes without saying, consequently, besides that, inthe same way, moreover, in the light of the … it is easy to see that, on the otherhand, on the contrary, nobody denies, at this level, admittedly, indeed.Use: Present tense, passive, conditionals (would, could, might, if, unless)Use Rhetorical questions: ‗Are we to believe that ….‘Use Emotive language: No one can deny, some people believe that …The following checklist was suggested for self-evaluation at home or peerevaluation in the classroom environment.Argumentative Writing Checklist1. Did the opening paragraph highlight the issue?2. Did you state your point of view clearly in the introduction and theconclusion?3. Did you back each argument with relevant evidence and detail?4. Is there enough evidence to present a strong, indisputable case?5. Is the argument mainly in the present Tense?6. Did you use conditionals; would, could, might, if, unless?7. Did you use connectives: To structure the argument: first, finally etc. To link ideas within the argument: because, consequently, so,therefore etc.8. Did you use persuasive devices such as: Statistics: ‗More than 50%.....‘ Emotive language; strong adjective Rhetorical questions: ‗Are we to believe that ….‘9. What could you do to improve the argument next time?
    • 10710. Does your writing progress logically to its conclusion?11. Did you restate the most powerful evidence?12. Did you persuade the reader to accept your point of view?13. Did you revise the writing to ensure the best words, style, and tone wasused?14. Did you check for clarity and conciseness and remove all jargon?15. Did you eliminate all punctuation, grammatical and spelling errors?16. Did you focus on coherence through the use of effective transitions?17. Did you check for factual errors?The following criteria are essential to produce an effective argumentBe well informed about your topic. To add to your knowledge of a topic, readthoroughly about it, using legitimate sources. Take notes.Test your thesis. Your thesis, i.e., argument, must have two sides. It must bedebatable. If you can write down a thesis statement directly opposing your own,you will ensure that your own argument is debatable.Disprove the opposing argument. Understand the opposite viewpoint of yourposition and then counter it by providing contrasting evidence or by findingmistakes and inconsistencies in the logic of the opposing argument.Support your position with evidence. Remember that your evidence must appealto reason. [42, pp.31-47]Having written the argumentative essay students present their versions tothe class. Learners listen to all the essays and comment on them.Thus the writing activities fulfilled in both groups differ in the followingaspects:1) Each writing activity in the experimental group started with a clear task. Togenerate their ideas students were asked to comment on a quotation, thenthey were involved in a discussion;
    • 1082) Learners from the experimental group had a clear purpose of the writingassignment and a perspective of audience;3) During the lesson a discussion (total and group), an argumentative game, aconversation, a brainstorming activity were used. Students of theexperimental group had the possibility to listen to each other (desk-mates orpartners) and express their opinions by suggesting some revisions andreconstructions. Peer review techniques helped students to analyze andimprove each other‘s persuasive arguments (oral or written).At the post-experimental stage students were proposed to fill the samequestionnaire they had filled at the pre-experimental stage.The results obtained in both groups are presented below:№Problem areaNumber of points Percentage dropGroup 1(of 40possible)Group 2(of 28possible)Group1 Group 21. Writing persuasively 34 14 5,5% 47%2. Organizing ideas intosentences30 10 4% 50%3. Organizing a coherent text 31 11 3% 45%4. Structuring an argument 34 17 5,5% 40%5. Poor vocabulary stock 20 9 2% 44%6. Appropriateness of the essay 18 12 1% 46%Moreover, learners from the experimental group (Group 2) were asked toshare their opinions on writing assignments they had performed. They were given afeedback questionnaire on their speaking activities.
    • 109Students Feedback QuestionnaireMake a check mark to show your agreement or disagreement with thefollowing statements.№ Statements Agree Disagree1. Techniques which were used did not help me topractice my writing abilities.1 62. The purpose of writing was clear for me. 6 13. I found nothing different from previous writtentasks I had done.2 54. Work at each stage was set up clearly. 5 25. Pre-writing tasks helped me to write moreeffectively.6 16. I participated better during class, group, pair work. 5 27. I was not involved emotionally and cognitivelyduring individual work.2 58. Some of the tasks were confusing. 1 69. Similar tasks should be designed during the schoolyear.6 13.2 Results of the experiment.After having analyzed writing assignments fulfilled by the students and havingcompared learners` questionnaires completed before and after the experiment,there were distinguished significant changes on students` perception of writingtasks and the results achieved by the learners in Group 2, i.e. experimental group.Considering two diagrams reflecting the difficulties encountered by the students
    • 110during the process of writing, it is easy to notice that the amount of difficulties thatlearners have in relation to various features of writing has decreased.Before the experimentAfter the experiment051015202530
    • 111The given diagrams illustrate results of the questionnaires filled by thelearners of Group 2 before and after the experiment. Ax X shows the ordinalnumber of the problem area and ax Y shows the amount of points obtained by thisproblem area. The total number of points gained by each of the six statements ofthe questionnaire reveals the degree of difficulty of counterparts of writtendiscourse (e.g. difficulties writing persuasively, organization of ideas, coherence,vocabulary, etc.) The larger number of points acquired the greater degree ofdifficulties students encounter.Let us compare the two diagrams. The quantity of difficulties that studentshave while writing persuasively has lessened twice (from 26 to 14 points). Theseresults were achieved due to the pre-writing techniques used during theexperiment. Such pre-writing activities as discussions, brainstorming,commentary, interviews, playing a game, matching etc. helped students to generateideas. As a result the amount of difficulties encountered by the learners whileorganizing their ideas into sentences has decreased almost twice (from 20 to 10points). The other technique that enabled students to get started and organize theirideas in a proper way was giving the purpose of writing. It specifies the content ofthe assignment and helps learners to write more effectively.024681012141618
    • 112The process of drafting as well as revising the compositions helped studentsto lessen the problem of structuring an argument (from 27 to 17 points) and poorvocabulary stock (from 18 to 9 points) selection. When students write their firstassignment they are asked to concentrate more on the meaning of their speakingthen on style and grammar. This helps to reduce the feeling of uncertainty andencourages learners to write more freely and to feel satisfied with their work. Peerevaluation of the first draft gives students the possibility to exchange their ideaswith their partners and to consider their writing from another perspective. Theirpartners` suggestions concerning the structure of their work put by the neighbor ifhe / she does not agree or does not understand the ideas expressed do notdiscourage the learners. On the contrary, peer evaluation gives students the senseof audience, the idea of communicating their thoughts or others. Though more timeis spent on all the pre-writing and redrafting activities the whole amount of timeused for fulfilling the assignments is practically equal in both experimental andcontrol groups. Students of the experimental group do not waste much time ongenerating their ideas and compiling a coherent text as they do it working togetherat the pre-writing stage.On considering students feedback questionnaires it was evident that moststudents were satisfied with the writing assignments they had fulfilled. Moststudents (6) agree that pre-writing tasks helped them to write more effectively.Additionally 5 students from 7 think that work at each stage of writing was set upclearly and techniques which were designed helped them to practice their writingabilities. Moreover, 5 learners from 7 were eager to fulfill other writingassignments designed in the same way.The results obtained after analyzing questionnaires of the control Group 1showed that the amount of difficulties students encounter while fulfilling writingassignments has remained practically unchanged. The following charts illustratethis fact.Before the experiment
    • 113After the experimentIt is obvious that the amount of difficulties represented by the ax X –practically hasn`t been changed after the experiment.In general students from the experimental group were more successful atfulfilling all the assignments.After having checked the writing assignments fulfilled by the students ofboth groups, there was made the analysis of mistakes done by the learners.05101520253035400510152025303540
    • 114The results of the analysis and the difference in percentage between twogroups are shown in the table below.Kinds of irregularities Number of mistakes PercentagedifferenceGroup 1 Group 2Writing persuasively 50 34 32%Poor vocabulary 29 21 6%Lack of logical coherence 31 27 3.4%Poor argumentation 42 30 10%The data from the table illustrate the fact that learners of the experimentalgroup have done approximately 32% of mistakes less than the learners of thecontrol group.This proves the fact that the use of different modern activities is of great usefor acquiring good persuasive writing skills.Use of such activities helps the learners to gain the knowledge of theessential writing structures that are necessary for performing the certain persuasiveassignment.Peer evaluation gives the learners opportunity to revise their work and to getaware of the mistakes made by them and their partners.CONCLUSIONS
    • 115Our Master‘s Paper is dedicated to the topic ―PERSUASION ANDARGUMENT IN WRITING.‖After the theoretical and practical investigation of our topic we have come tothe following conclusions:1. Writing is one of the most difficult tasks in language acquisition. It shouldbe considered as a very important part of second language learning. The ability towrite in a second language clearly and efficiently contributes to the success of thelearner in school, college or university and success later in every phase of life.With this aim, various writing activities can contribute a great deal to students indeveloping persuasive skills necessary for life. Learners need to learn the craft ofwriting, they also need a rich stimulus which will make them want to write anddraw upon their real experience.2. Each piece of writing should pass through the following different stages:prewriting, writing, revising, and proofreading. Each stage has its own aims,activities and peculiarities. Demonstration of the writing process allows the learnerto observe and participate in the decision-making process, in relation to ideas,structural organization and language features, which will lead to the completion ofa piece of writing. One of the ways of getting students to write a composition isinvolving them in many pre-writing activities such as: freewriting, brainstorming,branching, questioning, discussion, journals, conversations, reading andcommenting, etc. These types of activities make students more active in thelearning process and at the same time make their learning more meaningful and funfor them. Each writing activity should be meaningful for learners and it shouldhave a clear purpose and audience perception. If teachers emphasize pre-writingand carefully prepare students to use certain kinds of sources and to think theirideas through before they write, compositions will automatically improve. Both theteacher and the student need a strategy about writing that is broader and morepractical in day-to-day situations than any there was available in the best of text-books.
    • 1163. Persuasive writing focuses on only one chosen side of a viewpoint and theother side of the argument or the opposite answer is disregarded. Another fact isthat a persuasive writing is never related to the pros and cons of the topic, butgeneral facts related to its factuality. It may serve to clarify beliefs as onepersuades others to accept a particular perspective. The foundation of a persuasivepaper is the thesis (often called a claim). To create an effective thesis, one mustselect an appropriate topic and decide on his/her position. To sound persuasive, theinformation must be solid and reasonable. In order to be convincing, one shouldappropriately apply the three basic persuasive techniques of logos (appeal to reasonby using facts, statistics, research, logical arguments, etc.), ethos (appeal to thecredibility or character of the author or of the people quoted), and pathos (appeal toemotion, values, and beliefs). All these techniques should be used with care. Whilewriting persuasively one should avoid errors in reasoning that will undermine thelogic of the paper. Fallacies or common errors in reasoning can be irrelevantpoints, often identified because they lack supportive evidence.4. A persuasive writer should present sufficient evidence to justify eachpoint of his/her argument, because readers are willing to accept only evidence thatis relevant, recent, reliable, representative, impartial, accurate, adequate anddetailed. One should gain his reader support for the actions he/she recommendsand the positions that are advocated. Possible persuasive strategies include:emphasizing benefits for the reader, addressing readers‘ concerns, and showingsound reasoning.5. The argumentative writing, although bearing many similarities to thepersuasive, has several very distinct differences. The objective of a persuasiveessay is to ―win‖ the reader over to a side of an argument, while the primaryobjective of an argumentative essay is just to show that one has a valid argument,allowing the reader either to adopt writer‘s position or to ―agree to disagree‖.Another difference between the two types of essay is that in the persuasive essay,although the writer acknowledges the opposing view, only one side of the issue isdebated. The argumentative writing actively takes into account both sides of the
    • 117argument. An important part of the argumentative essay is to use evidence both tosubstantiate one‘s own position and to refute the opposing argument.6. It should be mentioned that each English lesson is supposed fordeveloping fluency of the acquired language, and writing plays the leading role inthis process. The subject matter of the topic should, as far as possible, involvelearners in the developing of writing skills. It is worth using group work, pairwork, because learners are more attracted to work. The teacher should try toorganize writing workshop: discussion, brainstorming, or an interview becausestudents will be active participant without to be afraid of making mistakes. Animportant part of the writing experience is peer evaluation because studentsdevelop an awareness of the fact that a writer is producing something to be read bysomeone else. Learners will put more thought and effort into a piece of writingactivity that communicates his own interests and opinions to a learner and learnerwhether the teacher or student, will certainly be able to respond to a piece ofwriting if student made interested in the content. At the same time throughanalyzing and commenting on another student‘s work, learners develop the abilityto view their own writing from a critical point of view. Learners should beinvolved in the process of writing, i.e. in (1) the acquisition of information aboutthe writing models, (2) drill and transformation to form writing habits, and (3) themaking use of the habits acquired.This rich material can be used for deepening one`s knowledge in studying towrite persuasively in English as a second language. The practical significance ofthis research project lies in elaboration of a set of suggestions that can be used bythe people who are interested in learning English. This research is quite useful andcan have practical value for the interrelations among some subjects, as, forexample, Methods of Teaching, Lexis, Grammar, and some other.
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    • 11915. Elbow, P., Writing with power, New York: Oxford University Press, 1998,pp.49-7816. Ferris, D., Hedgcock, J. S. Teaching ESL composition: Purpose, process,and practice, Mahwah, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1998, pp.62-14417. Fawcett, S., and Sandberg, A., Evergreen with Readings, A guide to writing,6th ed., Houghton Mifflin Company, New York, 2000, pp.164-16918. Furley, D. J., and Nehamas A., Aristotles Rhetoric. Princeton: PrincetonUniversity Press., 1994, pp. 3–5519. Gage, J. T., The Shape of Reason: Argumentative Writing in College, NewYork: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1991, 268p.20. Gallingane, G. and Byrd, D., Write Away: A Course for Writing English asa Second Language, Book 1, New York, Collier Macmillan, 1977, 230p.21. Greene, L. D., "Pathos," Encyclopedia of Rhetoric, Oxford Univ. Press,2001, 295p.22. Haynes, A., Writing successful academic books, New York: CambridgeUniversity Press, 2001, 340p.23. Hill, L. A., Writing for a Purpose, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1978,pp.24-8024. Herrick, J., The History and Theory of Rhetoric, Allyn and Bacon, 2001,p.128-13625. Johnson, K., Communicate in Writing, London, Longman, 1981, 185p.26. Lamb, S. E., How to Write It: A Complete Guide to Everything You’ll EverWrite, Berkeley, California: Ten Speed Press, 1998, 278p.27. Lawrence, M. S., Writing as a Thinking Process, University of MichiganPress, 1972, 252p.28. Lunsford, A. and Ruszkiewicz, J., Everythings an Argument, Boston/NewYork: Bedford/St. Martins, 1999, pp.74-9829. Macdonald, A. F., and Macdonald, G. L., Mastering Writing Essentials,Teacher‘s Mannual, Prenetice Hall Regents, 1997, pp.165-176
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    • 12144. Topping, K., Paired collaborative writing, New York, Oxford UniversityPress, 2001, pp.6-3245. Tucker, A., and Costello, J., The Random House: Writing Course for ESL,Random House, Inc., 1985, pp.367-42546. University of Chicago, The Chicago Manual of Style: The Essential Guidefor Writers, Editors, and Publishers. 15th ed. Chicago: The University ofChicago Press, 2003, 530p.47. Warren, S., and Curtis, R., The Resume.Com: Guide to Writing UnbeatableResumes. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004, 248p.48.Williams, J. M., The craft of argument, with readings, New York: Longman,2003, 244p.49. Williams, J. D., An Introduction to Classical Rhetoric, Wiley, 2009, 328p.50. Worth, R. P., Communication Skills, Third Edition, Ferguson Publishing2009, pp.64- 8051. Wyrick, J., Steps to Writing Well, eight edition, Heinle, a part of ThomsonLearning, Inc., 2002, pp.287-32052. Zinsser, W., On writing well, 6th Ed,. New York: HarperCollins, 2001,195p.53. Аракин, В.Д, Новикова, И.А., Афанасьева, О.В., Практический КурсАнглийского Языка 3 курс, Москва, Гуманитарный Издательский ЦентрВладос, 2006, pp.105-176Sites54. http://library.thinkquest.org/10888/55. http://careerplanning.about.com/cs/miscskills/a/writing_skills.htm +56. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persuasive_writing +57. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-rhetoric/#means58. http://essayinfo.com/essays/persuasive_essay.php +59. http://www.nadasisland.com/ghaith-writing.html#nature60. http://psychology.about.com/od/socialinfluence/f/what-is-persuasion.htm +
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    • 123Appendix 1PERSUASIVE WRITINGAUDIENCETake account of TARGET audienceListener or readerPeer/ general publicPURPOSETo persuade by promotion of aparticular argument or point of viewTEACHING IDEAS(Audience and genrewill determinelanguage features)Organize key issuesPractice sequencingideas from existingmodelsCreate a counterargument to originalpersuasive text/ articleShow learners a‗factual account‘ of anissue and an ‗opinionaccount‘Write a ‗persuasive‘article to counter theopinion/ articleModel introduction/conclusionsAnalyse good/improving/ poorexamplesProvide article withintroduction / orconclusion deletedSTYLE and TONECan be formal/ informalRepetitionImperativesRhetorical questionsExaggerationFlatteryFigurative languageSubjectiveLinking words (because,therefore, consequently,without doubt)Use of emotive languageUsing facts emotivelyTrying to ‗hook‘ thereader initiallyOften first person stanceFORMATAdvertSpeechLetterNewspaperarticleMagazinearticleReportPamphletSTRUCTURALASPECTSOpening statementIdentify argument /issueMain textOpinions supported byfacts or factssupported by opinionsBody organizedaround key ideas andfacts which supportopinionConclusionSummary andrestatement of theopening position-to sum up issue andline of argument-to leave audiencewith a clear picture ofthe point of view
    • 124Appendix 2Golden Rules Of Argumentative Piece of WritingAn argument is a discussion involving differing viewpoints. It is a statement,or fact for or against a point. An argumentative essay is an elementary assignmentfor all levels of students. In this type of essay, you have to prove your point. Youare changing and challenging the general opinion. A fine-looking argumentativeessay shows your command over the subject under discussion and capability forpowerful arguments. You can construct a pleasing argumentative essay byfollowing a few simple guidelines.Set a TargetIn an argumentative essay, you are trying to prove that your point is right. Forthat, you have to undermine the already established conventions and doctrines.But, dont try to win by hook or crook. Be commonsensical in stating yourviews. Study the topic from all possible angles. Form multiple dimensions to yourclaims. Before beginning an essay, you must have a clear idea about the matterunder discussion. Your destination has to be marked prior to reaching the finishingpoint. A correct preplanning alone can lead you to a logical argument.Mind the Readers MindYour attempt is to make the reader accept your point of view. For that, apsychological understanding of the readers mind is essential. Know their pulse.What is the generally believed notion about your topic should be kept in yourmind. You can divert from the generally accepted ideas only if you are well awarein it. Do a research. Present your version of the issue. No matter how strange yourexplanation is. How you proceed to make it believable is of supreme important.
    • 125Choose the AngleNo opinion is one-sided. There are multiple points of view for anything andeverything. For the same reason, there are always rooms for arguments on all. Asthere is nothing called the ultimate truth, the generally spread ‗truths about acertain topic can be viewed, studied and scrutinized from a number of differentangles. Which stand you opt in the given area is significant. It decides the directionof your essay. When making your choice, certain things have to be kept in mind.The area chosen must provide enough scope for arguments. A trivial topic restrictsyour proceedings. At the same time, an interesting and relevant topic opens a widerange of opportunities before you. So it is always advisable to be extra careful inselecting the topic for your argumentative essay.Identify your supporting points and opposing views. Provide evidence for yourclaim. The purpose of an argumentative essay is to demonstrate that your assertionis correct or more convincing. The success depends upon how well you present thefacts and statistics.Convince the ReadersThe readers are always critical. They will not take anything for granted. Ahighly advanced reader community need not take in your arguments if it explains asophisticated detail peripherally. Go deeper in to the issue. Support each and everyclaim with convincing points. A weakly supported claim will be dischargedwithout a second thought. Find adequate background information. Make animpression that yours is not a mere claim. It is technically apt and judiciouslyreasonable. Such a well-backed assertion will always be readable and appealing.Examples are always convincing. Give illustrative examples to convey your pointseffectively. Different from a descriptive essay, an argumentative essay makes gooduse of numerical figures. Statistical data can be a valuable component in youressay.
    • 126Make a DraftLogical organization is the crux of all types of academic writings. Howmuch appealing your essay is closely linked to how well it is organized. It is in thedraft where you first organize the structure of your essay. A draft is an obligatoryaspect of writing process. An argumentative essay can be collapsed by an illogicalsequence of presentation. The points need to be presented in a certain order. Priorto writing the essay, prioritize the claims. Begin with stunning interpretations.Proceed aggressively. End up credibly. A well written draft is the father of all suchpatterns in an argumentative essay.[78]