“Guidelines on Presenting andExplaining a New Grammatical Structure in the 8th grade” June 2010
Actuality: Grammar instruction improveslearners’ accuracy and fluency.Communicative skills withoutregular using grammar are limited. Grammar competence is essentialfor the mastery of a language.
Objectives: 1.To analyse theoretical works of variousmethodologists about teaching grammar and toselect the most useful ones. 2. To reflect the usage of teaching grammarby means of grammar teaching techniques selected. 3. To point out the characteristics of grammarpresentation and explanation.
Grammar is a system of rules governingthe conventional arrangement andrelationships of words in a sentence.Grammar is the building block ofEnglish language learning. Pupils needto acquire grammar knowledge to helpthem communicate effectively.
Teaching new grammar structure implies an emphasis on its FORM, MEANING and USE.Grammar Dimensions FORM MEANING Morphosyntactic Lexical & Lexical patterns Grammatical meaning USE Social context, Linguistic discourse context
MEANINGFORM obligationMUST + main necessityverb duty USE It is your duty to do sth, you’re obliged to do sth
Giving Effective Explanations 1.Prepare 2.Have the class’s full attention 3.Present the information more than once 4.Be brief 5.Illustrate with examples 6.Get feedback
2.Elicitation Learners produce the 3.Explanation 1.Lead-in new language Teacher notesTeacher forms. the difficultiesintroduces the and clarifies thenew language. form, the use, meaning. 5.Reproduction 4.Creativity Learners practice Learners develop the new grammar grammar forms in skills, and exercises/ games. positive attitude.
PRESENTING GRAMMAR USING CHARTS Frequency Adverbs always Frequency adverbs usually occur in the100% almost always middle of a sentence and have special usually* positions, as shown in examples below. often * Positive The adverbs with the symbol ‘*’ may also frequently* occur at the beginning or end of a sentence. generally* I sometimes get up at 6:30. sometimes* Sometimes I get up at 6:30. occasionally* I get up at 6:30 sometimes. seldom The other adverbs in the list rarely occur at rarely Negative the beginning or end of a sentence. Their hardly ever usual position is in the middle of a sentence.0% almost never never
English Tenses Graph Simple Simple Future Past Present Simple Past Present Future Progressive Progressive ProgressivePast Perfect Present Perfect Future IISimple Simple SimplePast Perfect Present Perfect Future IIProgressive Progressive Progressive Past Present Future
Explaining Grammar Using: Objects - Do you like dogs? -No I don’t. - ……………….. Maps Simple drawings Dialogues Games Songs
Advantages:- Enliven the classroom atmosphere- Actively involve pupils- Encourage & promotecommunication- Teach & entertain- Motivate & challenge learners- Generate fluency- Provide meaningful practice- Leave time for the teacher toobserve pupils’ performance
Chapter IIIComprises thedescription of the courseof the experiment in the8th grade and its results.
The experiment carriedout in the lyceum hasrevealed the fact that theamount of difficultiesstudents encounter whileaccomplishing grammartasks can be reduced byapplying some techniquesand strategies.
In the experimental group the grammar activitywas an independent part of the lesson. Grammar presentation stage helped learners toacquire the necessary grammar structure, todevelop listening and writing skills. At practice stage students performed someexercises to memorize the grammarfocus, commented on the construction used. At the control stage students showed theirassignments to the rest of the class, commentedabout both the usage and meaning.
Suggestions about Teaching Grammar Teach only those rules which are simple and which donot have too many exceptions. Do not spend too much time on grammar points whichdo not appear to be very useful or important. Just make thestudents aware of the special features. Wherever possible, teach grammar in context. When presenting grammar, try to usecharts, tables, diagrams, maps. Avoid difficult grammatical terminology as much aspossible. Allow enough opportunities for practice. Do not be frustrated by the students’ mistakes anderrors, which are inevitable in language learning.
“Research has shown that teacherswho focus students’ attention onform, meaning and usage duringcommunicative interactions aremore effective than those whonever focus on them.” Spada and Lightbown, 1992