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BREAKWATERSBREAKWATERS
ByBy
J.W. van der Meer, PhD. CEJ.W. van der Meer, PhD. CE
J.C. van der Lem MSc. CEJ.C. van der Lem ...
J.C. (Cock) van der Lem M.Sc.
Sr. Port Engineer
Maritime Advisory Group Rotterdam
Haskoning Nederland B.V.
a company of Ro...
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BREAKWATERSBREAKWATERS
SUBJECTS
• Rubble mound breakwaters (J.W. van ...
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Vertical Wall BreakwatersVertical Wall Breakwaters
Objectives (end of...
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CONTENTS
• Day 1 –...
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DAY 1 - INTRODUCTI...
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Readers
In lecture...
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Readers (continued...
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Gijon (Spain)IJmuiden (Netherlands)Kamaishi (Japan)Marsaxlokk (Malta)...
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TYPES
(breakwaters with vertical and
inclined concrete walls)
• Con...
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TYPES (continued)
• Vertical composite
Vertical Wall Breakwaters -V...
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TYPES (continued)
• Horizontal composite
Vertical Wall Breakwaters ...
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TYPES (continued)
• Block type
Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical ...
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TYPES (continued)
• Piled breakwater with
concrete wall
Vertical Wa...
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TYPES (continued)
• Sloping top
Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical...
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Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - TypesTypes
T...
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PROVERBS Definition of geometric parameters
hs
d h1
Bb
hr
hb
1:m
Be...
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BREAKWATERSBREAKWATERS
To be continued…..To be continued…..
((distribute PIANC WG 28 cases and PROVERBS mapdistribute PIAN...
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Breakwaters day 1 - introduction

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  • North Eastern port of Japan, facing the Pacific Ocean Construction started in 1983 Length of some 1800 m Partially completed by beginning 1991, but also part under construction In February 1991 high waves struck breakwater during winter depression (968 mbar), i.e. not by a typhoon. Damage at three locations along the breakwater H s = 6.9 to 7.6 m H max = 12.1 to 13.2 m T1/3 = 13 s Method: Goda γ sliding = 1.35 – 2.16 γ overturning = 2.60 – 4.54 Damage (finished section) Caissons displaced (some up to 6 m) Caisson walls broken Wave dissipating blocks scattered and inside caisson! Scour Damage (part under construction): 17 caissons displaced some up to 5 m Measured waves: H s = 9.94 m, T 1/3 = 13.4 s. Cause of damage: Waves beyond design wave Scattering of wave dissipating blocks
  • North Western part of Japan, facing the Japan Sea Construction in 1972/1973 Length of some 1800 m In winter 1973/1974 sliding occurred. Damage at three locations along the breakwater H s = 5.9 m H max = 8.1 m T1/3 = 10.5 s Method: Hiroi γ sliding = some sections ≤1. γ overturning = ≥ 1.3 Damage (finished section) Caissons displaced (some up to 6 m) Caisson walls broken Wave dissipating blocks scattered and inside caisson! Scour Damage (part under construction): 17 caissons displaced some up to 5 m Measured waves: H s = 4.3 to 5.8 m, T 1/3 = 13.4 s. Cause of damage: Insufficient knowledge of impacting breaking waves
  • Transcript of "Breakwaters day 1 - introduction"

    1. 1. BREAKWATERSBREAKWATERS ByBy J.W. van der Meer, PhD. CEJ.W. van der Meer, PhD. CE J.C. van der Lem MSc. CEJ.C. van der Lem MSc. CE ROYAL HASKONING
    2. 2. J.C. (Cock) van der Lem M.Sc. Sr. Port Engineer Maritime Advisory Group Rotterdam Haskoning Nederland B.V. a company of Royal Haskoning George Hintzenweg 85 P.O.Box 8520 3009 AM Rotterdam The Netherlands tel. +31-(0)10-4433666 direct +31-(0)10-4433722 mobile +31-(0)6-15006372 fax. +31-(0)10-4433688 e-mail: C.vanderLem@RoyalHaskoning.com www.royalhaskoning.com Contact detailsContact details
    3. 3. 33 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 BREAKWATERSBREAKWATERS SUBJECTS • Rubble mound breakwaters (J.W. van der Meer) • Vertical wall breakwaters (J.C. van der Lem) • Berm breakwaters (J.W. van der Meer) • Submerged breakwaters (J.W. van der Meer)
    4. 4. 44 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall BreakwatersVertical Wall Breakwaters Objectives (end of the course) • To be able to make an assessment of hydraulic loads against caisson breakwater • To be able to make a preliminary design of a caisson breakwater (length, width, height) • To be able to compare caisson breakwater against rubble mound breakwater
    5. 5. 55 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall BreakwatersVertical Wall Breakwaters CONTENTS • Day 1 – Introduction, set the problem • Day 2 – PROVERBS parameter map (exercise) & design methods (functional requirements) • Day 3 – Design methods (static analysis) • Day 4 – Design methods (dynamic analysis) • Day 5 – Worked example
    6. 6. 66 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall BreakwatersVertical Wall Breakwaters DAY 1 - INTRODUCTION • Information (readers) • Functions • Types • Problem definition • Design methods (intro)
    7. 7. 77 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall BreakwatersVertical Wall Breakwaters Readers In lecture notes/distributed: • Y. Goda, Ch. 4 Design of Vertical Breakwaters (from: Random Seas and Design of Maritime Structures. 1985) • S. Takahashi, Design of Vertical Breakwaters (Short Coarse, ICCE, 1996) • PIANC; Breakwaters with Vertical and Inclined Concrete Walls, Report WG 28, 2003 • G. Cuomo: Wave impacts on vertical sea walls & caisson breakwaters. PIANC On Course Magazine 127 van Mei 2007.
    8. 8. 88 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall BreakwatersVertical Wall Breakwaters Readers (continued) Separate: • PowerPoint presentations (el. platform) • PIANC WG 28 sub-group reports (el. platform) • Overtopping manual: www.overtopping-manual.com Additional reading:Additional reading: • Oumeraci, H. et. al.; Probabilistic Design Tools for Vertical Breakwaters (PROVERBS), February 2001 (ISBN 09 5809 248 8 / 249 6) • Coastal Engineering Manual • The Rock Manual • Breakwat (Deltares formerly WL|Delft Hydraulics)
    9. 9. 99 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Gijon (Spain)IJmuiden (Netherlands)Kamaishi (Japan)Marsaxlokk (Malta)Ras Laffan (Qatar) Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - FunctionsFunctions FUNCTIONS • Wave protection in port/channel • Protection from siltation, currents • Tsunami protection • Berthing facilities • Access/transport facility
    10. 10. 1010 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 TYPES (breakwaters with vertical and inclined concrete walls) • Conventional Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - TypesTypes The caisson is placed on a relatively thin stone bedding. Advantage of this type is the minimum use of natural rock (in case scarse) Wave walls are generally placed on shore connected caissons (reduce overtopping)Mutsu-Ogawara (Japan)
    11. 11. 1111 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 TYPES (continued) • Vertical composite Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - TypesTypes The caisson is placed on a high rubble foundation. This type is economic in deep waters, but requires substantial volumes of (small size) rock fill Algeciras (Spain)
    12. 12. 1212 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 TYPES (continued) • Horizontal composite Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - TypesTypes The front slope of the caisson is covered by armour units This type is used in shallow water. The mound reduces wave reflection, wave impact and wave overtopping Repair of displaced vertical breakwaters (day 2) Used when a (deep) quay is required at the inside of rubble mound breakwater Gela (Sicily, Italy)
    13. 13. 1313 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 TYPES (continued) • Block type Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - TypesTypes This type of breakwater needs to be placed on rock sea beds or on very strong soils due to very high foundation loads and sensitivity to differential settlements Alderney (Guernsey, UK)
    14. 14. 1414 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 TYPES (continued) • Piled breakwater with concrete wall Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - TypesTypes Piled breakwaters consist of an inclined or curtain wall mounted on pile work. The type is applicable in less severe wave climates on site with weak and soft subsoils with very thick layers. Manfredonia New Port (Italy)
    15. 15. 1515 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 TYPES (continued) • Sloping top Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - TypesTypes The upper part of the front slope above still water level is given a slope to reduce wave forces and improve the direction of the wave forces on the sloping front. Overtopping is larger than for a vertical wall with equal level.Napels (Italy)
    16. 16. 1616 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - TypesTypes TYPES (continued) • Perforated front wall The front wall is perforated by holes or slots with a wave chamber behind. Due to the dissipation of energy both the wave forces on the caisson and the wave reflection are reducedDieppe (France)
    17. 17. 1717 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - TypesTypes TYPES (continued) • Semi-circular caisson Well suited for shallow water situations with intensive wave breaking Due to the dissipation of energy both the wave forces on the caisson and the wave reflection are reducedMiyazaki Port (Japan)
    18. 18. 1818 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - TypesTypes TYPES (continued) • Dual cylindrical caisson Outer permeable and inner impermeable cylinder. Low reflection and low permeable Centre chamber and lower ring chamber filles with sand Nagashima Port (Japan)
    19. 19. 1919 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - TypesTypes • TYPES (continued) • “Combi-caisson” Sloping top Semi-circular/perforated Perforated front wall Perforated rear wall
    20. 20. 2020 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Problem definitionProblem definition What is needed? • Proper understanding of functional requirements • Proper understanding of loads and resistance • Insight in failure modes • Understanding of breaking/non-breaking waves
    21. 21. 2121 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Problem definitionProblem definition Functional requirements • Access • Quay facilities • Overtopping • Transmission
    22. 22. 2222 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Problem definitionProblem definition Requirements: acces (pedestrians, supply traffic) Piraeus (Greece)
    23. 23. 2323 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Problem definitionProblem definition Requirements: acces (harbour workers, traffic, oil piping) Marsaxlokk (Malta)
    24. 24. 2424 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Problem definitionProblem definition Requirements: acces (harbour workers, traffic, LNG piping) Ras Laffan (Qatar)
    25. 25. 2525 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Problem definitionProblem definition Requirements: acces (harbour workers, traffic, conveyors) Porto Torres (Sicily, Italy)
    26. 26. 2626 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Problem definitionProblem definition Requirements: quay facilities (access, warehouses, sheds) Constantza Port (Romania)
    27. 27. 2727 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Problem definitionProblem definition Requirements: quay facilities (access, warehouses, sheds) Durres Port (Albania)
    28. 28. 2828 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Problem definitionProblem definition Requirement: limit overtopping and transmission Marina do Lugar de Baixo (Madeira, Portugal)
    29. 29. 2929 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Loads and resistanceLoads and resistance Loads and resistance Loads: • Hydraulic loads • Weight Resistance: • Friction (mostly) • Soil bearing capacity FH W U FH W U F H f W U−( )⋅ SF ≤ M F H( ) W t⋅ M u− SF ≤
    30. 30. 3030 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Loads and resistanceLoads and resistance Failure modes (overall) Hydraulic failure Geotechnical failure Sliding Overturning Slip FH W U FH W U FH W U Planar slip Circular slip Earthquake loading: LIQUEFACTION F H f W U−( )⋅ SF ≤ M F H( ) W t⋅ M u− SF ≤ τ τ max<
    31. 31. 3131 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Loads and resistanceLoads and resistance Failure modes (local) Instability of mound Erosion of seabed Partial Instability U Erosion Scour F H f W U−( )⋅ SF ≤
    32. 32. 3232 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Loads and resistanceLoads and resistance Example overall failure: Mutsu Ogawara Port, East Breakwater (Japan)
    33. 33. 3333 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Loads and resistanceLoads and resistance Example local failure: Catania Breakwater (Sicily, Italy)
    34. 34. 3434 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Design methods (intro)Design methods (intro) Impression of hydraulic forces (field)
    35. 35. 3535 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Design methods (intro)Design methods (intro) Hydraulic Forces (laboratory)
    36. 36. 3636 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Design methods (intro)Design methods (intro) Hydraulic Forces (laboratory) iCam optical sensor (Deltaflume Deltares)
    37. 37. 3737 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Design methods (intro)Design methods (intro) • Aerated impact • The wave breaks before reaching the wall • Air pocket entrapped in the water not on the wall • Pressure varies gradually in time in phase with wave elevation iCam optical sensor (Deltaflume Deltares)
    38. 38. 3838 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Design methods (intro)Design methods (intro) • Air pocket impact • The wave breaks closer to the wall • A large air pocket is entrapped against the wall • Large peak force by crest hitting wall • Followed by small force oscillations • Duration of the pressure peak: O(0.01 s)
    39. 39. 3939 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Design methods (intro)Design methods (intro) • Flip through impact • Forward moving wave crest and rising wave trough converge at same impact point • No air pocket entrapped against the wall • Large peak force by crest hitting wall accelating into vertical jet • Very short duration of impacts O(0.01 s)
    40. 40. 4040 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Design methods (intro)Design methods (intro) • Slosh impact • Rising wave trough arrives at convergence point way before forward moving crest • No air pocket entrapped against the wall • Small forces with long durations
    41. 41. 4141 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Design methods (intro)Design methods (intro) Hydraulic Forces • Differentiate between non-breaking and breaking waves • Identification of types of horizontal loading by means of the PROVERBS parameter map (distribute)
    42. 42. 4242 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 PROVERBS Definition of geometric parameters hs d h1 Bb hr hb 1:m Beq dc Bc hc hf Rc Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Design methods (intro)Design methods (intro) αα Lhs Hs Hb
    43. 43. 4343 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Design methods (intro)Design methods (intro) • PROVERBS parameter map (also PIANC WG 28) Beq = Bb + 0.5∙m ∙ hb
    44. 44. 4444 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Design methodsDesign methods • PROVERBS parameter map Beq = Bb + 0.5∙m ∙ hb
    45. 45. 4545 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Design methodsDesign methods Beq = Bb + 0.5∙m ∙ hb
    46. 46. 4646 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Design methodsDesign methods Beq = Bb + 0.5∙m ∙ hb
    47. 47. 4747 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Design methodsDesign methods Beq = Bb + 0.5∙m ∙ hb
    48. 48. 4848 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Design methods (intro)Design methods (intro) Example: Sakata Detached Breakwater (Japan)
    49. 49. 4949 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Design methods (intro)Design methods (intro) Example: Sakata Detached Breakwater (Japan) Hs hs 0.65= hb hs 0.541= Hs 5.85m=hb 4.87m=hs 9m= hb ELberm ELbottom−:=Height of berm: Hs 0.65 hs⋅:=Design wave height hs ELwater ELbottom−:=Design depth ELberm 3.63− m⋅:=Berm elevation ELwater 0.5 m⋅:=Design water level ELbottom 8.5− m⋅:=Bottom elevation
    50. 50. 5050 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Design methodsDesign methods Beq = Bb + 0.5∙m ∙ hb
    51. 51. 5151 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Design methods (intro)Design methods (intro) Example: Sakata Detached Breakwater (Japan) What in case of low mound? Hs hs 0.65= hb hs 0.208= Hs 5.85m=hb 1.87m=hs 9m= hb ELberm ELbottom−:=Height of berm: Hs 0.65 hs⋅:=Design wave height hs ELwater ELbottom−:=Design depth ELberm 6.63− m⋅:=Berm elevation ELwater 0.5 m⋅:=Design water level ELbottom 8.5− m⋅:=Bottom elevation
    52. 52. 5252 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Design methodsDesign methods • PROVERBS parameter map Beq = Bb + 0.5∙m ∙ hb
    53. 53. 5353 BreakwatersBreakwaters February 2011February 2011 Vertical Wall Breakwaters -Vertical Wall Breakwaters - Design methods (intro)Design methods (intro) Hydraulic Forces: evaluation of wave breaking Sainflou Goda PROVERBSGoda (extended)
    54. 54. BREAKWATERSBREAKWATERS To be continued…..To be continued….. ((distribute PIANC WG 28 cases and PROVERBS mapdistribute PIANC WG 28 cases and PROVERBS map)) Homework: read the PIANC WG 28 caseHomework: read the PIANC WG 28 case Next course: bring PIANC case, Proverbs map & calculatorNext course: bring PIANC case, Proverbs map & calculator
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