Praise for the Sun Certified Programmer & Developer for Java 2 Study Guide
"Kathy Sierra is one of the few people in the w...
"With his skill for clearly expressing complex concepts to his training audience,
every student can master what Bert has t...
®

SCJP Sun Certified
™
Programmer for Java 6
Study Guide
(Exam 310-065)
®

SCJP Sun Certified
™
Programmer for Java 6
Study Guide
Exam (310-065)
Kathy Sierra
Bert Bates
McGraw-Hill is an independ...
Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. Except a...
Professional

Want to learn more?
We hope you enjoy this
McGraw-Hill eBook! If
you’d like more information about this book...
CONTRIBUTORS

About the Authors
Kathy Sierra was a lead developer for the SCJP exam for Java 5 and Java 6. Sierra
worked a...
Technical Review Superstars

Andrew
Burk

Bill M.

Devender

Jeroen

Jef

Jim

Gian

Kristin

Marcelo

Marilyn

Johannes

...
The Java 6 Elite Review Team

Fred
Marc P.

Mikalai

Christophe

Since the upgrade to
the Java 6 exam was
a like a small, ...
To the Java Community
CONTENTS AT A GLANCE

1

Declarations and Access Control

...........................

1

2

Object Orientation

............
CONTENTS

Contributors . .
Acknowledgments
Preface
. . .
Introduction
.

1

. .
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

. .
.
.
.

.
.
.
...
xiv

SCJP Sun Certified Programmer for Java 6 Study Guide

2

Object Orientation

.........................

Encapsulation ...
Contents

Passing Variables into Methods (Objective 7.3) . . . . .
Passing Object Reference Variables
. . . . . .
Does Jav...
xvi

SCJP Sun Certified Programmer for Java 6 Study Guide

5

Flow Control, Exceptions, and Assertions

.........

if and s...
xvii

Contents

6

Strings, I/O, Formatting, and Parsing . . . . . . . . . . . . .
String, StringBuilder, and StringBuffer...
xviii

SCJP Sun Certified Programmer for Java 6 Study Guide

Generic Types (Objectives 6.3 and 6.4) . . . . .
Generics and ...
Contents

Synchronizing Code (Objective 4.3) . . . . . . .
Synchronization and Locks
. . . . . . .
Exercise 9-2: Synchroni...
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

K

athy and Bert would like to thank the following people:
■ All the incredibly hard-working folks at McG...
PREFACE

T

his book's primary objective is to help you prepare for and pass Sun Microsystem's SCJP
certification for Java...
xxii

SCJP Sun Certified Programmer for Java 6 Study Guide

The Certification Objective headings identify the objectives wi...
INTRODUCTION

Organization
This book is organized in such a way as to serve as an in-depth review for the Sun
Certified Pr...
xxiv

SCJP Sun Certified Programmer for Java 6 Study Guide

Some Pointers
Once you've finished reading this book, set aside...
Introduction

xxv

But this exam attempts to prove your complete understanding of the Java language,
not just the parts of...
xxvi

SCJP Sun Certified Programmer for Java 6 Study Guide

The Associate, Programmer, Web Component, Business Component, W...
Introduction

xxvii

The Web Component Developer Exam (CX-310-083)
Sun Certified Web Component Developer for Java EE Platf...
xxviii

SCJP Sun Certified Programmer for Java 6 Study Guide

Taking the Programmer's Exam
In a perfect world, you would be...
Introduction

xxix

At the end of the exam, your test is immediately graded, and the results
are displayed on the screen. ...
xxx

SCJP Sun Certified Programmer for Java 6 Study Guide

■ Whenever we can, our questions will NOT tell you how many corr...
Introduction

xxxi

In regards to drag-and-drop questions, there is a huge problem with the
testing software at many of th...
xxxii

SCJP Sun Certified Programmer for Java 6 Study Guide

Tips on Studying for the Exam
First and foremost, give yoursel...
Introduction

xxxiii

Scheduling Your Exam
The Sun exams are purchased directly from Sun, but are scheduled through Sylvan...
xxxiv

SCJP Sun Certified Programmer for Java 6 Study Guide

All the tests are closed-book, meaning you don't get to bring ...
Introduction

xxxv

Size Up the Challenge
First, take a quick pass through all the questions in the exam. "Cherry-pick" th...
xxxvi

SCJP Sun Certified Programmer for Java 6 Study Guide

(although you'll probably want to skip a review of the drag-an...
1
Declarations and
Access Control

CERTIFICATION OBJECTIVES
l
l

l

Declare Classes & Interfaces
Develop Interfaces &
Abst...
2

Chapter 1:

Declarations and Access Control

W

e assume that because you're planning on becoming certified, you alread...
Java Refresher

3

though, Java programmers (and Sun) have created conventions for naming methods,
variables, and classes....
4

Chapter 1:

Declarations and Access Control

way to manage naming of, and access to, classes they need. The exam covers...
Legal Identifiers (Exam Objectives 1.3 and 1.4)

5

Legal Identifiers
Technically, legal identifiers must be composed of onl...
6

Chapter 1:

TABLE 1-1

Declarations and Access Control

Complete List of Java Keywords (assert added in 1.4, enum added...
Sun’s Java Code Conventions (Exam Objectives 1.3 and 1.4)

7

6.
{ if (x > 1) Thread.yield(); }
7.
System.out.print(i + " ...
8

Chapter 1:

Declarations and Access Control

■ Variables

Like methods, the camelCase format should be used, starting w...
JavaBeans Standards (Exam Objectives 1.3 and 1.4)

9

(although some IDEs expect it). The name of the property is inferred...
10

Chapter 1:

Declarations and Access Control

Examples of valid JavaBean method signatures are
public
public
public
pub...
Source File Declaration Rules (Exam Objective 1.1)

11

When you write code in Java, you're writing classes or interfaces....
12

Chapter 1:

Declarations and Access Control

■ Files with no public classes can have a name that does not match any of...
Class Declarations and Modifiers (Exam Objective 1.1)

13

not been declared in any explicit package, and are in the classp...
14

Chapter 1:

Declarations and Access Control

package cert;
class Beverage { }

Now look at the second source file:
pac...
Class Declarations and Modifiers (Exam Objective 1.1)

15

package cert;
public class Beverage { }

This changes the Bevera...
16

Chapter 1:

Declarations and Access Control

programmers were free to extend the String class (and thus substitute the...
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Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
Scjp sun certified programmer for java , OCPJP
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  1. 1. Praise for the Sun Certified Programmer & Developer for Java 2 Study Guide "Kathy Sierra is one of the few people in the world who can make complicated things seem damn simple. And as if that isn't enough, she can make boring things seem interesting. I always look forward to reading whatever Kathy writes—she's one of my favorite authors." —Paul Wheaton, Trail Boss JavaRanch.com "Who better to write a Java study guide than Kathy Sierra, the reigning queen of Java instruction? Kathy Sierra has done it again—here is a study guide that almost guarantees you a certification!" —James Cubeta, Systems Engineer, SGI "The thing I appreciate most about Kathy is her quest to make us all remember that we are teaching people and not just lecturing about Java. Her passion and desire for the highest quality education that meets the needs of the individual student is positively unparalleled at SunEd. Undoubtedly there are hundreds of students who have benefited from taking Kathy's classes." —Victor Peters, founder Next Step Education & Software Sun Certified Java Instructor "I want to thank Kathy for the EXCELLENT Study Guide. The book is well written, every concept is clearly explained using a real life example, and the book states what you specifically need to know for the exam. The way it's written, you feel that you're in a classroom and someone is actually teaching you the difficult concepts, but not in a dry, formal manner. The questions at the end of the chapters are also REALLY good, and I am sure they will help candidates pass the test. Watch out for this Wickedly Smart book." —Alfred Raouf, Web Solution Developer "The Sun Certification exam was certainly no walk in the park, but Kathy's material allowed me to not only pass the exam, but Ace it!" —Mary Whetsel, Sr. Technology Specialist, Application Strategy and Integration, The St. Paul Companies "Bert has an uncanny and proven ability to synthesize complexity into simplicity offering a guided tour into learning what's needed for the certification exam." —Thomas Bender, President, Gold Hill Software Design, Inc.
  2. 2. "With his skill for clearly expressing complex concepts to his training audience, every student can master what Bert has to teach." —David Ridge, CEO, Ridge Associates "I found this book to be extremely helpful in passing the exam. It was very well written with just enough light-hearted comments to make you forget that you were studying for a very difficult test. HIGHLY RECOMMENDED!!" — Nicole Y. McCullough "I have never enjoyed reading a technical book as much as I did this one…This morning I took the SCJP test and got 98% (60 out of 61) correct. Such success would not have been possible without this book!" — Yurie Nagorny "I gave SCJP 1.4 in July 2004 & scored 95% (58/61). Kathy & Bert have an awesome writing style & they literally burnt the core concepts into my head." — Bhushan P. Madan (Kansas, United States) "I just took my certification test last week and passed with a score of 95%. Had I not gone through this book, there would have been little chance of doing so well on the test. Thank you Kathy and Bert for a wonderful book!" — Jon W. Kinsting (Saratoga, California United States) "Don't hesitate to make this book your primary guide for SCJP 1.4 preparation. The authors have made a marvellous job about delivering the vital facts you need to know for the exam while leaving out tons of otherwise valuable data that fall beyond the scope. Both authors have participated in creating the real questions for the real exam thus providing an invaluable insight to discern the true nature of what you are up to doing. Unlike many other certification guides…this one makes perfect reading. The most boring Sun objectives in the book are nicely interwoven with the gems of refreshingly spicy humor." — Vad Fogel (Ontario, Canada)
  3. 3. ® SCJP Sun Certified ™ Programmer for Java 6 Study Guide (Exam 310-065)
  4. 4. ® SCJP Sun Certified ™ Programmer for Java 6 Study Guide Exam (310-065) Kathy Sierra Bert Bates McGraw-Hill is an independent entity from Sun Microsystems, Inc. and is not affiliated with Sun Microsystems, Inc. in any manner. This publication and CD may be used in assisting students to prepare for the Sun Certified Java Programmer Exam. Neither Sun Microsystems nor McGraw-Hill warrants that use of this publication and CD will ensure passing the relevant exam. Sun, Sun Microsystems, and the Sun Logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the United States and other countries. Java and all Java-based marks are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the United States and other countries. New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto
  5. 5. Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 0-07-159107-9 The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: 0-07-159106-0. All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. Where such designations appear in this book, they have been printed with initial caps. McGraw-Hill eBooks are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions, or for use in corporate training programs. For more information, please contact George Hoare, Special Sales, at george_hoare@mcgraw-hill.com or (212) 904-4069. TERMS OF USE This is a copyrighted work and The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (“McGraw-Hill”) and its licensors reserve all rights in and to the work. Use of this work is subject to these terms. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976 and the right to store and retrieve one copy of the work, you may not decompile, disassemble, reverse engineer, reproduce, modify, create derivative works based upon, transmit, distribute, disseminate, sell, publish or sublicense the work or any part of it without McGraw-Hill’s prior consent. You may use the work for your own noncommercial and personal use; any other use of the work is strictly prohibited. Your right to use the work may be terminated if you fail to comply with these terms. THE WORK IS PROVIDED “AS IS.” McGRAW-HILL AND ITS LICENSORS MAKE NO GUARANTEES OR WARRANTIES AS TO THE ACCURACY, ADEQUACY OR COMPLETENESS OF OR RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED FROM USING THE WORK, INCLUDING ANY INFORMATION THAT CAN BE ACCESSED THROUGH THE WORK VIA HYPERLINK OR OTHERWISE, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. McGraw-Hill and its licensors do not warrant or guarantee that the functions contained in the work will meet your requirements or that its operation will be uninterrupted or error free. Neither McGraw-Hill nor its licensors shall be liable to you or anyone else for any inaccuracy, error or omission, regardless of cause, in the work or for any damages resulting therefrom. McGraw-Hill has no responsibility for the content of any information accessed through the work. Under no circumstances shall McGraw-Hill and/or its licensors be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, punitive, consequential or similar damages that result from the use of or inability to use the work, even if any of them has been advised of the possibility of such damages. This limitation of liability shall apply to any claim or cause whatsoever whether such claim or cause arises in contract, tort or otherwise. DOI: 10.1036/0071591060
  6. 6. Professional Want to learn more? We hope you enjoy this McGraw-Hill eBook! If you’d like more information about this book, its author, or related books and websites, please click here.
  7. 7. CONTRIBUTORS About the Authors Kathy Sierra was a lead developer for the SCJP exam for Java 5 and Java 6. Sierra worked as a Sun "master trainer," and in 1997, founded JavaRanch.com, the world's largest Java community website. Her bestselling Java books have won multiple Software Development Magazine awards, and she is a founding member of Sun's Java Champions program. Bert Bates was a lead developer for many of Sun's Java certification exams including the SCJP for Java 5 and Java 6. He is also a forum moderator on JavaRanch.com, and has been developing software for more than 20 years. Bert is the co-author of several bestselling Java books, and he's a founding member of Sun's Java Champions program. About the Technical Review Team Johannes de Jong has been the leader of our technical review teams for ever and ever. (He has more patience than any three people we know.) For this book, he led our biggest team ever. Our sincere thanks go out to the following volunteers who were knowledgeable, diligent, patient, and picky, picky, picky! Rob Ross, Nicholas Cheung, Jane Griscti, Ilja Preuss, Vincent Brabant, Kudret Serin, Bill Seipel, Jing Yi, Ginu Jacob George, Radiya, LuAnn Mazza, Anshu Mishra, Anandhi Navaneethakrishnan, Didier Varon, Mary McCartney, Harsha Pherwani, Abhishek Misra, and Suman Das. About LearnKey LearnKey provides self-paced learning content and multimedia delivery solutions to enhance personal skills and business productivity. LearnKey claims the largest library of rich streaming-media training content that engages learners in dynamic media-rich instruction complete with video clips, audio, full motion graphics, and animated illustrations. LearnKey can be found on the Web at www.LearnKey.com.
  8. 8. Technical Review Superstars Andrew Burk Bill M. Devender Jeroen Jef Jim Gian Kristin Marcelo Marilyn Johannes Mark Mikalai Seema Valentin We don't know who burned the most midnight oil, but we can (and did) count everybody's edits— so in order of most edits made, we proudly present our Superstars. Our top honors go to Kristin Stromberg—every time you see a semicolon used correctly, tip your hat to Kristin. Next up is Burk Hufnagel who fixed more code than we care to admit. Bill Mietelski and Gian Franco Casula caught every kind of error we threw at them—awesome job, guys! Devender Thareja made sure we didn't use too much slang, and Mark Spritzler kept the humor coming. Mikalai Zaikin and Seema Manivannan made great catches every step of the way, and Mar