Details of subjects of electrical engg

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Details of subjects of electrical engg

  1. 1. eeLLeeaarrnniinngg SSooffttwwaarree SSoolluuttiioonnssiinnTTeecchhnniiccaall EEdduuccaattiioonnEElleeccttrriiccaall EEnnggiinneeeerriinnggDDeettaaiill CCoonntteenntt LLiisstt ooff SSuubbjjeeccttssSoftTech Engineers Pvt. Ltd.Unit 5A, The Pentagon, Next to Pune-Satara Road Telephone Exchange,Shahu College Road, Pune - 411009, Maharashtra, IndiaPh: 020-24217676, Fax: 020-24218747,Email:eLearning@SoftTech-Engr.comWebsite: www.eLearning-SoftTech.com
  2. 2. SoftTech Engineers Pvt. Ltd. have developed Multimedia based eLearning SoftwareSolutions for the Electrical Engineering subjects.Electrical Circuits and Networks (EE01)Electrical Machines (EE02)Electrical Measurement and Instrumentation (EE03)Electrical Engineering Materials (EE04)Numerical Methods and Computational Techniques (EE05)Electrical Power System (EE06)Electrical Conservation System (EE07)Modern Control System (EE08)Switch Gear & Protection (EE09)Electrical & Illumination Design (EE10)Energy Convertion Systems (EE11)Repair of Electrical Machines (EE12)Industrial Electronics (EE13)Power Plant Engineering (ME13)Microprocessor & Microcontroller (ET11)Power Electronics (ET12)Renewable Energy Sources (ME15)NDT- Non Destructive Testing (CE20)
  3. 3. Electrical Circuits and Networks (EE01)Audience: Students of Second Year Electrical EngineeringObjective: At the end of the course the student will learn about circuit concepts, conventions,network and differential equations, transforms, resonance, networks, etc.ContentsDevelopment of the Circuit Concept1. Introduction2. Charge and Energy3. The Relationship of Field and Circuit Concepts4. The Capacitance Parameter5. The Inductance Parameter6. The Resistance ParameterConventions for Describing Networks1. Reference Directions for Current & Voltage2. Active Element Conventions3. The Dot Convention for Coupled Circuits4. Topological Description of NetworksNetwork Equations1. Kirchhoff’s Laws2. The Number of Network Equations3. Source Transformations4. Examples of the formulation of Network Equations5. Loop Variable Analysis6. Node Variable Analysis7. Determinants8. Duality9. State Variable Analysis
  4. 4. First-Order Differential Equations1. General and Particular Solutions2. Time Constants3. The Integrating Factor4. More Complicated NetworksInitial Conditions in Networks1. Why Study Initial Conditions?2. Initial Conditions In Elements3. Geometrical Interpretation of Derivatives4. A Procedure for Evaluating Initial Conditions5. Initial State of a NetworkDifferential Equations Continued1. Second-Order Equation; Internal Excitation2. Higher-Order Equations; Internal Excitation3. Networks Excited By External Energy Sources4. Response as Related to the S-Plane Location of Roots5. General Solutions In Terms of , Q, and nThe Laplace Transformation1. Introduction2. The Laplace Transformation3. Some Basic Theorems for the Laplace Transformation4. Examples5. Partial Fraction Expansion6. Heavisides Expansion Theorem7. Examples
  5. 5. Transforms of Other Signal Waveforms1. The Shifted Unit Step Function2. The Ramp and Impulse Functions3. Waveform Synthesis4. The Initial and Final Value of f (T) From F (S)5. The Convolution Integral6. Convolution as a SummationImpedance Functions and Network Theorems1. The Concept of Complex Frequency2. Transform Impedance and Transform Circuits3. Series & Parallel Combinations of Elements4. Superposition And Reciprocity5. Thevenins Theorem & Nortons TheoremResonance1. Series Resonance2. Impedance and phase angle3. Voltages & Current in a Series Resonant Circuit4. Band Width of a RLC Circuit5. The quality factor (Q) and its effect on Bandwidth6. Magnification i Resonance7. Parallel Resonance8. Resonant Frequency for a Tank Circuit9. Variation of Impedance with Frequency10. Q Factor of Parallel Resonance11. Magnification12. Reactance Curves in Parallel Resonance
  6. 6. Polyphase Circuits1. Polyphase System2. Advantages of Three-Phase System3. Generation of Three-Phase Voltages4. Phase Sequence5. Inter Connection of Three-Phase Sources and Loads6. Star to Delta and Delta to Star Transformation7. Voltage, Current and Power in a Star Connected System8. Voltage, Current and Power in a Delta Connected System9. Three-Phase Balanced Circuits10. Three-Phase Unbalanced Circuits11. Power Measurement in Three-Phase CircuitsCoupled Circuits1. Mutual Inductance2. Coefficient of Coupling3. Ideal Transformer4. Analysis of Multi-Winding Coupled Circuits5. Series Connection of Coupled Inductors6. Tuned Circuits7. Double Tuned Coupled CircuitsNetwork Functions1. Singularity Functions2. Unit Functions3. Shifter Functions4. Gate Function5. Network Functions6. Transfer Functions of Two-Port Network7. Poles and Zeros8. Necessary Conditions For Driving Point Function9. Necessary Conditions For Transfer Functions10. Time Domain Response From Pole Zero Plot
  7. 7. 11. Amplitude & Phase Response from Pole Zero Plot12. Stability criterion for Active Network13. Routh CriteriaTwo Port Networks1. Two-Port Network2. Open Circuit Impedance (Z) Parameters3. Short Circuit Admittance (Y) Parameters4. Transmission (ABCD) Parameters5. Inverse Transmission (ABCD) Parameters6. Hybrid (H) Parameters7. Inverse Hybrid (g) Parameters8. Inter Relationships of Different Parameters9. Inter Connection of Two-Port Networks10. Terminated Two-Port Network11. Lattice Networks12. Image ParametersFilters & Attenuators1. Classification of Filters2. Filter Networks3. Equations of Filter Networks4. Constant - K Low Pass Filter5. Constant K-High Pass Filter6. Band Pass Filter7. Band Elimination Filter8. Attenuators9. T-Type Attenuator10. - Type Attenuator11. Lattice Attenuator12. Bridged-T Attenuator13. L-Type Attenuator
  8. 8. Electrical Machines (EE02)Audience: Students of Second Year Electrical EngineeringObjective: At the end of the course the student will learn about various electrical machines like D.C.Generators, D.C. Motor, transformer, alternators, etc.ContentsElectromechanical Energy Conversion1. Introduction2. Salient Aspects of Conversions3. Energy – Balance4. Magnetic - field System5. A Simple Electromechanical System6. Rotary Motion7. Description of Simple System8. Energy stored in the coils9. Different Categories10. Vital Role of Air-gap11. Dynamic Equations and System-model of a Simple System12. Statically induced emf and Dynamically Induced emfD. C. Generators1. Learning Objectives2. Generator Principle3. Simple Loop Generator4. Practical Generator5. Types of Generator6. Brush Contact Drop7. Generated E.M.F8. Iron Loss in Armature9. Total Loss in a D.C. Generator10. Stray Losses
  9. 9. 11. Power Stages12. Condition for Maximum EfficiencyArmature Reaction and Commutation1. Learning Objectives2. Armature Reaction3. Demagnetising & Cross-magnetising Conductors4. Demagnetising AT per Pole5. Cross-magnetising AT per pole6. Compensating Windings7. Number of Compensating Windings8. Commutation9. Value of Reactance Voltage10. Methods of Improving Commutation11. Resistance Commutation12. E.M.F. Commutation13. Interpoles of Compoles14. Equalizing Connection15. Parallel Operation of Shunt Generators16. Paralleling DC Generator17. Load Sharing18. Procedure for Paralleling D.C. Generators19. Compound Generators in Parallel20. Series Generators in ParallelGenerator Characteristics1. Learning Objectives2. Characteristics of D.C. Generators3. Separately-excited Generator4. No-load Curve for Self-excited Generator5. Critical Resistance for Shunt Generator
  10. 10. 6. How to Find Critical Resistance Rc?7. Critical Speed NC8. Conditions for Build-up of a Shunt Generator9. Factors Affecting Voltage Building10. External Characteristic11. Voltage Regulation12. Internal or Total Characteristic13. Series Generator14. Compound-wound Generator15. How to Calculate Required Series Turns?16. Uses of D.C. GeneratorsElectric Motors1. Electric Motors2. Linear MotorsD. C. Motor1. Motor Principle2. Comparison of Generator and Motor Action3. Significance of the Back e.m.f.4. Voltage Equation of a Motor5. Condition for Maximum Power6. Torque7. Armature Torque of a Motor8. Shaft Torque9. Speed of a D.C. Motor10. Motor Characteristics11. Characteristics of Series Motors12. Characteristics of Shunt Motors13. Compound Motors
  11. 11. 14. Performance Curves15. Comparison of Shunt and Series Motors16. Losses and Efficiency17. Power StagesSpeed Control of D. C. Motors1. Factors Controlling Motor Speed2. Speed Control of Shunt motors3. Speed Control of Series Motors4. Merits & Demerit of Rheostatic Control Method5. Series-parallel Control6. Electric Braking7. Electric Braking of Shunt Motors8. Electric Braking of Series Motor9. Electronic Speed Control Method for DC Motors10. Uncontrolled Rectifiers11. Controlled Rectifiers12. Thyristor Choppers13. Thyristor Inverters14. Thyristor Speed Control of Separately-excited D.C. MotorTesting of DC Machines1. Brake Test2. Swinburnes Test3. Advantages of Swinburnes Test4. Regenerative or Hopkinsons Test5. Alternative Connections for Hopkinsons Test6. Merits of Hopkinsons Test7. Retardation or Running down Test8. Fields Test for Series Motor
  12. 12. Transformer1. Working Principle of a Transformer2. Transformer Construction3. Elementary Theory of an Ideal Transformer4. E.M.F. Equation of a Transformer5. Voltage Transformation Ratio6. Transformer with Losses but no Magnetic Leakage7. Transformer on Load8. Equivalent Circuit9. Transformer Tests10. Open-circuit or No-load Test11. Short-Circuit or Impedance Test12. Regulation of Transformer13. Losses in a Transformer14. Efficiency of a Transformer15. Condition for Maximum EfficiencyThree-Phase Transformer1. Three-phase Transformer Connections2. Star/Star or Y/Y Connection3. Delta-Delta or D-D Connection4. Wye/Delta or Y/D Connection5. Delta/Wye or D /Y Connection6. Open-Delta or V - V connection7. Power Supplied by V - V Bank8. Scott Connection or T - T Connection9. Three-phase to Two-phase Conversion and vice-versa10. Parallel Operation of 3-phase Transformers
  13. 13. Stepper Motor1. Types of stepper motors2. Working of stepper motor3. Construction of stepper motorInduction Motor1. Classification of A.C. Motors2. Induction Motor: General principle3. Squirrel-cage Rotor4. Phase-wound Rotor5. Production of Rotating Field6. Three-phase Supply7. Why Does the Rotor Rotate?8. Slip9. Frequency of Rotor Current10. Relation Between Torque and Rotor Power Factor11. Starting Torque12. Starting Torque of a Slip-ring Motor13. Rotor E.M.F. and Reactance Under Running Conditions14. Torque Under Running Conditions15. Condition for Maximum Torque Under Running Conditions16. Rotor Torque and Breakdown Torque17. Relation Between Torque and Slip18. Effect of Change in Supply Voltage on Torque and Speed19. Effect of Changes in supply Frequency on Torque and Speed20. Full-load Torque and Maximum Torque21. Starting Torque and Maximum Torque22. Torque/Speed Curve23. Shape of Torque/Speed Curve24. Current/Speed Curve of an Induction Motor25. Torque/Speed Characteristic Under Load26. Plugging of an Induction Motor
  14. 14. 27. Induction Motor Operating as a Generator28. Complete Torque/Speed Curve of a Three-Phase Machine29. Measurement of Slip30. Power Stages in an Induction Motor31. Torque Developed by an Induction Motor32. Torque, Mechanical Power and Rotor Output33. Induction Motor Torque Equation34. Synchronous Watt35. Variations in Rotor Current36. Testing of Induction Motors37. Testing for bearing troublesSingle Phase Motors1. Universal Motor2. Single-phase Induction Motor3. Double-field Revolving Theory4. Making Single-phase Induction Motor Self-starting5. Equivalent Circuit Without Core Loss6. Equivalent Circuit-With Core Loss7. Types of Capacitor-start Motors8. Capacitor Start-and-Run Motor9. Shaded-pole Single-phase Motor10. Repulsion Type Motors11. A.C. Series Motors12. Universal MotorAltornators1. Basic Principle2. Stationary Armature3. Rotor4. Damper Windings
  15. 15. 5. Speed and Frequency6. Armature Windings7. Single-layer Winding8. Concentric or Chain Windings9. Two-Layer Winding10. Wye and Delta Connections11. Short-pitch Winding: Pitch factor/chording factor12. Distribution or Breadth/Winding/Spread Factor13. Factors Affecting Alternator Size14. Alternator on Load15. Synchronous Reactance16. Vector Diagrams of a Loaded Alternator17. Voltage Regulation18. Synchronous Impedance Method19. Rotherts M.M.F. or Ampere-turn Method20. Zero Power Factor Method or Potier Method21. Procedural Steps for Potier Method 122. Operation of a Salient Pole Synchronous Machine23. Phasor Diagram for a Salient Pole Synchronous Machine24. Calculations from Phasor Diagram25. Power Developed by a synchronous Generator26. Parallel Operation of Alternators27. Synchronizing of Alternators28. Synchronizing Current29. Synchronizing Power30. Alternators Connected to Infinite Bus-bars31. Synchronizing Torque TSY32. Effect of Load on Synchronizing Power33. Alternative Expression for Synchronizing Power34. Parallel Operation of Two Alternators35. Effect of Unequal Voltages
  16. 16. 36. Distribution of Load37. Time-period of Oscillation38. Maximum Power OutputSynchronous Motor1. Synchronous Motor–General2. Principle of Operation3. Method of Starting4. Motor on Load with Constant Excitation5. Power Flow within a Synchronous Motor6. Equivalent Circuit of a Synchronous Motor7. Power Developed by a Synchronous Motor8. Synchronous Motor with Different Excitations9. Effect of Increased Load with Constant Excitation10. Effect of Changing Excitation on Constant Load11. Different Torques of a Synchronous Motor12. Power Developed by a Synchronous Motor13. Alternative Expression For Power Developed14. Various Conditions of Maxima15. Salient Pole Synchronous Motor16. Power Developed by a Salient Pole Synchronous Motor17. Effect of Excitation on Armature Current and Power Factor18. Constant-power Lines19. Construction of V-curves20. Hunting or Surging or Phase Swinging21. Methods of Starting22. Procedure for Starting a Synchronous Motor23. Comparison Between Synchronous and Induction Motors24. Synchronous Motor Applications
  17. 17. Servo Motors1. Introduction2. Classification of Servo Motors3. AC Servo motors4. DC Servo motors5. Field-Controlled DC Servo motor6. Armature-Controlled DC Servomotor7. Series Split - Field DC servomotors8. Servo -Vs- Stepper9. Servo Motor Applications10. Probable causes of Motor Troubles
  18. 18. Electrical Measurement and Instrumentation (EE03)Audience: Students of Second Year Electrical EngineeringObjective: At the end of the course the student will learn about fundamentals of instrumentation,units of measurement, various instruments, fault finding tests, etc.ContentsFundamentals1. Introduction2. Instrumentation Systems3. Performance Characteristics4. The three most common variations are5. The dynamic characteristics of an instrument6. Methods of Measurements7. Types of Errors8. Standards9. ExampleUnits of Measurement & Instruments1. Introduction2. Fundamental, Supplementary, and Derived Units3. The most commonly used System of Units are4. Dimensions of a Physical Quantity5. Permanent Magnet Moving Coil Type6. D.C Ammeter7. Extending of Ammeter Ranges8. Basic Meter as a D.C Voltmeter9. A.C Voltmeter Using Half Wave Rectifier10. Calibration of DC Instruments11. Calibration of the Series Type Ohm Meter12. Multimeter Operating Instructions13. Wattmeter (Output Power Meter)
  19. 19. Measuring Parameters1. Bridge2. Wheatstones Bridge (Measurement of resistance)3. Guarded Wheatstone Bridge4. Three Terminal Resistances5. Capacitance Comparison Bridge6. Hays Bridge7. Wiens Bridge8. Harmonic Distortion Analysis9. Phase Measurement by using Vector Voltmeter10. Phase MeterPotentiometer1. Introduction2. Simple Potentiometer for use with Direct Current3. Precision Potentiometer4. Procedure for Using the Potentiometer5. Brookes Deflection Potentiometer6. Potentiometer and its use7. Calibration of Voltmeter By The Potentiometer8. Calibration of Ammeter by the Potentiometer9. Calibration of Resistance10. Alternating Current Potentiometer11. Drysdale Potentiometer12. Obtaining the Balance13. Wattmeter TestingMeasurement of Power & Wattmeters1. Introduction2. Power in A.C. Circuits
  20. 20. 3. Electrodynamometer Wattmeters4. Construction of Electrodynamometer Wattmeter5. Theory of Electrodynamometer Wattmeters6. Shape of Scale of Electrodynamometer Wattmeters7. Errors in Electrodynamometer Wattmeter8. Compensation for Inductance of Pressure Coil9. Ferrodynamic Wattmeters10. Low Power Factor Wattmeters11. Thermocouple Wattmeter12. Hall Effect Multiplier13. Measurement of Power using Instrument Transformers14. Correction factors15. Measurement of Power in Three Phase Circuits16. Three Phase WattmetersLocation of Faults1. Methods of Locating Faults2. Blavier Test3. Earth Overlap Test4. Voltage Drop Tests5. Precaution6. Loop Tests7. Murray Loop Test8. Varley Loop Test9. Tests for Open Circuit Fault in CablesMagnetic Measurement1. Ballistic Galvanometer2. Moving Coil Ballistic Galvanometer3. Method of Calculating the Charge4. Damping Corrections
  21. 21. 5. Measurement of Flux by Ballistic Galvanometer6. Grassot Flux Meter7. Permeameter8. NPL Permeammeter9. Measurements on a Ring Specimen10. Iron Loss Measurement11. Epstein Core-Loss Test12. Lloyd Fischer Square13. Separation of Eddy Current and Hysteresis LossesMeasurement of Energy1. Energy2. Motor Meters3. Theory of Induction Type Meters4. Single Phase Induction type Meters5. Registering (counting) Mechanism6. Errors in Single Phase Energy Meters7. Adjustments in Single Phase Energy Meters8. Polyphase Energy Meters9. Two Element Energy MeterTransducers1. Electrical Transducer2. Electrical Transducers can be broadly classified3. Selecting a Transducer4. Transducers Used For Temperature Measurement5. The Disadvantages are as follows6. Bimetallic Thermometer7. Thermocouples8. Advantages of Thermocouples9. Pressure Measurement
  22. 22. 10. Measurement of Level11. Capacitive Method12. Measurement of Displacement13. Advantages of LVDT14. Pneumatic Flapper Nozzle AssemblyOscilloscope1. Introduction2. Screens for CRTs3. Deflection Sensitivity4. Basic Principle5. Block Diagram of Oscilloscope6. CRT Connections7. Applications of CRO8. Vertical Amplifier9. Horizontal Deflecting System10. Triggered Sweep CRO11. Trigger Pulse Circuit12. Delay Line in Triggered Sweep13. Measurement Using CRO14. Measurement of Frequency15. Measurement of Phase Shift16. Triggered Sweep (Mode of Trigger)
  23. 23. Electrical Engineering Materials (EE04)Audience: Students of Second Year Electrical EngineeringObjective: At the end of the course the student will learn about conducting, insulating, magnetic,gaseous and special materials used in electrical engineering.ContentsElectrical Engineering Materials1. Introduction2. Technological Properties of Materials3. Physical Properties4. Mechanical Properties5. Electrical Properties6. Magnetic Properties7. Chemical Properties8. Trade Names9. Code of Practice10. Conducting Materials11. Insulating Materials12. Magnetic MaterialsConducting Materials Properties1. Introduction2. Temperature-Coefficient of Resistance3. Variation of Resistivity with temperature4. Superconductivity5. Super-conducting Materials6. Properties of superconducting Materials7. Change in Thermal conductivity8. Practical Applications of superconductivity
  24. 24. Conducting Materials1. Introduction2. High conducting (i.e. Low Resistivity) Materials3. Copper4. Reinforced Copper Conductors5. Alloys of Aluminum6. Advantages of Aluminum over copper7. Galvanized Iron and Steel8. Solders9. Electrical contact Materials10. Common Low conductivity Materials11. Electrical Carbon Materials12. Manufacture of electrical carbon productsCharacteristics of Semiconductor Materials1. Resistivity2. Chemical Bonds in Si and Ge3. Extrinsic Semi-Conductor Materials4. Hall Effect5. Applications of Semi-Conductors6. Type of silicon carbide semi-conductors7. The Hall Effect Amplifier8. Applications of Semi-conductor9. Effect of Temperature and Frequency10. Single Crystal PerformanceInsulating Materials: Properties1. Introduction2. Properties of insulating materials3. Mechanical Properties
  25. 25. 4. Thermal Properties5. Chemical Properties6. Desirable Properties of Insulating Materials7. Classification of Insulating Materials8. Dielectric as an Electric Field Medium9. Polarisation10. Effect of Application of Field on Atom11. Polarization in Polar Dielectric Materials12. Electrical conductivity of Gases/Liquid/solid dielectrics13. Breakdown of Gaseous dielectrics14. Breakdown of liquid dielectricInsulating Materials1. Introduction2. Liquid insulating Materials3. Petroleum or Mineral Insulating Oils4. Properties5. Miscellaneous Insulating Oils6. Solid Insulating Materials7. Fibrous Insulating Materials8. Impregnated Fibrous Insulating Materials9. Thermosetting Resins10. Insulating Films11. Mica-Base Materials12. Ceramic Insulating Materials13. Glass Insulating MaterialsMagnetic Materials: Properties1. Introduction2. Magnetic Parameters3. Concept of Magnetization
  26. 26. 4. Magnetization of Iron and Steel5. Diamagnetic Materials6. Spontaneous Magnetization7. Principal Ferromagnetic Materials8. Soft and Hard Magnetic Materials9. Steel Alloys10. Sheet SteelsGaseous Materials1. Introduction2. Creeping Discharge3. Gaseous Conductors4. Gaseous Materials as Insulator5. Ionization of Gaseous Materials6. Breakdown of Gaseous Materials7. Townsends particular theoryMaterials for Special Purpose1. Introduction2. Types of Thermocouples3. Bimetallic (or Thermostats) Materials4. Metals and Alloys used for Fuse Wire5. Advantages6. Varistors (or Non - linear resistors)Principle & Procedure of Selection of Materials1. Introduction2. Factors determining selection of material3. Properties of materials4. Constructional Features of Electrical Equipment
  27. 27. 5. Desirable properties of some Types of Materials6. Typical Applications and suitable available materials7. Electrical contacts8. Thermo-couple Materials9. High Resistivity Materials10. Applications and suitable materials11. Materials and Their Typical Application
  28. 28. Numerical Methods and Computational Techniques (EE05)Audience: Students of Second Year Electrical EngineeringObjective: At the end of the course the student will learn about various types of numerical methodsand computational techniques.ContentsLinear Systems of Equations & Matrix Computations1. Introduction2. Direct Methods for Solving Linear Systems of EQUATIONSGauss Elimination Method with Partial Pivoting1. Introduction2. Gauss Elimination methodDeterminant Evaluation1. Introduction2. Gauss Jordan Method3. LU DecompositionsDoolittle’s LU Decomposition1. IntroductionDoolittiles Method with Row Interchanges1. Introduction2. Stage 1: Rows of UIterative Methods for S. L. S. of Equations1. Introduction2. Jacobi Iteration3. Introduction4. Examples
  29. 29. Gauss - Seidel Method1. Introduction2. ExamplesSuccessive Overrelaxation (SOR) Method1. Introduction2. SOR scheme3. ExamplesReview of Properties of Eigenvalues & Eigenvectors1. Introduction2. Eigen value3. PropertiesSimilar Matrices1. Introduction2. ExamplesHermitian Matrices1. Introduction2. ExamplesGramm – Schmidt Orthonormalization1. Introduction2. Examples3. Characteristic PolynomialVector and Matrix Norms1. Introduction2. Examples
  30. 30. 3. Definition4. Matrix normsEigen Value Computations1. Introduction2. Examples3. ComputationEigenvalues of a Real Symmetric Tridiagonal Matrix1. IntroductionTridiagonalization of a Real Symmetric Matrix1. Introduction2. ExamplesJacobi Iteration for Finding E. of a R. S. M.1. Introduction2. ExamplesThe Q R decomposition1. Introduction2. Examples
  31. 31. Electrical Power System (EE06)Audience: Students of Second Year Electrical EngineeringObjective: At the end of the course the student will learn about fundamentals of electrical powergeneration, tariff, supply system and mechanical design of power generation.ContentsIntroduction1. Importance of Electrical Energy2. Generation of Electrical Energy3. Sources of Energy4. Comparison of Energy Sources5. Efficiency6. Calorific Value of Fuels7. Advantages of Liquid Fuels over Solid Fuels8. Advantages of Solid Fuels over Liquid FuelsGenerating Stations1. Generating Stations2. Schematic Arrangement of Steam Power Station3. Choice of Site for Steam Power Stations4. Efficiency of Steam Power Station5. Equipment of Steam Power Station6. Hydro- electric Power Station7. Schematic Arrangement of Hydro-electric P. S.8. Choice of Site for Hydro-electric Power Stations9. Constituents of Hydro-electric Plant10. Diesel Power Station11. Schematic Arrangement of Diesel Power Station12. Nuclear Power Station13. Schematic Arrangement of Nuclear P. S.14. Schematic Arrangement of Gas Turbine Power Plant
  32. 32. Variable Load on Power Station1. Structure of Electric Power System2. Variable Load on Power Station3. Importance4. Important Terms and Factors5. Load Duration Curve6. Types of Loads7. Typical Demand and Diversity Factors8. Illustration9. Load Curves and Selection of Generating Units10. Important Points in the Selection of Units11. Base Load and Peak Load on Power Station12. Inter Interconnected connected Grid SystemEconomics of Power Generation1. Economics of Power Generation2. Cost of Electrical Energy3. Methods of Determining Depreciation4. Diminishing value method5. Sinking fund method6. Importance of High Load FactorTariff1. Introduction2. Desirable Characteristics of a Tariff3. Types of TariffPower Factor Improvement1. Power Factor2. Disadvantages of Low Power Factor
  33. 33. 3. Causes of Low Power Factor4. Power Factor Improvement Equipment5. Calculations of Power Factor Correction6. Power triangle7. Importance of Power Factor Improvement8. Most Economical Power Factor9. Meeting the Increased kW DemandSupply System1. Electric Supply System2. Typical A.C. Power Supply Scheme3. Comparison of D.C. and A.C. Transmission4. Disadvantages5. Advantages of High Transmission Voltage6. Limitations of high transmission voltage7. Elements of a Transmission Line8. Economics of Power Transmission9. Economic Choice of Transmission Voltage10. Requirements of Satisfactory Electrical SupplyMechanical Design of Overhead Lines1. Main Components of Overhead Lines2. Conductor Materials3. Line Supports4. Insulators5. Types of Insulators6. Advantages7. Potential Distribution over Suspension I. S.8. String Efficiency9. Methods of Improving String Efficiency
  34. 34. 10. Important Points11. Factors Affecting Corona12. Advantages and Disadvantages of Corona13. Effect of wind and ice loading14. Some Mechanical Principles
  35. 35. Energy Conservation System (EE07)Audience: Students of Third Year Electrical EngineeringObjective: At the end of the course the student will learn about various forms of energy, electricalsystem, lighting system, energy efficient technologies, performance assessment of motors andspeed drives.ContentsBasics of Energy and Its Various Forms1. Definition2. Energy Conversion3. Grades of Energy4. Electricity Tariff5. Time of Day (TOD) Tariff6. Thermal Energy Basics7. Specific Heat8. Conduction9. Thermal RadiationEnergy Scenario1. Introduction2. Primary and Secondary Energy3. Commercial Energy and Non Commercial Energy4. Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy5. Global Primary Energy Reserves6. Indian Energy Scenario7. Final Energy Consumption8. Long Term Energy Scenario for India9. Energy and Environment10. Heavy Metals and Lead11. Energy Conservation and its Importance12. What is Energy Conservation?13. Energy Strategy for the Future14. Long-term strategy
  36. 36. 15. The Energy Conservation ActElectrical System1. Introduction to Electric Power Supply Systems2. Power Generation Plant3. Transmission and Distribution Lines4. Cascade Efficiency5. Electricity Billing6. Electrical Load Management7. Location of Capacitors8. Transformers9. Voltage Fluctuation Control10. System Distribution Losses11. Electronic Switching Power ConvertersLighting System1. Introduction2. Basic Terms in Lighting System and Features3. Recommended Illuminance Levels4. Methodology of Lighting System5. Case Examples6. Energy Saving Potential in Street Lighting7. Some Good Practices in Lighting8. Light distributionElectric Motors1. Introduction2. Motor Types3. Motor Characteristics4. Motor Efficiency5. Field Tests for Determining Efficiency6. Motor Selection7. Energy-Efficient Motors
  37. 37. 8. Stray Load-Losses9. Motor Loading10. Sizing to Variable Load11. Rewinding Effects on Energy Efficiency12. Speed Control of AC Induction Motors13. Motor Speed Control SystemsEnergy Efficient Technologies in Electrical Systems1. Maximum Demand Controllers2. Maximum Demand3. Automatic Power Factor Controllers4. Automatic Power Factor Control Relay5. Minimising Watts Loss in Motors6. Technical aspects of Energy Efficient Motors7. Eddy Current Drives8. Energy Efficient Transformers9. Electronic Ballast10. Energy Efficient Lighting Controls11. Timed Based Control12. Types and FeaturesPerformance Assessment of Motors & Speed Drives1. Introduction2. Performance Terms and Definitions3. Efficiency Testing4. Determining Motor Loading5. Performance Evaluation of Rewound Motors6. Factors for Successful Implementation7. Information needed to Evaluate Energy Savings
  38. 38. Modern Control System (EE08)Audience: Students of Third Year Electrical EngineeringObjective: At the end of the course the student will learn about fundamentals of control system.ContentsIntroduction to the Control Problem1. Control Systems2. A bathroom toilet tank3. Automobile driving system4. Basic Structure of a Feedback Control System5. Feedforward-Feedback Control Structure6. Heat exchangerDynamic Models and Dynamic Response1. Introduction2. Nonlinear and Linear Models3. State Variable Models4. Impulse Response Models5. Transfer Function Models6. Models of Disturbances7. Dynamic Response8. First-Order Models9. Second-Order Models10. Mechanics of Translation11. Models Op Thermal Systems12. Systems with Dead-Time Elements
  39. 39. Models of Industrial Control Devices & Systems1. Introduction2. Block Diagram Manipulations3. Signal Flow Graphs and the Masons Gain Rule4. Signal Flow Graph Terminology5. Block Diagram Reduction Using the Masons Gain Rule6. DC and AC Motors in Control Systems7. DC Servomotors8. Armature-Controlled dc Motor9. AC Servomotors10. Motion Control Systems11. Electronic Amplifiers12. Hydraulic Devices for Motion Control13. Hydraulic Actuators14. Pneumatic Devices for Process Control15. Signals and Standards16. Flow Control ValveBasic Principles of Feedback Control1. Introduction2. The Control Objectives3. Feedback Control System Characteristics4. Integral Mode of Feedback Control5. Alternative Control ConfigurationsConcepts of Stability & Routh Stability Criterion1. Introduction2. Bounded-Input Bounded-Output Stability3. Zero-Input Stability4. The Routh Stability Criterion
  40. 40. 5. Relative Stability (Shifting the Origin)6. Stability Range for a ParameterThe Performance of Feedback Systems1. Introduction2. The Performance Specifications3. Transient Response4. Steady-State Response5. Response of a Standard Second-Order System6. Effects of an Additional zero7. Introduction to Design and Compensation8. Derivative Error Compensation9. Integral Error CompensationThe Nyquist Stability Criterion & Stability Margins1. Introduction2. Development of the Nyquist Criterion3. The Principle of Argument4. The Nyquist Plot5. The Nyquist Criterion6. Stability Margins7. Some Constraints and Cautions8. The Bode Plots9. Magnitude Plot: Straight-Line Approximation10. Stability Margins On The Bode PlotsFeedback System Performance Based on the Frequency Response1. Introduction2. Performance Specifications in Frequency Domain3. Correlation between Frequency4. Damping Ratio and Phase Margin
  41. 41. 5. Response Speed and Gain Crossover Frequency6. Damping Ratio and Resonance Peak7. Response Speed and Resonance Frequency8. Response Speed and Bandwidth9. Return difference10. Sensitivity functionController Tuning1. Introduction2. A Brief Review of Analog PID Controllers3. Tuning the proportional, integral and derivative4. Adjustment Features in Industrial Controllers5. Practical Controller Tuning Tips6. Self-regulating Processes7. Integrating Processes8. Digital PID Controllers9. Non-interacting Position PID Algorithm10. Tuning Rules for Digital Controllers
  42. 42. Switch Gear & Protection (EE09)Audience: Students of Third Year Electrical EngineeringObjective: At the end of the course the student will learn about various types of switchgears andprotection systems.ContentsIntroduction to Switchgear1. Switchgear2. Essential Features of Switchgear3. Switchgear Equipment4. Bus-Bar Arrangements5. Advantages6. Switchgear Accommodation7. Causes of short-circuit8. Faults in a Power SystemSymmetrical Fault Calculations1. Introduction2. Symmetrical Faults on 3 phase System3. Limitation of Fault Current4. Percentage Reactance5. Percentage Reactance and Base kVA6. Reactor Control of Short-Circuit Currents7. Location of Reactors8. Disadvantages9. Steps for Symmetrical Fault CalculationsUnsymmetrical Fault Calculations1. Introduction2. Unsymmetrical Faults on 3-Phase System3. Symmetrical Components Method
  43. 43. 4. S. C. in Terms of Phase Currents5. Some Facts about Sequence Currents6. Sequence Impedances of Power System Elements7. Analysis of Unsymmetrical Faults8. Phase voltages at fault9. Double Line-to-Ground Fault10. Sequence NetworksCircuit Breakers1. Introduction2. Circuit Breakers3. Principles of Arc Extinction4. Important Terms5. Classification of Circuit Breakers6. Types of Oil Circuit Breakers7. Self-compensated explosion pot8. Operation9. Maintenance of Oil Circuit Breakers10. Sulphur Hexaflouride (SF6) Circuit Breakers11. Switchgear Components12. Problems of Circuit Interruption13. Capacitive current breaking14. Circuit Breaker Ratings15. Making capacityFuses1. Introduction2. Fuses3. Desirable Characteristics of Fuse Element4. Important Terms
  44. 44. 5. Prospective Current6. High-Rupturing capacity (H.R.C.) cartridge fuse7. H.R.C. fuse with tripping device8. High Voltage Fuses9. Current Carrying Capacity of Fuse ElementProtective Relays1. Introduction2. Fundamental Requirements Protective Relaying3. Attracted armature type relay4. Solenoid type relay5. Relay Timing6. Important Terms7. Time-setting multiplier8. Calculation of Relay Operating Time9. Functional Relay Types10. Induction Type Directional Power Relay11. Induction Type Directional Overcurrent Relay12. Constructional details13. Disadvantages14. Voltage Balance Differential RelayProtection of Alternators and Transformers1. Introduction2. Protection of Alternators3. Stator winding faults4. Modified Differential Protection for Alternators5. Balanced Earth-fault Protection6. Buchholz Relay7. Earth-Fault or Leakage Protection
  45. 45. 8. Combined Leakage and Overload Protection9. Applying Circulating current System10. Circulating-Current SchemeProtection of Busbars and Lines1. Introduction2. Busbar Protection3. Fault Bus protection4. Protection of Lines5. Time-Graded Overcurrent Protection6. Parallel feeders7. Ring main system8. Differential Pilot-Wire Protection9. Merz-Price voltage balance system10. Schematic arrangement11. Distance ProtectionProtection Against Overvoltages1. Introduction2. Voltage Surge3. Causes of Overvoltages4. Insulation failure5. Mechanism of Lightning Discharge6. Types of Lightning Strokes7. Indirect stroke8. Protection Against Lightning9. Types of Lightning Arresters10. Horn Gap Arrester11. Multigap arrester12. Expulsion type arrester13. Surge Absorber
  46. 46. Sub-Stations1. Introduction2. Sub-Station3. Transformer Sub-Stations4. Pole-Mounted Sub-Station5. Equipment in a Transformer Sub-Station6. Insulators7. Instrument transformers8. Bus-Bar Arrangements in Sub-Stations9. Terminal and Through Sub-Stations10. Key Diagram of 11kV/400V Indoor Sub-StationNeutral Grounding1. Introduction2. Equipment Grounding3. Enclosure connected to neutral wire4. System Grounding5. Ungrounded Neutral System6. Circuit behaviour under single line to ground-fault7. Neutral Grounding8. Advantages of Neutral Grounding9. Solid Grounding10. Reactance Grounding11. Arc Suppression Coil Grounding12. Voltage Transformer Earthing
  47. 47. Electrical & Illumination Design (EE10)Audience: Students of Second Year Electrical EngineeringObjective: At the end of the course the student will learn about fundamentals of illumination,design considerations and installation of electrical system.ContentsIllumination1. Radiations from a Hot Body2. Definitions3. Calculation of Luminance4. Laws of Illumination or Illuminance5. Laws Governing Illumination of Different Sources6. Polar Curves of C.P. Distribution7. Determination of M.S.C.P.8. Integrating Sphere or Photometer9. Diffusing and Reflecting Surfaces10. Lighting Schemes11. Illumination Required for Different Purposes12. Flood lighting13. Incandescent Lamp Characteristics14. Clear and Inside-frosted Gas-filled Lamps15. Fluorescent Lamp Circuit with Thermal Switch16. Comparison of Different Light SourcesIllumination Engineering1. Introduction2. Units of Wave-length3. Practical Examples of ‘Light’ UNITS4. Luminous Efficiency and the Eye5. The Purkinge Effect6. Excitation and Ionisation
  48. 48. 7. Gases and Vapours Available8. Hot- and Cold-cathode Lamps9. Black-body Radiation10. Effect of Voltage Variation11. Applications of Directionally Controlled Lighting12. Subtractive Coloured-light Production13. Solid Angle in Terms of Plane Angle14. Light Sources and Industrial Lighting15. Concentrating Reflector16. Location and Mounting of Projectors17. The Diffusion Principle18. Photometric Definitions & FormulaeDesign and Drawing of Panel Boards1. Introduction2. Design Conditions3. Standard Sizes of Boards4. Solved Examples5. SolutionDesign Considerations of Electrical Installations1. Electric Supply System2. Three-Phase Four Wire Distribution System3. Voltage Tolerances4. Protection Of Electric Installation Against Overload5. Fuses and Circuit Breakers6. Rewirable fuses7. Protection against Electric Shock8. General Requirements of Electrical Installations9. Reception and Distribution of Main Supply
  49. 49. 10. Diversity Factor for Sub-Circuits11. Testing Of Installations12. Testing Polarity of Single-Pole Switches13. Indian Electricity Rules14. Syetems of Wiring15. Service Connections16. Light and Fan Sub-Circuit17. Guidelines for Installation of Fittings18. Estimating and Costing Of Electrical InstallationsElectrical Installation1. Electrical Installations for Residential Buildings2. Schematic and Wiring Diagram3. Calculation of Length of Wire Required4. Electrical Installation For Commercial Building5. Busbar and busbar chamber6. Mounting arrangement of switchboards7. Costing of Electrical Wiring Installation for C.B.8. Motor Circuit Wiring9. Design Considerations of Electrical Installation10. Determination of the size of conduit11. Costing of Electrical Wiring InstallationsDesign of Illumination Schemes1. Introduction2. Terminology In Illumination3. Laws of Illumination4. Various Types Of Light Sources5. Practical Lighting Schemes6. Different Types of Lighting Arrangements
  50. 50. 7. Lighting System Consideration for Different Occupancies8. Design Considerations of a Good Lighting Scheme9. Mounting height and spacing of fittings
  51. 51. Energy Convertion System (EE11)Audience: Students of Electrical EngineeringObjective: At the end of the course the student will learn about various types of energy conversionsystems.ContentsIntroduction to Energy Conversion Systems1. Introduction2. Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion3. Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle4. Indirectly Fired Cycle5. Basic Concepts6. Equation of State7. Forms of Irreversibility in Heat Transfer ProcessesNon Conventional Energy Sources1. Introduction2. Wind Power Plants3. Types of Wind Mills4. Wind-electric Generating Power Plant5. Wind Electricity in Small Independent Grids6. Tidal Power Plants7. Advantages and Limitations of Tidal Power8. Collectors in Various Ranges and Applications9. Flat Plate Collectors10. Focusing11. Low Temperature Thermal Power Generation12. Geothermal Power Plants13. Janata Model Gobar Gas Plant14. Thermionic Conversion System15. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) System16. Electrostatic Mechanical Generators
  52. 52. Bio Energy Conversion System1. Introduction2. Definition of Biomass3. Fast Pyrolysis4. Types of Gasifier5. Liquid Biofuels6. Secondary Energy Conversion Technology7. Biomass Implementation8. Heat production from biomass9. Composting10. Fuel production from biomass11. Methanol from biomassSteam Power Plant System1. Introduction2. Classification of Steam Power Plants3. Capacity Of Steam Power Plant4. Fuel Handling5. Storage of Coal6. Inplant Handling7. Combustion Equipment for Steam Boilers8. Stoker Firing9. Types of Overfeed Stokers10. Multi-retort Underfeed Stokers11. Pulveriser12. Cyclone Burners13. Classification of Oil Burners14. Fluidised Bed Combustion (FBC)15. Ash Handling Systems16. Dust Collection17. Removal of Dust and Dust Collectors
  53. 53. 18. Chimney Draught19. Boilers20. Selection of a Boiler21. Fire Tube Boilers22. Babcock and Wilcox Water Tube Boiler23. High Pressure BoilersGas Turbine Power Plant System1. Gas Turbines - General Aspects2. Applications of Gas Turbine Plants3. Energy Cycle for a Simple-Cycle Gas Turbine4. Classification of Gas Turbine Power Plants5. Merits of Gas Turbines6. Constant Pressure Combustion Gas Turbines7. Merits and Demerits of Closed Cycle Turbine8. Gas Turbine Fuels9. Effect of Operating Variables on Thermal Efficiency10. Combination Gas Turbine Cycles11. Operation of a Gas Turbine12. Components of a Gas Turbine Power Plant13. Intercoolers and RegeneratorsDiesel Engine Power Plant System1. Introduction2. Site Selection3. Different Parts of I.C. Engines4. Terms Connected with I.C. Engines5. Four Stroke Cycle Diesel Engines6. Two Stroke Cycle Diesel Engines7. Layout of A Diesel Engine Power Plant
  54. 54. Hydro - Electric Power Plant System1. Introduction2. Advantages and Disadvantages3. Surge Tanks4. Draft Tubes5. Power House and Equipment6. High Head Power Plants7. Hydraulic Turbines8. Description of Various Types of Turbines9. Electrical And Mechanical Equipment In A H-P10. Underground Hydro-Plants11. Automatic and Remote Control of Hydro-StationNuclear Power System1. Introduction2. Nuclear Reactors3. Classification of Nuclear Reactors4. Essential Components of a Nuclear Reactor5. Power of a Nuclear Reactor6. Main Components of a Nuclear Power Plant7. Description of Reactors8. Description of CANDU reactor9. Liquid Metal Cooled Reactors10. Total Energy CostsElectrical Equipments in Power Plants1. Introduction2. Generating Equipment3. Conversion of Alternating4. Construction of D.C. Machines5. Description of Parts of D.C. Machines
  55. 55. 6. Field Poles7. Commutator8. Characteristics of D.C. Generators9. Separately Excited Generator10. Shunt Generator Characteristics11. Compound Wound Generator12. Applications of D.C. Generators13. Alternator-Current Generators14. Constructional Details15. Parallel Operation of Alternators16. Cooling of Alternators17. Transformer Ratings18. Transformer Windings, Terminals19. Three Phase Transformer20. Three-phase shell type transformer21. Fuses22. Classification of Circuit Breakers23. Protection of Electrical Systems24. Different Types of Relays25. Description of Commonly used Relays26. Alternator Protection27. Effects of Short Circuits28. Methods of earthing system neutral29. Electrical Equipment-Layout30. Voltage Regulation31. Conductor Material32. Classification of Substations33. Indian Electricity Act
  56. 56. Inverters1. Learning Objectives2. Introduction3. RLC underdamped load4. The McMurray Inverter5. McMurray-Bedford Half-bridge Inverter6. Three-Phase 180o Conduction Mode7. Three-Phase 120o Conduction Mode8. Voltage Control of Single-Phase Inverters9. Harmonic Reduction by Multiple Commutation10. Single-Phase Capacitor-Commutated11. Induction motor voltage waveforms12. Commutating circuit analysis
  57. 57. Repair of Electrical Machines (EE12)Audience: Students of Electrical EngineeringObjective: At the end of the course the student will learn about basics of split phase motor,capacitor motor, motor winding, rewinding processes for A.C. and D.C. motors, etc.ContentsSplit Phase Motor1. Introduction2. Parts of a split-phase motor3. Different types of bearings4. Operation of a split-phase motor5. Steps of the end-plates6. Electrical and mechanical degrees7. A wire gauge and a micrometer8. Insulation used in slots and Types9. In regard to polarity10. Straight line diagram of four pole series11. Synchronous and Induction12. Method of determining which pole is open13. A voltage Drop test14. Construction and use of internal growlerCapacitor Motor1. Types of Capacitor Motor2. Description of a capacitor motor3. Eletrolytic capacitor4. Capacitors rating5. Operation of a capacitor-start motor6. Operations in the repair and rewinding7. Troubles in capacitor start motor8. Methods of winding a two-voltage capacitor9. The causes of the motor
  58. 58. Commercial and Industrial Motor Winding1. Introduction2. Multi Phase System3. Rewinding of Single Phase Motor4. Method of Rewinding5. Making Set WindingThree Phase Motor Winding1. Introduction2. Why Rotor Rotates3. Addition of field poles decreases speed4. Three phase, 4-pole synchronous motor5. Type of Non-Synchronous Motor6. Characteristics7. Variable reluctance stepper8. Permanent magnet stepper9. Stepper motor wiring diagrams10. Half step drive11. ConstructionFaults of Starter1. Faults of Starter2. Fault Produced in Star - Delta Starter3. General Fault of Starter4. Removing Burnt Winding from Stator of AC Motor5. Method6. Making Coil7. Making and drying Varnish in Winding of MotorAC Motor Rewind ProcessDC Motor Rewind Process
  59. 59. Industrial Electronics (EE13)Audience: Students of Electrical EngineeringObjective: At the end of the course the student will learn about various electron devices andtransducers which are used in industrial electronic systems, Electric circuit, industrial electronicsystems, various high power electronic devices, working and control of high power supply systems,etc.ContentsIntroduction1. Scope of Industrial Electronics2. Power Electronics3. Power Electronics V Communication Electronics4. Scope & Application of Power Electronics5. Classification of Power Processors6. Classification of Power Converters7. Merits & Demerits of Power Electronics8. Interdisciplinary Nature of Power Electronics9. Power Semiconductor DevicesThyristor Principles and Characteristics1. Introduction2. Thyristor Family3. Principle of Operations of SCR4. Static Anode - Cathode Characteristics of SCR5. The Two Transistor Model of SCR6. Thyristor Construction7. Gate Characteristics of SCR8. Turn-on Methods of a Thyristor9. Dynamic Turn-on Switching Characteristics10. Turn-off Mechanism11. Turn-off Methods12. Thyristor ratings
  60. 60. 13. Measurement of Thyristor Parameters14. Comparison between Gas Tubes and Thyristors15. Comparison between Transistors and ThyristorsGate Triggering Circuits1. Introduction2. Firing of Thyristors3. Pulse Transformers4. Optical Isolators Optoisolators5. Gate Trigger Circuits6. Unijunction Transistor7. Programmable Unijunction Transistor (PUT)8. Phase Control using Pedestal & Ramp Triggering9. Firing system for DC/DC Choppers10. Firing Circuit for a Three phase Inverter BridgeSeries and Parallel Operation of Thyristors1. Introduction2. Series Operations of Thyristors3. Need for Equalising Network4. Equalising Network Design5. Triggering of Series Connected Thyristors6. Parallel Operation of Thyristors7. Methods for ensuring proper current sharing8. Triggering of Thyristors in Parallel9. String Efficiency10. DeratingPhase Controlled Rectifiers1. Introduction2. Phase Angle Control3. Single phase Half wave Controlled Rectifier
  61. 61. 4. Single phase Full wave Controlled Rectifier5. Single phase Half Controlled Bridge Rectifier6. Three phase Controlled Converters7. Three phase Fully controlled Bridge Converter8. The Effect of Input Source Impedance9. Dual ConvertersInverters1. Introduction2. Thyristor Inverter Classification3. Series Inverters4. Self Commutated Inverters5. Parallel Inverters6. Single Phase Bridge Voltage Source Inverter7. Three Phase Bridge Inverters8. Three Phase Bridge Inverter with Input Circuit Commutation9. Voltage control of Single Phase Inverter10. Voltage control of Three Phase Inverter11. Harmonic Reduction12. Harmonic Filters13. Current source InvertersChoppers1. Learning Objectives2. Introduction3. Principle of Chopper Operation4. Control Strategies5. Step Up Choppers6. Step Up/Down Choppers7. Chopper Configuration8. Chopper Commutation9. Jones Chopper10. Morgan Chopper
  62. 62. 11. A. C. ChoppersCycloconverters1. Learning Objectives2. Introduction3. The Basic Principle of operation4. Single phase to Single phase Cycloconverter5. Three phase Half wave Cycloconverters6. Cycloconverters Circuits for Three phase Output7. Ring connected Cycloconverters Circuits8. Output Voltage Equation9. Control Circuit10. Comparison of Cycloconverters and D. C. Link Converter11. Load commutated CycloconvertersElectric Drives1. Learning Objectives2. Concept of Electric Drives3. DC Drives4. Single Phase DC Drives5. Three Phase DC Drives6. Chopper Drives7. AC Drives8. Induction Motor Drives9. Speed Control of Three Phase Induction MotorsIntroduction to Industrial Automation1. Introduction2. Industrial Communication Networks3. Transmission Media4. Transmission Methods
  63. 63. Introduction to Sensors and Measurement Systems1. Introduction2. Position and Speed Measurements3. Proximity Sensors and Switches4. Linear Variable Differential Transformer5. Digital Optical Encoder6. Electrical Resistance Strain Gage7. Measuring Resistance Changes8. Force Measurement with Load Cells9. Liquid-in-Glass Thermometer10. Electrical Resistance Thermometer11. Piezoelectric Accelerometer12. Introduction to Temperature Measurement13. Sources of temperature measurement error14. Pressure and Force Measurement15. Displacement and Speed Measurement16. Rotary Variable Differential TransformerSignal Conditioning and Processing1. Introduction2. Unbalanced D.C. Bridge3. Push-pull Configuration4. Capacitance Amplifier5. Amplifiers6. Errors and Calibration Introduction7. Systematic Errors8. Calibration and error reduction
  64. 64. Sequence Control, PLCs and RLL1. Programmable Logic Control2. Industrial Example of Discrete Sensors3. Comparing Logic and Sequence Control4. Evolution of the PLC5. Application Areas6. Special Purpose Modules7. The Software Environment and Programming8. Programming Languages9. Typical Operands of PLC Programs10. Realization of off-delay timer11. Operation Set12. Requirements Analysis13. Design of RLL Program14. Function Block Diagram (FBD)15. Divergence of a Selective Sequence16. The PLC Hardware EnvironmentControl of Machine Tools1. Fundamentals of C.N.C2. CNC Lathe (Horizontal Type)3. Direct Measurement4. Hydraulics5. Pneumatics
  65. 65. Power Plant Engineering (ME13)Audience: Students of Second Year Electrical EngineeringObjective: At the end of the course the student will learn about power plant cycles, Steam,Diesel, Gas Turbine, Hydro Electric, Nuclear Power Plants, conventional and non conventionalpower generation, Economics of power generation.ContentsIntroduction1. Introduction2. Sources of Energy3. Fuels4. Classification of Fuels5. Energy Stored in Water6. Nuclear Energy7. Wind Power8. Characteristics of Wind Power9. Solar Energy10. Tidal Power11. Geothermal Energy12. Thermo Electric Power13. Principal Types of Power PlantsPower Plant Cycles1. Introduction2. Classification of Power Plant Cycles3. Rankine Cycle4. Reheat Cycle5. Regenerative Cycle6. Advantages & Disadvantages of Regen. Cycle7. Binary Vapour Cycle
  66. 66. 8. Analysis of Binary Vapour Cycle9. Otto Cycle10. Diesel Cycle11. Dual Combustion CycleSteam Power Plant1. Introduction2. Classification of Steam Power Plant3. Layout of a Modern Steam Power Plant4. Components of a Modern Steam Power Plant5. Fuel Handling6. Coal Handling Systems7. Combustion Equipment for Steam Boilers8. Fluidised Bed Combustion (FBC)9. Ash Handling10. Dust Collection11. Chimney Draught12. Boilers13. Accessories14. Feed Water Heaters & Evaporators15. Steam Nozzles16. Steam Turbines17. Steam Condensers18. Cooling Ponds & Cooling Towers19. Feed Water Treatment20. Piping System21. Advantages & Disadvantages of Power Plants
  67. 67. Diesel Engine Power Plant1. Introduction2. Advantages & Disadvantages3. Application of Diesel Power Plant4. Site Selection5. Heat Engines6. Classification of I. C. Engines7. Different Parts of I. C. Engines8. Terms Connected with I. C. Engines9. Four Stroke Cycle Diesel Engines10. Two Stroke Cycle Diesel Engines11. Comparison of Four & Two Stroke Engines12. Comparison of Petrol & Diesel Engine13. Essential Components of Diesel Power Plant14. Combustion Phenomenon in C. I. Engines15. Delay Period in C. I. Engines16. Basic Designs of C. I. Engines17. Supercharging18. Operation of a Diesel Power Plant19. Diesel Engines used for Diesel Power Plants20. Layout of a Diesel Engine Power PlantGas Turbine Power Plant1. Introduction2. The Simple Gas Turbine Plant3. Performance Terms4. Classification of Gas Turbine Power Plants5. Merits & Demerits of Gas Turbines
  68. 68. 6. Constant Pressure Combustion Gas Turbines7. Constant Volume Combustion Turbines8. Gas Turbine Fuels9. Effect of Operating Variables on Thermal Effi.10. Combination Gas Turbine Cycles11. Operation of a Gas Turbine12. Gas Turbine Power Plant Layout13. Components of Gas Turbine Power Plant14. Arrangements of Gas Turbine Power Plants15. Effect of Thermodynamic Variables on Air Ratio16. Free Piston Engine Plant17. Relative Thermal Eff. of Different CyclesHydro-Electric Power Plant1. Introduction2. Application of Hydro-Electric Plant3. Advantages & Disadvantages4. Selection of site for a Hydro-Electric Plant5. Essential Features of Hydro-Electric Plant6. Classification of Hydro-Electric Plant7. Hydraulic Turbines8. Plant Layout9. Hydro Plant Auxiliaries10. Hydro Plant Control11. Electrical & Mechanical equip. in a Hydro Plant12. Underground Hydro Plants13. Automatic & Remote Control of Hydro Station14. Safety Measures in Hydro-Electric Plant15. Hydrology
  69. 69. Nuclear Power Plant1. General Aspects of Nuclear Engineering2. Nuclear Power Systems3. Nuclear Reactors4. Selection of Materials for Reactor Components5. Metals for Nuclear Energy6. Advantages of Nuclear Power Plant7. Nuclear Plant site selection8. Application of Nuclear Power Plants9. Economics of Nuclear Power Plants10. Safety Measures for Nuclear Power Plants11. Nuclear Power Plants in India12. Future of Nuclear Power13. Useful By-Products of Nuclear Power GenerationCombined Operation of Different Power Plants1. General Aspects2. Advantages of Combined Operation of Plants3. Load Division between Power Stations4. Combination of Hydro-Electric & Steam Plant5. Combination of Run-Of-River & Steam Plant6. Comb. of Pump Storage & Steam/Nuclear Plant7. Co-ord. of Hydro-Electric & Gas Turbine Station8. Co-ord. of Different Types of PlantsEconomics of Power Generation1. Introduction2. Terms & Definitions3. Principles of Power Plant Design4. Location of Power Plant
  70. 70. 5. Layout of Power Plant Building6. Cost Analysis7. Selection of Type of Generation8. Selection of Power Plant Equipment9. Economics in Plant Selection10. Economic Load SharingNon-Conventional Power Generation & Direct Energy Conversion1. Introduction2. Wind Power Plants3. Tidal Power Plants4. Solar Power Plants5. Geothermal Power Plants6. Direct Energy Conversion Systems7. Direct Energy Conversion SystemsPlant Instrumentation1. General Aspects2. Classification of Instruments3. Pressure Gauges4. Thermometers5. Liquid Level Gauges6. Flow Meters7. p-H Measuring Instruments8. Gas Analysers9. Humidity Measuring Instruments10. Impurity Measuring Instruments11. Speed Measuring Instruments12. Steam Calorimeters & Fuel Calorimeters
  71. 71. Major Electrical Equipment in Power Plants1. Introduction2. Generating Equipment3. Transformers4. Switchgear5. Protection of Electrical Systems6. Short Circuits in Electrical Installations7. Control Room8. Earthing of a Power System9. Electrical Equipment Layout10. Voltage Regulation11. Transmission of Electric Power12. Substations13. Indian Electricity ActPollution & Its Control1. Introduction2. Pollution from Thermal Power Plant3. Pollution from Nuclear Power Plant4. Pollution from HydroElectric, Solar Power Plant
  72. 72. Microprocessor & Microcontroller (ET11)Audience: Students of Third Year Electrical EngineeringObjective: At the end of the course the student will learn about detailed concepts ofmicroprocessor 8085 and microcontroller 8051.ContentsMicroprocessor Systems Theory1. Introduction to Microcomputer2. Microcomputer Architecture & Organization3. System Bus4. Microcomputer Characteristics5. Applications of Microprocessor6. Microprocessor ArchitectureThe 8085 Microprocessor Theory1. Introduction2. Features of 8085A3. Architecture of 80854. 16 Bit Registers5. Pin Definitions of 80856. Interrupt SignalsThe 8085 Instructions & Programming1. Introduction2. Steps Involved in Programming3. Opcode Formats4. Addressing Modes5. 8085 Instruction Set6. Arithmetic operations7. Branch Group
  73. 73. 8. Logic Group9. Stack Operations10. Program ExamplesTiminng Diagrams1. Instruction cycle, machine cycle, and T-state2. Representation of Signals3. 8085 Machine Cycles and Their Timings4. Timing Diagrams for 8085 InstructionsStacks & Subroutines1. Concept of Stack2. Stack Operations3. PUSH Instructions4. POP Operation5. Subroutine6. CALL7. Machine Control8. Nested Subroutines9. Nested LoopsMemory Interfacing1. Memory Module2. ROM3. RAM4. Memory Structure & its Requirements5. Basic Concept in Memory Interfacing6. Address Decoding7. Address Decoding & Memory Addresses
  74. 74. Interrupts1. Introduction2. Necessity of Interrupts3. Classification of Interrupts4. Nested Interrupts5. Software Interrupts in 80856. SIM Instruction FormatI/O Data Transfer Techniques & Peripherls1. Introduction2. Microprocessor Controlled Data Transfer3. Direct Memory Access 82374. Pin Diagram of 8237A5. IC 81556. Interfacing 8155 with 8085 in I/O Mapped I/O7. Programmable Peripheral Interface 8255A8. Interfacing 8255 in I/O Mapped I/O9. IC 8355/875510. Digital to Analog Converters (DAC)11. Analog to Digital ConvertersMicrocontroller 80511. Introduction2. Block Diagram3. Serial Interface4. Interrupts5. Addressing Modes6. Instruction Sets7. CPU Timing8. Timing Diagram for External Data Memory9. 8051 a Boolean Processor
  75. 75. 10. Power Saving OptionsMemory & Interfacing Theory of 80511. Introduction2. Internal RAM3. The Stack & the Stack Pointer4. Internal ROM5. Connecting External Memory6. 8751 EPROM Version7. Keyboard Interface8. Serial Communication9. 8051 I/O Expansion using 825510. Multiprocessor Communication in MCS 5111. Interfacing ExamplesStudy of 8051 & Derivatives1. AT89C51/52-8-Bit Microprocessor2. Program Memory Lock Bits3. Programming the Flash
  76. 76. Power Electronics (ET12)Audience: Students of Third Year Electrical EngineeringObjective: : At the end of the course the student will learn about various electronic devices andtransducers, Electric circuit, typical industrial electronic systems, various high power electrondevices, working and control of high power supply systems, transformation of power supply to suitthe electronic system etc.ContentsIntroduction1. Scope of Industrial Electronics2. Power Electronics3. Power Electronics V Communication Electronics4. Scope & Application of Power Electronics5. Classification of Power Processors6. Classification of Power Converters7. Merits & Demerits of Power Electronics8. Interdisciplinary Nature of Power Electronics9. Power Semiconductor DevicesThyristor Principles and Characteristics1. Introduction2. Thyristor Family3. Principle of Operations of SCR4. Static Anode - Cathode Characteristics of SCR5. The Two Transistor Model of SCR6. Thyristor Construction7. Gate Characteristics of SCR8. Turn-on Methods of a Thyristor9. Dynamic Turn-on Switching Characteristics10. Turn-off Mechanism11. Turn-off Methods12. Thyristor ratings
  77. 77. 13. Measurement of Thyristor Parameters14. Comparison between Gas Tubes and Thyristors15. Comparison between Transistors and ThyristorsGate Triggering Circuits1. Introduction2. Firing of Thyristors3. Pulse Transformers4. Optical Isolators Optoisolators5. Gate Trigger Circuits6. Unijunction Transistor7. Programmable Unijunction Transistor (PUT)8. Phase Control using Pedestal & Ramp Triggering9. Firing system for DC/DC Choppers10. Firing Circuit for a Three phase Inverter BridgeSeries and Parallel Operation of Thyristors1. Introduction2. Series Operations of Thyristors3. Need for Equalising Network4. Equalising Network Design5. Triggering of Series Connected Thyristors6. Parallel Operation of Thyristors7. Methods for ensuring proper current sharing8. Triggering of Thyristors in Parallel9. String Efficiency10. DeratingPhase Controlled Rectifiers1. Introduction2. Phase Angle Control
  78. 78. 3. Single phase Half wave Controlled Rectifier4. Single phase Full wave Controlled Rectifier5. Single phase Half Controlled Bridge Rectifier6. Three phase Controlled Converters7. Three phase Fully controlled Bridge Converter8. The Effect of Input Source Impedance9. Dual ConvertersInverters1. Introduction2. Thyristor Inverter Classification3. Series Inverters4. Self Commutated Inverters5. Parallel Inverters6. Single Phase Bridge Voltage Source Inverter7. Three Phase Bridge Inverters8. Three Phase Bridge Inverter with Input Circuit Commutation9. Voltage control of Single Phase Inverter10. Voltage control of Three Phase Inverter11. Harmonic Reduction12. Harmonic Filters13. Current source InvertersChoppers1. Introduction2. Principle of Chopper Operation3. Control Strategies4. Step Up Choppers5. Step Up/Down Choppers6. Chopper Configuration
  79. 79. 7. Chopper Commutation8. Jones Chopper9. Morgan Chopper10. A. C. ChoppersCycloconverters1. Introduction2. The Basic Principle of operation3. Single phase to Single phase Cycloconverter4. Three phase Half wave Cycloconverters5. Cycloconverters Circuits for Three phase Output6. Ring connected Cycloconverters Circuits7. Output Voltage Equation8. Control Circuit9. Comparison of Cycloconverters and D. C. Link Converter10. Load commutated CycloconvertersElectric Drives1. Concept of Electric Drives2. DC Drives3. Single Phase DC Drives4. Three Phase DC Drives5. Chopper Drives6. AC Drives7. Induction Motor Drives8. Speed Control of Three Phase Induction Motors
  80. 80. Renewable Energy Sources (ME15)Audience: Students of Final Year Mechanical EngineeringObjective: At the end of the course the student will learn about different energy sources likeSolar, wind, geothermal, bio energy.ContentsIntroduction to Energy Sources1. Introduction2. Wind Power Plants3. Tidal Power Plants4. Solar Power Plants5. Geothermal Power Plants6. Bio Gas Plants7. Direct Energy Conversion SystemsThe Solar Energy1. Solar Radiation Geometry2. Empirical equations3. Liquid Flat-Plate Collectors4. Solar Air Heaters5. Methods of Classification6. Types of Concentrating Collectors7. Cylindrical Parabolic Collector8. Heliostats9. Thermal Energy Storage10. Sensible Heat Storage11. Latent Heat Storage12. Thermochemical Storage13. Solar Pond14. Economic Analysis15. Photovoltaic Conversion
  81. 81. 16. Conversion Efficiency17. Actual Efficiency ValuesWind Energy1. Wind Electrical Systems2. Historical Background3. Tip Speed Ratio4. Power Contained in Wind5. Thermodynamics of Wind Energy6. Efficiency Limit for Wind Energy Conversion7. Efficiency Limit for a Thrust-operated Converter8. Types of Wind Energy Conversion Devices9. Power Coefficient10. Wind Turbine Ratings and Specifications11. Wind Electrical Systems12. Aerodynamic Efficiency13. Design of the Wind Turbine RotorGeothermal Energy1. Introduction2. Geothermal Sources3. Hydrothermal (Convective) Resources4. Vapour Dominated Systems5. Characteristics of Geothermal steam electricplants6. Liquid-Dominated Systems7. Geopressured Resources8. Comparison of Flashed & Total Flow Concept9. Interconnection of Geothermal Fossil Systems10. Prime-Movers for Geo. Energy Conversion
  82. 82. 11. Space Heating12. Process Heating13. Material Selection for Geothermal Power Plants14. Geothermal Exploration15. Operational and Environmental Problems16. Geothermal Energy in IndiaBio Energy1. Introduction2. Biomass Types & Sources3. Biomass Technologies4. Pyrolysis5. Combustion6. Gasification7. Liquid Biofuels8. Energy Conversion Technology9. Environment10. Biomass Implementation11. Economy12. Benefits13. Conversion of Biological Material14. Heat Production from Biomass15. Composition16. Biogas17. Fuel Production from Biomass
  83. 83. Non Destructive Testing (CE20)Objective: At the end of the course the student will learn about various non destructive testingmethod like ultrasonic testing, radiographic testing, magnetic particle testing, liquid penetranttesting, eddy current testing, etc.ContentsContentsUltrasonic Testing1. Scientific Principles2. Construction of Probes3. Tests on welded joints4. Ultrasonic Flaw Detector5. Advanced Ultrasonic Testing TechnologyRadiographic Testing1. Scientific Principles2. Gamma Rays3. Industrial X-Ray Films4. High Resolution RadiographyMagnetic Particle Testing1. Scientific Principles2. Methods Of DemagnetisationLiquid Penetrant Testing1. Scientific Principles2. Selection of Method and Type of Liquid3. Uses and AdvantageousEddy Current Testing1. Principle2. Factors affecting the eddy current3. Instrumentation For ECT4. Inspection 0f Welds5. Advanced Eddy Current Testing6. Remote Field ECT7. Computer Modelling Of ECT
  84. 84. 8. Digital Signal Processing9. Eddy Current ImagingAcoustic Emission Technique1. Principle of Acoustic Emission Testing2. On-Line Monitoring Of Welds By Acoustic Emission3. Experimental Setup4. Advantages of AET For Weld Monitoring5. Applications of AET For Monitoring6. AET for Structural Integrity MonitoringLeak Testing1. Introduction2. Methods of Pressure Leak Detection3. Halogen, Hydrogen and Sulphur Hexa-Fluoride Detectors4. Helium Leak Testing of A Large Volume PipelineThermography Testing1. Basic Principle2. Detectors And Equipment

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