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- 1. eeLLeeaarrnniinngg SSooffttwwaarree SSoolluuttiioonnssiinnTTeecchhnniiccaall EEdduuccaattiioonnCCiivviill // AAggrriiccuullttuurraall EEnnggiinneeeerriinngg // AArrcchhiitteeccttuurreeDDeettaaiill CCoonntteenntt LLiisstt ooff SSuubbjjeeccttssSoftTech Engineers Pvt. Ltd.Unit 5A, The Pentagon, Next to Pune-Satara Road Telephone Exchange,Shahu College Road, Pune - 411009, Maharashtra, IndiaPh: 020-24217676, Fax: 020-24218747,Email:eLearning@SoftTech-Engr.comWebsite: www.eLearning-SoftTech.com
- 2. SoftTech Engineers Pvt. Ltd. have developed Multimedia based eLearning SoftwareSolutions for the Civil / Agricultural /Architectural Engineering subjects.Mechanics of Structure (Strength of Materials) (CE01)Concrete Technology (CE02)Soil Mechanics (CE03)Surveying – I (CE04)Building Construction (CE05)Building Material (CE06)Civil Engg. Drawing (CE07)Theory of Structure (CE08)Estimation & Costing (Quantity Survey & Estimation) (CE09)Hydraulics /Fluid Mechanics (CE10)Irrigation Engineering (CE11)Sanitary Engineering (CE012)Surveying - II (CE13)Transportation Engineering (CE14)Foundation Engineering (CE15)Environmental Engineering (Water Supply Engg.) (CE16)GIS & Remote Sensing (CE17)Design of Structure (CE18)Earth Quake Engineering (CE19)NDT- Non Destructive Testing (CE20)
- 3. Mechanics of Structure (Strength of Materials) (CE01)Audience: Students of Second Year Civil EngineeringObjective: : At the end of the course the student will learn about concepts of stress and strain,elastic constants, principle planes and stresses, strain energy, moment of inertia, shear force andbending moments, bending stresses and shear stresses in beams, torsion.ContentsStress & Strain1. Concept of Elastic, Plastic and Rigid body2. Types of loads3. Concept of axial load4. Concept of Stress5. Tensile stress and strain6. Compressive stress and strain7. Hooke’s Law8. Volumetric strain9. Behavior of Ductile Material Under Tension10. Definitions11. Measurement of Ductility12. Deformation of a Body Due to Self Weight13. Principle of Superposition14. Modular Ratio15. Stress and strain in composite member subjected to axial load16. Stress and strain in composite members connected rigidly together in parallel17. Stress and strain in compound bars18. Temperature stresses and strains19. Shear stress and strain20. Simple shear and Complementary shear21. Bars of Varying Sections22. Extension of a Uniformly Tapering Circular Section23. FEM IllustrationsElastic Constants1. Linear strain2. Lateral strain3. Poisson’s Ratio4. Concept of uni-axial loading5. Concept of Bi-axial loading6. Concept of Tri-axial loading:7. Bulk Modulus (K)
- 4. 8. Relation between Bulk Modulus and Youngs Modulus9. Shear Modulus or Modulus of Rigidity10. Relation between Modulus of Elasticity and Modulus of RigidityPrincipal Planes And Stresses1. Different states of stresses2. Definitions3. Analytical Method for stresses acting on an inclined plane.4. Graphical Method For Stresses On Oblique Section5. Mohr’s Circle MethodStrain Energy1. Introduction2. Strain energy stored in a body due to gradually applied load3. Impact loading4. Suddenly applied loadMoment of Inertia1. Centre of Gravity or Centroid of laminaCentroid of a uniform laminaCentroid of a triangular laminaCentroid of a Trapezium2. Moment of Inertia of a LaminaThe Perpendicular Axes TheoremThe Parallel Axes TheoremMoment of Inertia of lamina of different shapesShear Force and Bending Moment1. Types of beams2. Concepts of loads3. Statically determinate structure4. Support reactions5. Shear force6. Bending Moment7. Concept of Shear force and Bending Moment
- 5. 8. Relation between Shear force , Bending moment and rate of loading.9. Shear force and Bending moment diagram10. FEM IllustrationsBending Stresses in Beams1. Introduction2. Concept of Pure Bending3. Theory of Simple Bending4. Assumptions in the Simple Theory Of Bending5. Neutral Axis6. Moment of Resistance (MR)7. Section Modulus (Z)8. Section Modulus For Various Shapes Of Beam SectionsShear Stresses in Beams1. Shear Stress Distribution For a Beam2. Horizontal Shear load per unit length of a beam at a section, at a certain level3. Shear stress distribution for beam sections of various shapesTorsion1. Torsional Stresses and Strains2. Solid Shaft3. Hollow Shaft4. Composite Shaft5. Polar Moment Of Inertia6. Power Transmitted by a Shaft.7. Strain Energy Due to Torsion8. Combined Bending and Torsion9. Combined bending and torsion along with Axial Thrust10. Shaft Couplings11. Springs12. Closely-coiled helical spring subjected to an axial load13. FEM Illustrations
- 6. Concrete Technology (CE02)Audience: Students of Second Year Civil EngineeringObjective: At the end of the course the student will learn about the properties, testing of materialsused in concrete, processes involved in concreting, curing and also the mix design of the concrete.ContentsIntroduction of concrete1. Introduction2. Advantages of ConcreteCement1. Introduction2. Manufacture of Cement3. Chemical Composition of Cement4. Hydration of Cement5. Heat of Hydration6. Structure of Hydrated Cement7. Types of Cement8. Storage of Cement9. Testing on CementAggregates1. Introduction2. Classification of Aggregates3. Physical Properties4. Mechanical Properties5. Alkali-Aggregate Reaction6. Absorption and Moisture Content7. Bulking of Aggregates8. Soundness of Aggregate9. Thermal Properties of Aggregate10. Grading of aggregates11. Testing of Aggregates12. Testing for Mechanical Properties
- 7. Water1. Introduction2. Tests on Water3. Water-cement ratio4. Effect on Strength5. Gel-space ratio6. Summary7. AssessmentWorkability1. Introduction2. Consistency3. Bleeding4. Segregation5. Factors Affecting Workability6. Measurement of WorkabilityBatching1. Batching Methods2. Ready-mix concrete (RMC)3. Quality control of concreteMixing1. Mixing Methods2. Mixer3. Mixing Time4. Maintenance of Mixer5. Summary6. AssessmentTransportation1. Introduction2. Mortar pan3. Wheel barrow4. Crane, bucket and Rope way5. Truck mixer and dumpers6. Belt conveyors
- 8. 7. Chute8. Skip and hoist9. Transit mixer10. Pumps and pipelines11. Different Modes, PrecautionPlacement of Concrete1. Placing Concrete2. Special Concrete Techniques3. Requirement of good Formwork4. Economy in Formwork5. Materials and Sizes for Forms6. Types of Forms for different Structural Members7. Removal of Formwork8. ReinforcementCompaction of Concrete1. Introduction2. Use of Vibrator3. Self Compacting Concrete4. Vacuum Concrete5. Roller Compacted ConcreteFinishing1. Introduction2. Various tools required for finishing of concrete3. Processes in Finishing of Concrete4. Rules to Finish ConcreteCuring1. Introduction2. Methods of Curing3. Effect of Duration of Curing on Properties of ConcreteJoints in Concrete1. Introduction2. Construction Joints3. Expansion Joints
- 9. 4. Contraction Joints5. Isolation Joints6. Evaluation of Cracks7. Repair of CracksAdmixtures1. Introduction2. Functions of Admixture3. Classification of Admixture4. Platicizers5. Superplasticizers6. Accelerators7. Retarders8. Air Entraining Admixtures9. Air Detraining Agents10. Gas Forming Admixtures11. Pozzolanic or Mineral AdmixturesMechanical Properties1. Elastic Property of Concrete2. Modulus of Elasticity3. Relation between Modulus of Elasticity and Strength4. Factors Affecting Modulus of Elasticity5. Creep6. Factors affecting Creep7. Shrinkage8. Factors Affecting ShrinkageDurability of Concrete1. Definition of Durability2. Strength and Durability Relationship3. Permeability4. Factors Contributing to Cracks in Concrete5. Shrinkage6. Mass Concrete
- 10. 7. Deterioration of Concrete by Abrasion, Erosion and Cavitation8. Effects of Some Materials on Durability9. Freezing and Thawing10. Sulphate AttackTesting of Concrete1. Analysis of Fresh Concrete2. Compression Test3. Indirect Tension Test4. Flexural Strength of Concrete5. Non Destructive Testing (NDT)6. Schmidths Rebound Hammer7. Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Method8. Pullout TestConcrete Mix Design1. Introduction2. Nominal Mixes, Standard Mix and Design Mix3. Factors influencing the choice of Mix Design4. Various Methods of Proportioning5. American Concrete Institute Method of Mix Design6. Road Note No. 4 Method7. DOE Method of Concrete Mix Design8. Indian Standard Method9. Statistical Quality Control10. Sampling procedure11. Examples
- 11. Soil Mechanics (CE03)Audience: Students of Second Year Civil EngineeringObjective: At the end of the course the student will learn about physical properties of soils, tests onsoil, permeability, strength, bearing capacity, earth pressure, stability of slopes and sub-soilexploration etc.ContentsIntroduction to Soil Mechanics1. Definitions2. Application Areas of Soil Engineering3. Types of Foundation4. Different super-structure and sub-structure patternsPhysical Properties of Soils1. Soil as a Three Phase System2. Water Content (Moisture Content)3. Volume Mass Relationships4. Volume Weight Relationship5. Specific Gravity6. Voids Ratio7. Porosity8. Relationship Between Voids Ratio andPorosity9. Degree of Saturation10. Air Content11. Density Index (Relative Density)12. Relative Compaction13. Functional Relationships14. Inter - Relationships in terms of Densities15. Determination of Index Properties16. Classification of Soils17. Unified Soil Classification18. Indian Standard Classification System19. Ground Water Depth20. Soil Structure and Clay Mineralogy21. Soil Water22. Stress Conditions in Soil
- 12. Permeability of Soil & Seepage Analysis1. Introduction2. Darcys Law3. Coefficient of Permeability4. Factors Affecting Permeability5. Permeability of Stratified Soil Deposits6. Permeability of Stratified Soils7. Permeability and Seepage8. Seepage through Earthen DamsStrength of Soil1. Introduction2. Mohrs Stress Circle3. Stress System with Principle Planes4. Mohr-Coulomb Failure Theory5. The Effective Stress Principle6. Measurement of Shear Strength7. Different Types of Tests8. Factors affecting the Shear Strength of Cohesionless Soils9. Factors affecting the Shear Strength of Cohesive Soils10. Skemptons Pore Pressure Parameters11. FEM illustrationsBearing Capacity of Soil1. Definitions2. Minimum Depth of Foundation: Rankines Analysis3. Criteria for the Determination of Bearing Capacity4. Factors Affecting Bearing Capacity5. Methods of Determining Bearing Capacity6. Types of Bearing Capacity Failures7. Terzaghi’s Method8. Skemptons Values For Nc9. General Bearing Capacity Equation: BrinchHansens Analysis10. Meyerhofs Analysis11. Vesics Bearing Capacity Equation12. Comparison of Bearing Capacity Factors13. IS Code method for Bearing Capacity14. Plate Load Test15. Bearing Capacity from Penetration Tests
- 13. Earth Pressure1. Introduction2. Types of Earth-Retaining Structures3. Plastic Equilibrium in Soils: Active and Passive States4. Lateral Earth Pressures5. Rankines Theory6. Cases of Cohesionless Backfill7. Active Earth Pressure of Cohesive SoilsStability of Slopes1. Introduction2. Stability Analysis of Infinity Slopes3. Slope Failure Factors4. Stability Analysis of Finite Slopes5. Planer Failure Surface : Culmanns Method6. Swedish Circle Method7. Stability of Slopes of Earth Dam8. Friction Circle Method9. Taylors Stability Number and stability Curves10. Bishops Method of Stability AnalysisCompaction of Soil1. Introduction2. Field Compaction Control3. Standard Proctor Test4. Modified Proctor Test5. Factors Affecting Compaction6. California Bearing Ratio Test7. Consolidation (soil)8. Analogy Consolidation Settlement9. Pavement Construction10. Subgrade Preparation11. Effect of Compaction on Soil Properties12. Coefficient of Compressibility.13. Consolidation Settlement14. Terzaghi’s Theory of One-Dimensional Consolidation15. The Odometer Test16. Methods of Coefficient. of consolidation by height of Solids Methods17. Effective Stress
- 14. Soil Stabilization1. Introduction2. Objectives of Soil Stabilization3. Methods of Stabilization4. Improving Soil by Excavation & Replacing andMixing Additives5. In-situ Ground Improvement6. Methods for in - situ Densification of Soil7. Geosynthetics8. Functions of Geosynthetics9. Applications of geosyntheticsSite Investigation & Sub Soil Exploration1. Introduction2. Depth of Exploration3. Number and Disposition of Pits and Boring4. General Exploration5. Detailed exploration6. Methods of Site Exploration7. Record of Pits and Borings8. Types of Samplers9. Disturbed Sampling10. Penetration and Sounding Tests11. Standard Penetration Test12. Other Methods of In-situ Testing13. Subsoil Investigation Report14. Geophysical Methods
- 15. Surveying-I (CE04)Audience: Students of Second Year Civil EngineeringObjective: At the end of the course the student will learn about basics of surveying, varioussurveying instruments, their use and methods used in surveying.ContentsIntroduction to SurveyingLinear Measurement1. Introduction2. Units of Measurement3. Instruments for Measurements4. Ranging a Line5. Methods of RangingDirect Method of RangingIndirect Method of Ranging6. Chaining the LineChaining on Sloping GroundDirect Method of Chaining (Stepping Method)Indirect Method of ChainingErrors in Chaining7. Electronic DistansometerChain & Cross Staff Surveying1. Introduction2. Principle of Chain Surveying3. Technical Terms Used4. Selection of Survey Station5. Selection of Base Line6. Offsets8. Locating Corners, Point of Intersections ofBuildings9. Error Due to Incorrect Ranging10. Combined Error in Length And Direction
- 16. 11. Field Book12. Recording Field Books13. Field Work for Chain Survey14. Instruments for Setting Out Right-Angles15. Field Problems and their Solution16. Obstacles in Chaining17. Cross Staff SurveyChain & Compass Survey1. Introduction2. Types of Traverse3. Dip of Magnetic Needle4. Compass5. Temporary Adjustments of Compass6. Permanent Adjustments7. Bearing & Meridian8. Designation of Bearing9. Fore & Back Bearing10. Included Angles from Bearings11. Bearings from Included Angles12. Local Attraction13. Declination14. Traversing with Chain and Compass15. Plotting of Traverse16. Closing Error Adjustment17. Errors in Compass Surveying18. Precautions in Compass SurveyLevelling1. Introduction2. Principle of Levelling3. Important Definitions4. Instruments for Levelling
- 17. 5. Comparison of Self Reading & Target Staff6. Temporary Adjustments of Dumpy Level7. Bench Mark8. Principles of Levelling9. Simple Levelling10. Differential Levelling11. Reduction of the LevelsRise and fall methodHeight of collimation method.12. Classification of Levelling13. Difficulties in Levelling14. Errors in Levelling15. Sensitiveness of a Level Tube16. Measurement of the Sensitiveness17. Principle of Reversal18. Fundamental Lines of Level19. Permanent Adjustments of a Level20. Methods of Adjustment21. Barometric LevellingContouring1. Introduction2. Representation of Relative Heights3. Concept of Contour and Contour interval4. Characteristics of Contour5. Contour of Natural Features6. Methods of Contouring7. Interpolation of Contour8. Contour Gradient9. Uses of Contour Maps10. Practical Example of uses of contour map
- 18. Plane Table Surveying1. Introduction2. Instruments for Measurements3. Setting up the plane Table4. Sighting the Ground Station5. Technical Terms6. Methods of Plane Table Survey7. Advantages and Disadvantages8. Errors in Plane TablingTheodolite (Angular Measurement)1. Introduction2. Parts of Transit Theodolite3. Telescope4. Technical Terms Used5. Fundamental lines and geometry of Transit6. Temporary Adjustments of Theodolite7. Permenant Adjustments of Theodolite8. Uses of Theodolite9. Precautions In Handling Theodolite10. Errors In Theodolite Work11. Total Station12. Theodolite TraversingTacheometry1. Introduction2. Instruments Used3. System of Tacheometry4. Principle of Stadia Method5. Determination of Tacheometric Constants6. Analytic Lens7. Fixed Hair System
- 19. 8. Reduction of Stadia Observations9. Field Work of Tacheometric Survey10. Errors In Stadia SurveyingMeasurement of Area1. Introduction2. Determination of Area3. Determination of Area between a Straight Lineand Irregular Boundary4. Simpsons Rule And Trapazoidal Rule5. Planimeter6. Area of Zero Circle7. Methods of Finding Area Of Zero circle8. Precautions of Using PlanimeterSimple Curves1. Curve and Its Types2. Elements of Curve3. Relation between Degree of a Curve and its Radius4. Peg Interval5. Location of Tangent Point6. Method of curve Setting7. Setting Out Curves (Offset From Long Chord)8. Setting Out Curves (Rankines Method)
- 20. Building Construction (CE05)Audience: Students of Second Year Civil EngineeringObjective: At the end of the course the student will learn about the methods and processes involved inconstruction of various building components.ContentsIntroduction1. Introduction2. Building Components3. Group 1 - Building In General4. Group 2 - Materials of Construction5. Group 3 - Foundation6. Group 4 - Masonry Construction, Walls and Columns7. Group 5 - Floor Structures8. Group 6 - Roof Structure9. Group 7 - Wall Openings, Recesses and Related Structures10. Group 8 - Vertical Transportation11. Group 9 - Building Finishes12. Group 10 - Damp Prevention and Fire Protection13. Group 11 - Plumbing Services and Building Services14. Group 12 - Miscellaneous TermsFunctional Planning of Buildings1. General Principles of Site Selection2. Site Plan3. Planning Regulations and By-LawsFoundation1. Introduction2. Open Foundations or Shallow Foundations3. Deep Foundations
- 21. Setting Out Of Works for Excavations1. Setting out the Building Outline2. Setting out Trenches3. Setting out a Framed Building4. Setting out Reduced Level ExcavationsBuildings Block Masonry1. Concrete Masonry2. Cavity Walls3. Retaining WallsStone and Brick Masonry1. Introduction2. General Principles in the Stone Masonry Construction3. Tools used for stone masonry work4. Rubble Masonry5. Ashlar Masonry6. Dressing of Stones7. Brick MasonryFramed Structures1. Introduction2. Advantages of Tall Buildings3. Problems of Tall Buildings4. Details of A Framed Structure5. Framed Buildings6. Advantages of Framed Structure8. Partitions or Partition Walls9. Requirements of a Good Partition Wall10. Types of partition walls
- 22. Damp Proof Courses1. Introduction2. Causes of Dampness3. Effects of Dampness4. Techniques and Methods of Damp Prevention5. Materials Used For Damp-Proofing (D.P.C.)6. Damp-Proofing (I.E., D.P.C.) Treatments in Buildings7. Treatment of DampnessArches and Lintels1. Introduction2. Arches3. Types of Arches4. Method of Construction of Arches5. Lintels6. Types of Lintels7. Window SillsFloors1. Floors-I: Ground Floors2. Components of a Floor3. Materials for Construction4. Selection of Flooring Material5. Floors-II: Upper Floors6. Prefabricated FloorsRoofs and Roof Coverings1. Introduction2. Technical Terms in Sloping Roof and Roof Trusses3. Pitched Roofs or Sloping Roofs4. Roof Covering For Pitched Roofs And Their Selection5. Use of FCR Products In Construction6. Selection of Roof Coverings7. Flat Roofs or Terrace Roofs
- 23. Doors and Windows1. Introduction2. Location of Doors and Windows3. Sizes of Doors and Windows4. Designation of Door, Window and VentilatorFrames5. Operational Classification of Doors and Windows6. Definitions of Technical Terms7. Types of Doors8. Windows and Their Classification9. Fixtures and Fastenings For Doors And WindowsStairways1. Introduction2. Definitions3. Requirements of a Good Staircase4. Types of Stairs5. Classification of Stairs Based on Materials ofConstruction6. Elevators or Lifts7. Ramps8. EscalatorsBuilding Finishes Part-I1. Introduction2. Plastering3. Pointing4. White-Washing5. Colour Washing
- 24. Building Finishes Part-II1. Introduction2. Objects of Painting3. Ingredients of a Paint or Oil Paint4. Factors affecting Selection of Ingredients and Their Proportions5. Preparation of Paints6. Application of Paints on Different Surfaces7. Tools and Mechanical Appliances for Painting and Other Finishes8. Defects in Painting Work9. Varnishes and Varnishing10. Polishes and Polishing11. Distempers and Distempering12. Miscellaneous FinishesFormwork, Scaffolding, Shoring, Underpinning1. Requirement of good Formwork2. Economy in Formwork3. Materials and Sizes for Forms4. Types of Forms for different Structural Members5. Removal of Formwork6. Scaffolding7. Types of Scaffolding8. Shoring9. Types of Shoring10. UnderpinningExcavations, Timbering of Trenches and Dewatering1. Excavation2. Timbering of Trenches3. Dewatering of Foundation ExcavationsGuniting, Grouting & Shotcreting1. Grout2. Guniting3. Shotcreting
- 25. Plumbing Services1. Introduction, 2. Plumbing Piping, 3. Pipe Size for Plumbing Work, 4. Sanitary Fittings andAppliancesTermite Proofing1. Introduction, 2. Anti-Termite Treatment, 3. Pre-Construction Treatment, 4. Post-Construction TreatmentElectrical and Fire Resisting Arrangements1. Introduction2. Sources of Electricity3. Distribution System4. Basic requirement of Electrical installation5. Types of Wiring6. Instructions for Wiring7. General I.S. Rules for Wiring8. Underground Service Connection9. Sub – Circuits10. Fire Protection11. Smoke Extraction from Basements12. Fire Resistant Construction13. Fire AlarmsEarthquake Resistant Buildings1. Introduction2. Seismic Zones of India3. Seismic Effects on Buildings4. Earthquake Resistant Buildings: Design Approach5. Indian Seismic Codes6. Importance of Architectural Features and StructuralShapes7. Regular and Irregular Configuration8. Earthquake Resistant Features in Stone MasonryBuildings9. Reduction of Earthquake Effects
- 26. Building Materials (CE06)Audience: Students of Second Year Civil EngineeringObjective: At the end of the course the student will learn about building materials, their propertiesand uses.ContentsIntroduction1. Properties of Material2. Mechanical Properties3. Characteristic Behavior under Stress4. SummaryStones1. Introduction2. Classification of Rocks3. Quarrying of Stones4. Uses of Stones5. Characteristics of Good Building Stone6. Testing of Stones7. Selection of Stones8. Common Building Stones9. Artificial Stones10. Application of stones11. Summary12. AssessmentClay Products1. Introduction2. Bricks3. Classification of Bricks4. Manufacturing of Bricks5. Defects of Bricks6. Testing of Bricks7. Clay Tiles8. Testing of Tiles9. Fire-Clay Bricks or Refractory Bricks10. Terracotta11. Porcelain12. Stoneware13. Earthenware
- 27. 14. Majolica15. Glazing16. Application of clay productsCementing Materials1. Lime2. Manufacture of lime3. Slaking of Lime4. Hardening of Lime5. Lime Putty And Coarse Stuff6. Testing of Lime7. Storage of Lime8. Lime vs. Cement9. PozzolanasProtective and Decorative Coatings1. Introduction2. Composition of Oil Paint3. Pigments4. Preparation of paint5. Enamel6. Distemper7. Water Wash and Colour Wash8. Varnish9. French and Wax polish10. Miscellaneous PaintsPlastics1. Introduction2. Constituents of plastics3. Fabrication of commercial articles from plastics4. Application of Plastics5. Properties of plastics6. Effect of temperature on mechanical propertiesFlooring Materials1. Terrazzo flooring2. Mosaic flooring3. Tiled flooring4. Marble flooring5. Timber flooring6. Asphalt flooring
- 28. 7. Rubber flooring8. Linoleum flooring9. Cork flooring10. Glass flooring11. Plastic or P.V.C. flooringTimber1. Introduction2. Classification of Trees3. Classification of Timber4. Structure of Timber5. Characteristics of Good Timber6. Seasoning of Timber7. Defects in Timber8. Diseases of Timber Dry and Wet Rot9. Decay of Timber10. Damage due to Insects11. Preservation of Timber12. Various Treatment Processes13. Testing of Timber14. Suitable of timber for specific uses15. Properties of wood16. Wood productsNew Building Materials1. Floors2. New researched products by Govt. of India3. Wall cladding4. Curtain Wall Details5. Glass6. Sealant7. Rates of Materials8. SummaryBuilding Mortars1. Introduction2. Classification of mortars3. Characteristics of good mortar4. Functions of Ingredients5. Cement Mortar6. Lime Mortar7. Surkhi Mortar8. Lime-Cement Mortar
- 29. 9. Mud Mortar10. Special Mortars11. Selection of Mortars12. TestingMetals1. Introduction2. Ferrous Metals3. Non-Ferrous MetalsAsphalt, Bitumen and Tar1. Introduction2. Bitumen3. Tar4. Pitch5. Asphalt6. General Properties7. Testing8. Applications of Bituminous MaterialsGlass1. Introduction2. Constituents3. Manufacture4. Classification of Glass5. Glass woolInsulating Materials1. Introduction2. Advantages of Thermal Insulation3. Thermal Insulating Materials4. Sound Absorbents or Acoustical MaterialsMiscellaneous Materials1. Introduction2. Fire load3. Grading of Structural Elements4. Grading Building According to Fire Resistance5. Characteristics of Fire Resisting Materials6. Fire- resisting Properties Common Building Materials7. Fire-resistant Construction8. Fire Alarms9. Fire Extinguishing Equipments
- 30. Civil Engineering Drawing (CE07)Audience: Students of Second Year Civil EngineeringObjective: : At the end of the course the student will learn about basic concepts, principles ofplanning, rules and regulations and methods of drawing.ContentsIntroduction1. Lines, 2. Dimensions, 3. Lettering, 4. Symbols, 5. Scales, 6.Layout of drawing sheetPrinciples of Planning1. General Principles2. Comfortable conditions in Humid Tropics3. Comfortable conditions in Dry Tropics4. Orientation of Building5. Protection of Walls from Sun and Rain6. Walls and openings for Building7. Chajjas and Sun Breakers8. Temperature Transfer and Comfort Conditions9. Air gap for Comfort Conditions10. Ground Treatment with VegetationRules and Regulations1. Regulations Regarding Layouts2. Building Regulations3. Rules for Special Types of Buildings4. Calculation for Plinth, Floor and Carpet AreaMethod of Drawing1. Types of Drawingso Preliminary Drawingso Location Drawingso Submission Drawingso Working Drawingso Measured Drawingso Structural Drawings2. Orthographic Drawing3. Perspective Drawingo Planes of Perspectiveo One Point Perspectiveo Two point perspective
- 31. Theory of Structure (CE08)Audience: Students of Second Year Civil EngineeringObjective: At the end of the course the student will learn about basic concepts of structural analysis,various theorems and methods used in structural analysis.ContentsBasic Concepts of Structural Analysis1. Structural system2. Types of Skeletal Structures3. Structural Behaviour4. Displacements5. Correspondence between Force and Displacement6. Types of Support7. Types of Joints8. Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams9. Linearity and Elasticity10. Static Indeterminacy11. Kinematic Indeterminacy12. Linear and Non-linear Structures13. Energy Theorms14. Flexural Member15. Torsional MemberRolling Loads and Influence Lines1. Introduction2. Train of Moving Loads3. Uniformly Distributed Loads4. When the length of U. D. L. is less than the span5. Maximum shear at a Given Section for UniformlyDistributed Load6. Condition for maximum B.M. at a given Section7. Uniformly Distributed Load8. Span of UDL is less than the Span of the Girder9. Maximum B.M. Under chosen wheel load
- 32. 10. Absolute Maximum Bending Moment in the Girder11. Equivalent Uniformly Distributed Loads12. Influence Lines13. Simply Supported Beams with OverhangFixed Beam1. Fixed beam2. B.M. diagram for a fixed beam3. Propped cantilever4. Alternative approach5. ExampleSlope Deflection Equations1. Introduction2. Modification for the simply supported end of a continuousbeamMoment Distribution Method1. Introduction2. Stiffness of Beam3. Relative Stiffness4. ExampleDams & Retaining Walls1. Analysis of a Masonry Dam2. Stability of a Dam ( Dam of Triangular Section, Dam of rectangular section, Trapezoidalsection)3. ExampleThree Hinged Arches1. Introduction2. Theoretical Arch or Line of Thrust3. Three Hinged Arch4. Three-hinged Parabolic Arch5. Influence Line for Horizontal Thrust H6. Influence Line for Horizontal Thrust X7. Influence Line for Shear Force at Section X8. I. L. For Normal or Axial Thrust At A Section X
- 33. 9. Absolute Maximum Bending Moment10. ExampleCables and Suspension Bridges1. Cable carrying a uniformly distributed load2. Length of the cable3. Influence line diagramsTwo Hinged Arches1. Introduction2. Horizontal Thrust for Concentrated Load at Crown3. Two Hinged Arch Loaded with UDL4. Derivation for the horizontal thrust5. Normal Thrust and Radial ShearStrain Energy Methods1. Proof Resilience2. Types of Loading3. Strain Energy Stored in a Body Due to GraduallyApplied Load4. Impact Loading5. Suddenly Applied Load6. Strain Energy7. Reciprocal Theorems8. Principle of Virtual Work9. Mueller Breslau Principle10. The Unit Load MethodAnalysis of Pin Jointed Redundant Frames1. Redundant Frames2. Frame with two redundant members3. Stresses due to errors in lengths
- 34. Plastic Analysis1. Ductility2. Assumptions in Plastic Theory3. Shape Factor & Plastic Moment Capacity4. Static and virtual work method5. Under Bound & Lower Bound6. Plastic Moment DistributionKani’s Method1. Introduction2. Procedure for Kanis method3. Members with far ends hinged4. Frames with columns of unequal heightApproximate Methods1. Braced Frames2. Drift Analysis3. The Portal Method4. The Cantilever Method5. Drift in Rigid FramesMatrix Methods1. Matrix Notation for Linear Equations2. Rule for Matrix Multiplication3. Method for Matrix Inversion4. Matrix Transposition5. Matrix Displacement Method Of Truss Analysis6. The Global Stiffness Matrix [K] = [ASAT]7. The Local Stiffness Matrix8. The Joint-Force Matrix {P}9. Effect of Support Settlements10. The Force-Displacement Matrix [SB]11. Matrix Displacement Method of Rigid-Frame Analysis12. Example
- 35. Beams Curved In Plan1. Introduction2. Analysis of a Curved Beam3. Stresses due to TorsionInfluence Lines for Indeterminate Structures1. Influence Lines for Statically Indeterminate Beams2. Muller-Breslau Influence3. Influence Lines for Statically Indeterminate Trusses vs. Muller-Breslau InfluenceTheorem4. ExampleDeflection of Beams And Frames1. Castiglianos First Theorem of Complementary Energy2. Fixed at One3. Deflection and slope at the free end for the beamIndeterminate Beams1. Principle of Superposition2. Clerk Maxwells Theorem of Reciprocal Deflection3. Maxwell - Bettis Law4. Steps to be followed for analysis of fixed beams5. Different Cases6. Continuous Beams7. Modified Theorem of Three Moments8. Different types of continuous beamsEnergy Method for Displacement1. Introduction2. Castiglianos second theorem3. Frames4. Procedure for AnalysisDeflection of Trusses1. Introduction2. A strain Energy3. The Unit Load Method4. Temperature Deflection
- 36. 5. Castiglianos First TheoremIndeterminate Trusses1. Introduction2. Force Method for Analysis of Indeterminate Trusses3. Basic Formulation of Force Method for Trusses4. Indeterminate Trusses with Lack of Fit5. Temperature Effects in Indeterminate Trusses6. Effects of Yielding of Support in Indeterminate TrussesInfluence Line Diagrams for Plane Trusses1. Introduction2. I. L. D. for Different Members of N Type Truss3. I. L. D. for Bottom Chords of N Type Truss4. L. D. for bottom chord members5. I. L. D. For Deck Type bridge Truss6. I. L. D. for Top Chord Members of N Type truss7. I. L. D. for Bottom Chord Members
- 37. Estimation and Costing (CE09)Audience: Students of Second Year Civil EngineeringObjective: : At the end of the course the student will learn about basic concepts and methods ofmeasurement, detailed estimate, specifications, rate analysis, valuation, contract, tendering, etc.ContentsIntroduction1. Introduction and definitions2. Purpose of Estimating and Costing3. Types of EstimateApproximate Estimate1. Use of Approximate Estimates2. Methods Of Approximate Estimate3. Considerations for Approximate Estimate for Road Project4. Considerations for Approximate Cost for Bridges5. Considerations for Approximate Estimate For Sanitary Project6. Considerations for Approximate Estimate For Water Supply7. Considerations for Approximate Estimate Of Railways8. Considerations for Approximate Estimate For Irrigation ProjectDetailed Estimate1. Uses of Detailed Estimates2. Types of Detailed Estimates3. Data required for preparing Detailed Estimates4. Factors to be considered during Preparation of Detailed Estimate5. Steps in Preparation of Detailed Estimate6. Main Items of Work for Detailed Estimates and their units.Modes of Measurement1. Principles for Selection of Unit of Quantities2. Modes of measurement for item of work as per PWD and IS : 12003. Method of Measurement of Formwork4. Method of Measurement of Concrete5. Method of Measurement of Brickwork6. Method of Measurement of Circular Brickwork
- 38. 7. Method of Measurement of Brickwork for Different Floors8. Deduction for R.C.C. Work9. Deductions in Concrete Volume10. Deduction Excluded for the Brickwall Calculation11. Deduction for Plastering12. Deduction for PaintingProcedure for Preparing Detailed Estimate1. Long Wall - Short Wall Method2. Centre Line Method3. Preparation of Detailed Estimate of (G+1) Load Bearing Structure4. Provisional Sum5. Prime Cost6. Day Work7. Preparing Bill of Quantities for various items of work8. Provision in Detailed Estimate9. Quantities for RCC Structural Members10. Estimate of Earthwork in RoadSpecifications1. Necessity of Specification2. Types of Specifications3. Specifications Of Items In Civil Engineering Worko Earthwork in Excavation in Foundationo Cement Concrete ( 1:2:4)o IInd Class B B Masonry in Cement Concrete (1:6) for super structureo 12 cm Thick Cement Plaster to brick work in cm (1:5)o Coarsed Rubble Masonry : Sand, cement, water, preparation of mortar, Mixing ofmortar is same as in brick masonry.Rate Analysis1. Definition and Factors Affecting the Rate Analysis2. Quantity required for different item of work3. Task Work4. Standard Schedule of Rates
- 39. 5. Requisites for Preparing Rate Analysis6. Quantity of materials required for Brick Masonry 10 m3 (1:6)7. Rate Analysis for First Class Brickwork in SuperstructureValuation1. Definition & Necessity of valuation2. Scrap Value3. Book Value4. Speculative value5. Obsolescence6. Method of Depreciationo Straight line methodo Constant percentage method or declining balance methodo Sinking fund methodo Quantity survey method7. Gross income , Net income, outgoings8. The various types of outgoing9. Years Purchase (Y.P.)10. Capitalized valueContract1. Types of Engineering Contracts2. Item Rate Contract3. Lump sum Contract4. Labor Contract5. Target Contract6. Negotiated Contract7. Cost Plus Percentage Rate Contract8. Cost Plus Fixed Fee Contract9. Cost Plus Variable Fee ContractTender and Tender Notice1. Introduction2. Earnest Money3. Security Deposit4. Rejection of All Tenders
- 40. 5. Specimen Tender Notice6. Unbalanced tender7. Filling of tender by contractor and points to be observed8. Procedure of the submission of the tenders9. Opening and acceptance of the tender10. Tender Form for Minor Works11. Procedure of the submission of the tenders12. Opening and acceptance of the tender13. Proforma of Tender Box Opening14. Tender Process Evaluation15. Tender Selection Report16. Work orderTender Documents1. List of tender documents2. Conditions of Contract3. Special Conditions of Contract4. Schedule A5. Schedule B6. Schedule C7. Time Limit8. Termination of Contract9. Defect Liability Period10. Penalty11. Liquidated Damages12. Escalation of Cost13. Arbitration14. Rate List15. Suspension of Work16. Advance PaymentExecution of Work By P.W.D.1. Organization of P.W.D.2. Functions of P.W.D. Personnels3. Administrative approval
- 41. 4. Methods used in P.W.D. for carrying out the workAccounting In P.W.D.1. Measurement Book2. Imprest3. Temporary Advance4. Indent or Issue of the materials5. Bills6. Voucher7. Cash book8. Nominal muster rollPayment of Contractor1. Modes of payment to contractor2. On account payment3. Advanced payment4. Secured advance5. Interim payment6. First and final bill (P.W.D. Form No. 24)7. Final payment8. Retention money9. Reduced rate payment10. Petty advance11. Mobilization advance
- 42. Hydraulics / Fluid Mechanics (CE10)Audience: Students of Second Year Civil EngineeringObjective: At the end of the course the student will learn about the properties of fluids, fluidpressure and its measurement, forces on surfaces, kinematics and dynamics of fluid flow, types offlow like laminar flow and turbulent flow.ContentsIntroduction to Fluid Mechanics1. Introduction2. Fluid Mechanics and its Branches3. Scope and Applications of Fluid Mechanics4. SI System of Units5. Specific Gravity or Relative Density6. Newtonian and Non - Newtonian Fluids7. Vapour Pressure8. Cohesion, Adhesion, Surface Tension andCapillarity9. Pressure inside a Liquid Jet10. CapillarityFluid Pressure & its Measurement1. Introduction2. Pressure at a Point3. Variation of Pressure in a Static Fluid4. Equivalent Liquid Columns5. Absolute Pressure6. Manometers7. Micromanometers8. Mechanical Gauges9. Introduction to Pressure TransducersHydrostatic Forces on Surfaces1. Pressure on Plane Surfaces2. Total Pressure on a Plane Surface3. Pressure diagram4. Practical Applications of Hydrostatic Pressure and Centre of Pressure
- 43. 5. Conditions of Stability6. Relative Equilibrium7. Uniform Rotation about Vertical axis - Vortex Flow8. Free Vortex Flow9. ExampleBuoyancy & Floatation1. Buoyancy, Buoyant Force and Centre of Buoyancy2. Principle of Floatation3. Metacentre and Metacentric Height4. Stability of Submerged and Floating Bodies5. Determination of Metacentric Height6. ExampleKinematics of Fluid Flow1. Introduction2. Velocity of Fluid Particle3. Stream Tube4. Streak Line5. Fluid Flow Classification6. Control Volume7. Continuity Equation for One Dimensional Flow8. Discharge9. Tangential and Normal Accelerations10. Rotational and Irrotational Motions11. Components of Rotation12. Circulation13. Velocity Potential or Potential Function f (Phi)14. Relation between Equipotential Line and Stream Line15. Methods of Drawing Flow Net16. Electrical Analogy Method17. ExampleDynamics of Fluid Flow1. Introduction2. Important Forces in Fluid Flow
- 44. 3. Eulers Equation of Motion Along a Stream Line4. Three Dimensional Flow (Cartesian Co - ordinates)5. Bernoullis equation6. Assumptions made in Derivation of Bernoullis Equation7. Another forms of Bernoullis Equation8. Measurement of velocity in open channel9. Venturimeter10. Discharge through a venturimeter11. Rotameter12. Sharp Edged Circular Orifice Discharging Free13. Hydraulic Coefficients of an Orifice14. Experimental Determination of Hydraulic Coefficients15. Time of Emptying a Vessel16. Flow of liquid from one tank to other tank17. Notches and Weirs18. ExampleDimensional Analysis1. Introduction2. Units and Dimensions3. Similitude4. Important Dimensionless Numbers5. Model Laws6. Types of Models7. Applications of Model Studies8. ExampleLaminar Flow1. Introduction2. Types of Flow and Loss of Head3. Laminar Flow4. Practical Examples of Laminar Flow5. Laminar Flow through Inclined Pipes6. Measurement of Viscosity7. Falling Sphere Viscometer
- 45. 8. Rotating Cylinder Viscometer9. Laminar Flow Through Porous Media10. ExampleBoundary Layer Theory1. Introduction2. Concept of Boundary Layer3. Factors affecting the growth of boundary layer4. Development of Flow in Circular Pipes5. Karman Momentum Integral Equation6. Boundary conditions for velocity profiles7. Some other velocity distributions8. Turbulent Boundary Layer9. Laminar Sublayer10. Hydrodynamically Smooth and Rough Pipes11. Boundary Layer Separation12. Methods for controlling the boundary layer13. Location of Separation Point14. ExampleIntroduction to Turbulent Flow1. Introduction2. Characteristics of Turbulent Flow3. Some Definitions4. Shear Stress in Turbulent Flow5. Prandtls Mixing Length Theory6. Velocity Distribution in Turbulent Flow7. Resistance to Flow in Smooth and Rough Pipes8. Nikuradses Experiments9. Variation of Friction Factor10. Friction Factor in Commercial Pipes11. Turbulent Flow in Non - Circular Conduits12. Hot Wire Anemometer
- 46. Flow through Pipes1. Introduction2. Losses of Head in Pipe3. Derivation of Formulae for Different Losses4. Relation between friction factor and wall shear stress5. Minor Losses6. Equivalent Length7. Hydraulic Grade Line and Total Energy Line8. Pipes in Series or Compound Pipe9. Equivalent Pipe-Dupits Equation10. Flow through Siphon11. Uses of Siphon12. Branching of Pipes13. Pipe line with pump14. Flows through Nozzle15. Water HammerFluid Flow around submerged objects – Drag and Lift1. Introduction2. Types of Drag3. Dimensional Analysis of Drag and Lift4. Drag on a Sphere5. Karman Vortex Trail6. Drag on a Flat Plate7. Development of Lift on Immersed Bodies8. Induced Drag on An Airfoil of Finite Length9. ExampleImpact of Free Jets1. Introduction2. Force exerted by Fluid Jet on Stationary Flat Plate3. Force exerted by a Fluid Jet on Stationary Curved Vane4. Force Exerted By a Fluid Jet on Moving Curved Vane5. Example
- 47. Irrigation Engineering (CE11)Audience: Students of Third Year Civil EngineeringObjective: At the end of the course the student will learn about the various methods of irrigation,national water policy, hydrology, various hydraulic structures and their design, etc.ContentsIntroduction to Irrigation1. Introduction2. Benefits of Irrigation3. Effects under - Irrigation4. Types of Irrigation5. Single Purpose Irrigation Project6. Multipurpose Irrigation Project7. ExampleNational Water Policy1. National Water Policy2. Maharashtra Water Policy3. Watershed ManagementHydrology1. Introduction2. Hydrologic Cycle3. Rainfall in India4. Measurement of Rainfall5. Preparation of Data6. Estimation of Missing Rainfall Data7. Mean Precipitation Over an Area8. Test For Consistency of Record9. Presentation of Rainfall Data10. Interpretation of Rainfall Data11. Run-off12. Factors Affecting Runoff13. Estimation of Runoff14. Infiltration
- 48. 15. Hydrograph16. Components of Hydrograph17. Factors Affecting Flood Hydrograph18. Effective Rainfall19. Unit Hydrograph20. Methods of Base Flow Separation21. S-Curve Hydrograph22. Estimation of Flood23. Concept of Irrigation24. Principal Crops and Crop Seasons25. Delta and Duty26. Important Terms27. Soil Moisture - Irrigation Relationship28. Field Capacity29. Depth and Frequency of Irrigation30. ExamplesWater Assessment1. Assessment of Irrigation Water2. Methods of Assessment3. Reasons for Levying the Water Charges on the Farmers4. Reasons for Levying Special Charges in addition to the usual Charges under the Canal Act5. Differentiation of Volumetric Assessment and Area Basis AssessmentField Investigations1. Purposes of Field Investigation2. Preliminary Surveys3. Survey Data to be attached with Project Report4. Project Report5. Key Map6. Index Map7. Engineering Surveys8. Land Plans
- 49. Reservoir Planning1. Reservoir - Definition2. Selection of Suitable Site for Reservoir3. Classification of Reservoirs4. Storage Zones of a Reservoir5. Reservoir Sedimentation6. Silting Control in Reservoir7. Reservoir Capacity (Mass Curves of Inflow andOutflow)8. ExamplesIntroduction to Various Hydraulic Structures1. Introduction2. Types of Hydraulic StructuresTypes of Dams1. Selection of the Type of Dam and Their Classifications2. Factors Governing the Selection of a Particular Dam3. Selection of Dam Site4. Problems in Dam Construction5. Modern DamsGravity Dams1. Introduction2. Typical Cross-Section of Gravity Dam3. Forces Acting on a Dam4. Combination of Loading For Design5. Modes of Failure and Criteria for StructuralStability of Gravity Dams6. Principal and Shear Stresses7. Stability Analysis8. Elementary Profile of a Gravity Dam9. High and Low Gravity Dams10. Profile of a Dam from Practical Considerations11. Design Considerations & Fixing the Section of a Dam12. Design of Gravity Dams
- 50. 13. Diversion Problem in Dams Construction14. Galleries in Gravity Dams15. Joints in a Gravity Dam16. Shear Keys17. Water Stops18. Advantages and Disadvantages of Gravity Dam19. Spillways20. Ogee Spillway Design21. Stop Logs and Needles22. Vertical Lift Gates or Rectangular Gates23. Radial Gates or Tainter Gates24. Drum Gates25. Advantages of Crest Gates26. ExamplesEarthen Dam1. Introduction2. Types of Earthen Dams3. Methods of Construction4. Causes of Failure of Earthen Dams5. Design Criteria for Earth Dams6. Suitable Preliminary Section for an Earth Dam7. Upstream and Downstream slopes8. Central Impervious Core9. Seepage Analysis10. Determination of Phreatic Line11. Seepage Control in Earth Dams12. Design of Filters13. ExamplesDiversion Headworks1. Head Work2. Weir & Barrage3. Types of Weirs4. Location of Headworks
- 51. 5. Causes of Failure of Weirs and Their Remedies6. Blighs Creep Theory7. Khoslas Theory8. Elements of Design for Surface Flow9. Design of D/S and U/S protective works10. Types of Regulation11. Silt Control at HeadworksBandhara Irrigation1. Introduction2. Component Parts of Bandhara3. Location of Bandhara4. Bandhara System5. Design of Bandhara6. Phad System of Irrigation7. Types of Bandhara8. Advantages, Disadvantages & Suitability9. Percolation TankCross Drainage Works1. Introduction2. Types of Cross Drainage Work3. Classification of Aqueducts and Syphon Aqueducts4. Design Considerations for Cross Drainage Works5. Types of Joints in R.C.C. Constructions6. Selection of a Suitable Type of Cross DrainageWork7. Canal Falls8. Design Principles of Various Types Of Falls9. ExamplesCanal & Canal Construction1. Introduction2. Alignment of Canal3. Distribution System for Canal Irrigation4. Curves in Channels
- 52. 5. Certain Important Definitions6. Losses of Water in Canals7. Canal Regulation8. Distribution of Water into the Fields Through Water Courses9. Design of Canal Section10. ExamplesCanal Lining1. Canal Lining2. Materials used for Canal Lining3. Factors Responsible for Selection of a Particular Type of Lining4. Advantages of Canal Lining5. Sub-grade Preparations6. Applying Lining7. Joints in Cement Concrete Lining8. Shotcrete Lining9. Cement Concrete Tile Lining or Brick Lining10. Asphaltic Concrete Lining11. Boulder Lining12. Earth Type Linings13. Requirement of Good Lining14. Factors Responsible for Selection of a ParticularType of Lining15. Under Drainage of Lined Canals16. Lining of Canals in Expansive SoilsRiver and its Design1. River and its Behaviours2. Control and Training of Rivers3. Classification of River Training4. Methods of River TrainingWater Logging1. Introduction2. Effect of Water Logging3. Causes of Water logging
- 53. 4. Remedial Measures of Water Logging5. Precautions to Be Taken to Avoid Water Logging6. Salt Efflorescence7. Effect of Salt Efflorescence8. Methods of Preventing Salt Efflorescence9. Reclamation of Waterlogged LandLift & Micro Irrigation1. Lift Irrigation2. Canal Irrigation3. Drip Irrigation4. Sprinkler Irrigation
- 54. Sanitary Engineering (CE12)Audience: Students of Third Year Civil EngineeringObjective: At the end of the course the student will learn about systems of sanitation, collection ofsewage –their properties and testing , treatment of sewage, estimation of sewage, design of sewer,sever appurtenances, construction-testing and maintenance of sewers.ContentsIntroduction to Sanitary Engineering1. Introduction2. Definitions3. Importance of Sanitary Engineering4. Systems of SanitationSewage Collection from Houses and Building1. Introduction2. General Principles Governing the Design of a Sanitary Plumbing System3. Systems of Plumbing4. Choice of Particular System of Plumbing5. Sewerage Plans of Buildings and Design of Sewer Pipes6. Functions and Types of Traps being used in Sanitary Plumbing Systems7. Sanitary Fittings and Other Accessories8. Testing of House Sewers9. Ventilation of House Drains10. Minimum Sanitary Fixtures Required for Different Types of BuildingsPumps and Sewage Pumping1. Necessity of Pumping Sewage2. Types of Pumps3. Pumping StationsEstimating the Design Sewage Discharge1. Estimating Sewage Discharge2. Net Quantity of Sewage Produced3. Design Periods and Future Forecasts4. Future Forecasts and Estimating Design SewageDischarge5. Estimating the Peak Drainage Discharge
- 55. 6. ExampleHydraulic Designs of Sewage and S.W. Drain Sections1. General Introduction2. Difference in the Design of Water Supply Pipes and Sewer Pipes3. Provision of Freeboard in Sewers and S.W. Drains4. Hydraulic Formulas for Determining Flow Velocities in Sewers and Drains5. Maximum and Minimum Velocities to be generated in Sewers6. Effects of Flow Variation on Velocity in a Sewer7. Hydraulic Characteristics of Circular Sewer Sections8. Design of Storm Water Drains9. ExampleSewage Appurtenances1. Introduction2. Manholes3. Drop Manholes4. Lamp Holes5. Clean - Outs6. Street Inlets (Gullies)7. Catch Basins(Catch Pits)8. Flushing Tanks9. Grease and Oil Traps10. Inverted Siphons11. Storm Water Regulators or Storm ReliefWorksSewer Materials and Joints1. Introduction2. Sewers of Different Possible Materials3. Joints in SewersSewer Construction and Testing1. Introduction2. Forces Acting on Sewer Pipes3. Laying and Testing of Sewer Pipes
- 56. Maintenance of Sewerage Systems1. Maintenance of Sewers2. Ventilation of SewersCharacteristics of Sewage Composition & Testing1. Characteristics of Sewage2. Decay or Decomposition of Sewage3. Basis of Biological Treatment4. Collecting of sewage samples for physical & chemical Testing5. ExampleTreatment of Sewage1. Introduction2. Objectives and Necessity of Sewage Treatment3. Preliminary Treatment4. Primary Treatment5. Secondary Treatment6. Treatment Plant VideoTreatment and Disposal of Sewage Sludge1. Sludge and Its Moisture Content2. Factors Affecting Sludge Digestion and Their Control3. Sludge Digestion Tank or Digestors4. Disposal of Digested Sludge5. Use of Lagoons for Disposal of Raw SludgeModern Methods of Sewage Treatment1. Introduction2. The UASB Reactor3. Secondary Treatment through Rotating BiologicalContactorsSeptic Tanks and Soil Absorption Systems1. Introduction2. Design Considerations3. Working of Septic Tank4. Methods of Disposing Septic Tank Effluent5. Disposal of the Effluent from the Septic Tanks
- 57. 6. Onsite low cost Sewage disposal7. Imhoff TanksSpecial Problems in High Altitude1. High Altitudes and or Sub-Zero Temperature Conditions2. Waste Disposal Systems3. Fire Hydrants4. Economic Factors Involved at High Altitude Regions
- 58. Surveying-II (CE13)Audience: Students of Second Year Civil EngineeringObjective: At the end of the course the student will learn about geodetic surveying, triangulation,photogrammatry, remote sensing, and modern surveying instruments.ContentsGeodetic Surveying1. Object of Geodetic Surveying2. Methods of Geodetic Surveying3. Triangulation, Classification of TriangulationSystems4. Triangulation Figures, Steps for Triangulation5. Erection of Signals and Towers6. Measurement of Horizontal Angle7. Astronomical Observations to Determine TrueMeridian,8. Measurement of Base line9. Computation MethodsTriangulation Adjustment1. Laws of weights2. Kinds of Errors3. Most Probable Value of Conditioned andIndependent Quantities4. Method of Least Square,5. The Probable Error and its Determination6. Station Adjustment, Figure Adjustment andSpherical Triangle.
- 59. Trigonometrical leveling1. Introduction2. Correction for Curvature and refraction3. Axis signal correction,4. Elevation methods-By single observation &Reciprocal observationAerial Photogrammetry1. Vertical, Tilted and oblique Photogrammetry2. Arial Camera3. Flight Planning,4. Scale of Vertical Photograph5. Application of Air Photography,6. Interval Between Exposure,7. Ground Control,8. Radial Line Method9. Mirror and Lens Stereoscope10. Stereo meter11. Mosaics, Photo interpretation12. Photogrammetric HeightRemote Sensing1. Electromagnetic Spectrum2. Remote Sensing Method3. Classification of Remote Sensing Systems4. Application of Remote Sensing5. Satellite Remote Sensing,6. Global Positioning SystemHydrographic Surveying1. Object of Hydrographic,2. Establishing Controls, Shoreline Survey, Soundingsand Soundings Equipments
- 60. 3. Location by Range and One Angle From Shore4. Location by Transit and stadio5. Location by Range and One Angle From Boat6. Location by Two Angles From Shore7. Location by Two Angles From Boat8. Location by Cross Rope9. Location by Intersecting Ranges10. Location by Distance along Wire or Rope11. Reduction and Plotting of Soundings12. Three Point Problem by Analytical and GraphicalMethod13. Tidal GaugesModern Surveying Equipments1. Introduction2. Geodimetre3. Tellurometre4. Tunnel/Alignment5. Lasers Electromagnetic6. Distance Meter7. Distomat8. Total Station
- 61. Transportation Engineering (CE14)Audience: Students of Second Year Civil EngineeringObjective: At the end of the course the student will learn about various types of transportationsystems, their parts, geometric design, etc.ContentsRoad Engineering1. Introduction2. Geometric Design of Roads3. Road Material & ConstructionBridge Engineering1. Types of Bridges & Component Part2. Inspection & MaintenanceRailway Engineering1. Component Parts of Railway2. Geometric Design3. Station & YardsTunnel Engineering1. Tunneling2. Construction of TunnelsDocks & Harbour1. Introduction2. Elements of Harbour3. Port Facilities
- 62. Airport Engineering1. Planning & Layout2. Terminal Area & Airport Layout3. Taxiway Design4. Visual Aids, Heliports5. Airport Pavement
- 63. Foundation Engineering (CE15)Audience: Students of Third Year Civil EngineeringObjective: At the end of the course the student will learn about various types of foundations, designof raft and combined footing, failure of foundation, bearing capacity determination, various testslike plate load test, penetration test, static cone tests, deep foundations, etc.ContentsIntroduction of Foundation1. Definitions2. Foundation Materials3. Problematic Rocks and Soils4. Requirement of a Good Foundation5. Suitability of Soils for Foundations6. Foundation Design7. Foundation Loading8. Reduction in Loads9. Depth of Foundation10. Allowable Pressures11. Estimate of Settlement12. Miscellaneous FactorsShallow Foundations1. Introduction2. Types of Footings3. Wall Footings4. Isolated or Column Footings5. Combined Footing6. Inverted Arch Footing7. Continuous Footing8. Strap or Cantilever Footing9. Grillage Footing10. Mat Foundations11. Dewatering of FoundationsSettlement1. Settlement of foundationRaft Foundations and Combined Footings1. Introduction to Raft Foundations2. Types of Rafts
- 64. 3. I.S. Code Of Practice For Design of Raft Foundations4. Examples5. Design of Foundation6. Reinforcement7. Rectangular Combined Footing8. Structural Design9. ExamplesFailure of Foundations1. Bearing Capacity Terms2. Failure of Foundation3. Conditions for Typical Mode of FailureDetermination of Bearing Capacity1. Definitions2. Minimum Depth of Foundation: Rankines Analysis3. Criteria for the Determination of Bearing Capacity4. Factors Affecting Bearing Capacity5. Methods of Determining Bearing Capacity6. Types of Bearing Capacity Failures7. Terzaghi’s Method8. Skemptons Values For Nc9. General Bearing Capacity Equation: Brinch Hansens Analysis10. Meyerhofs Analysis11. Vesics Bearing Capacity Equation12. Comparison of Bearing Capacity Factors13. IS Code method for Bearing CapacityPlate Load Test and SPT1. Plate Load Test2. Limitations of Plate Load Test3. Penetration Tests4. Static Cone Test5. Safe Bearing Pressure6. Permissible Total and Differential Settlements7. Bearing Capacity from Building CodesPile Foundation1. Introduction2. Types of Piles3. Pile Driving4. Methods of Pile Driving5. Effects of Pile Driving
- 65. 6. Static Formulae7. Dynamic Formulae8. Design of Pile Foundation9. Pile Load Tests10. Settlement of Pile Foundations11. Settlement Analysis12. Group Settlement in Clays13. Group Action in Piles14. Negative Skin Friction15. Spacing and Arrangement of Piles16. Under-Reamed Pile Foundations17. Cased Cast- In-Situ Concrete Piles18. Uncased Cast-In-Situ Concrete Piles19. Pressure PilesPiers and Caissons1. Introduction2. Types of Piers3. Types of Caissons4. Design Considerations for Piers and Caisson5. Skin Resistance6. Merits and Demerits of Pier and Caisson FoundationsEarth Pressure1. Introduction2. Types of Earth-Retaining Structures3. Plastic Equilibrium in Soils: Active and Passive States4. Lateral Earth Pressures5. Rankines Theory6. Cases of Cohesionless Backfill7. Active Earth Pressure of Cohesive Soils8. Passive Earth Pressure
- 66. Environmental Engineering (Water Supply Engg.) (CE16)Audience: Students of Third Year Civil EngineeringObjective: At the end of the course the student will learn about estimation of demand for water,sources of water, quality-treatment-conveyance-distribution of water, water supply arrangementsin building, etc.ContentsIntroduction to Environmental Engineering1. Introduction & General Importance2. Introduction to Water Supply Engineering3. Need to have Protected Water Supply4. Waterborne Diseases5. Need of Disposal of WasteEstimation of Demand of Water1. Types of Water Demands2. Rate of Demand3. Factors Affecting the Rate of Demand4. Variations in Rate of Demand5. Design Period for Water Supply Scheme6. Methods of ForecastingSources of Water1. Introduction2. Classification of Sources of Water3. Hydrological Cycle4. Factors Governing the Selection of Source5. Intakes for Collecting Surface Water6. Types of Intakes7. Factors Governing the Location of Intakes
- 67. Quality of Water1. Meaning of Potable Water2. Need for Analysis of Water3. Impurities Present in Water4. Tests on Water5. Water Sampling for Tests & Precautions6. Standards for Potable WaterTreatment of Water1. Introduction to Treatment of Water2. Aeration3. Sedimentation4. Filtration5. Disinfections6. Layout of Water Treatment PlantConveyance of Water1. Schematic Arrangement of Water Supply Plant2. Different Valves on Rising Main3. Different Types of Pressure Pipes4. Cast Iron Pipes5. Testing of Water Pipeline6. Joints & Valves7. Profile of Pressure PipeDistribution of Water1. Introduction to Distribution of Water2. Methods of Distribution3. Distribution Reservoir4. Layout for Distribution System
- 68. Water Supply Arrangement in Building1. Plumbing System in Water Supply2. Connection from Water Main to Building3. Overhead Storage Tanks for Building4. Requirement of Water Storage Tank5. Water Piping System in Building6. Layout Arrangement of Building7. Plumbing Work for Collection of Rain Water
- 69. GIS and Remote Sensing (CE17)Audience: Students of Third Year Civil EngineeringObjective: At the end of the course the student will learn about basics of geographical informationsystem and remote sensing.ContentsIntroduction to GIS1. Introduction2. Components of GIS3. Features of GIS4. GIS Functions - Data Management5. Working of GIS6. Geographic Database7. Terms Used for GIS8. Technological Revolution in GIS9. Major Areas of Practical Application of GIS TechnologyData for GIS1. GIS Map Data2. Data Capture3. Data Formats4. Data Structures in GIS5. Simple Polygon StructureRaster & Vector1. Introduction2. The Data Model3. Creating a Raster4. Example Analysis: Using A Raster GIS5. Introduction to Vector Data Model6. Database Creation7. Standard Query Language (SQL)8. Comparison between Raster and Vector9. Reclassify, Dissolve & Merge: Forestry Example10. Dissolve11. Vector (Logical) Overlay
- 70. 12. Raster (Arithmetic) OverlayDatabase Concept1. GIS Database Concept2. Data Modeling (Logical)3. Data Modeling (Database Design)4. Spatial Data5. Spatial DatabaseMap & Map Analysis1. Introduction2. Meaning of Map3. Types of Maps4. Characteristics of Maps5. Map Projections6. Projection System7. Use of Maps8. Automated and Computer Assisted Cartography9. Data Classification10. GIS Compared to MapsSpatial Analysis1. Manipulation and Transformation of Spatial Data2. Integration and Modeling of Spatial Data3. Integrated Analytical Functions of GIS4. Topological Overlay5. Proximity/Buffer Analysis6. Network AnalysisMaking Maps with GIS1. Meaning of a Map2. Map function in GIS3. Choosing the Wrong Type4. Choosing a Map Type5. Map Design6. Map Formats7. Basic Mapping Principles
- 71. Implementation of GIS1. Needs Assessment2. System Analysis3. Data Acquisition4. Data Distribution5. Staffing6. Training7. Maintenance8. Cost Benefit9. Contract Specifications10. Contract VehiclesImplementation to Remote Sensing1. Remote Sensing2. Electromagnetic Radiation3. Electromagnetic Spectrum4. Remote Sensing Methods5. Classification of Remote Sensing Systems6. Atmospheric Effects7. Interaction of Thermal Radiation with Terrain Elements8. Characteristics of ImagesSatellite & Sensore1. On the Ground, In the Air, In Space2. Satellite Characteristics3. Spatial Resolution, Pixel Size, and Scale4. Spectral Resolution5. Radiometric Resolution6. Temporal Resolution7. Cameras and Aerial Photography8. Multispectral Scanning9. Geometric Distortion in Imagery10. Weather Satellites/Sensors11. Marine Observation Satellites/Sensors12. Other Sensors
- 72. 13. Data Reception, Transmission, and ProcessingMicrowave & Remote Sensing1. Introduction2. Radar Basics3. Radar Image Distortions4. Target Interaction and Image Appearance5. Radar Image Properties6. Advanced Radar Applications7. Radar Polarimetry8. Airborne versus Spaceborne Radars9. Airborne and Spaceborne Radar SystemsImage Interpretation and Analysis1. Introduction2. Elements of Visual Interpretation3. Digital Image Processing4. Image Classification and Analysis5. Image Enhancement6. Image Transformations7. Principal Components Analysis8. Data Integration and AnalysisApplications of Remote Sensing1. Introduction2. Agriculture3. Forestry4. Clear Cut Mapping & Deforestation5. Species Identification & Typing6. Burn Mapping7. Geology8. Structural Mapping & Terrain Analysis9. Geologic Unit Mapping10. Hydrology11. Flood Delineation & Mapping12. Soil Moisture
- 73. 13. Sea Ice14. Ice Motion15. Land Cover & Land Use16. Land Use Change (Rural / Urban)17. Land Cover / Biomass Mapping18. Mapping19. Planimetry20. Digital Elevation Models21. Data Requirements22. Topographic & Baseline Thematic Mapping23. Oceans & Coastal Monitoring24. Ocean Colour & Phytoplankton Concentration25. Oil Spill Detection26. Stages of Urban Planning27. Remote Sensing and GIS Applications in Urban Planning28. Aerial photography and satellite data in urban studies29. Land-use and land-cover mapping30. Deciphering surface water pollution from Aerial photographsGPS Basic1. Global Positioning System2. Space Segment3. Control Segment4. User segment
- 74. Design of Structure (CE18)Audience: Students of Final Year Civil EngineeringObjective: : At the end of the course the student will learn about basic concepts in designing anddetailing of RCC structures based on IS 456-2000 and basics of steel structures based on IS 800-1984.ContentsDesign of Steel StructureIntroduction1. Definition of Structures2. Types of Steel Structures3. Properties of Rolled Steel4. Allowable stresses in steel5. Requirement of Structural Design6. Steps Involved in Design-Load Analysis7. Codes for Load Estimation8. Load Combinations for Design Considerations9. Increase in Allowable Stresses10. Introduction to Light GaugeJoints1. Types of Rivets and their Use2. Failures of Riveted joints3. Simple and Multiple Riveted Joints4. Introduction to Welded Connections5. Design of Brackets6. Moment Resisting ConnectionsTension and Compression1. Design of Simple & Built Up Tension Members2. Design of Compression Member3. Design of Simple Compression Member4. Built-up Compression Member5. Design of Column Bases
- 75. Beams1. Design of Simple Beams2. Design of Built-up Beam3. Design of Plate Girder4. Design of Beam to Column Connection5. Design Procedure of Beam to Beam ConnectionDesign of RCC StructureIntroduction to RCC1. Stress Strain Relationship for Concrete2. Stress Strain Relationship for Steel3. Objectives of Structural Design4. Role of Reinforcement in ReinforcedConcrete5. Types of Reinforcement6. Introduction to Building Frame7. Analyzing Criterias8. The Design Process in Structure DesignMethods of Design of Concrete Structure1. Concept of Elastic Method2. Concept of Ultimate Load Method3. Concept of Limit State Method4. Advantages of Limit State Method Over Other methods5. Design Codes6. Limit State of Serviceability7. Limiting values of Moment of ResistanceLimit State Design for Flexure1. Introduction2. One Way Slab3. Two Way Slab4. Continuous Slab5. Singly Reinforced Rectangular Beam6. Concept of Curtailment of Reinforcement7. Concept of Redistribution of Moment8. Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Beam9. Flanged Beams10. Limit State of Serviceability
- 76. Limit State Design for Shear & Torsion Bond1. Behaviour of Beam in Shear & TorsionLimit State Design of Columns1. Types of Columns2. Effective Length of Column3. Design of Axially Loaded Column4. Design of Uniaxially Loaded Column5. Design of Biaxially Loaded ColumnLimit State Design of Footings and Masonry Structures1. Wall Footing2. Design of Wall Footing3. Individual Footing4. Design Steps for Individual Footing5. Eccentric Footing6. Pile Foundation7. Retaining WallTimbers1. Study of Properties of Natural Timber2. Allowable Stresses in Compression & Tension3. Types of Joints with Nails & Bolts4. Design of Simple Compression Member5. Design of Beams for Strength & Stiffness
- 77. Earthquake Engineering (CE19)Audience: Students of Final Year Civil EngineeringObjective: At the end of the course the student will learn about the earthquake, requirement ofstructures from the viewpoint of earthquake forces, behavior of various types of structures underearthquake effect.ContentsWhat causes Earthquakes?The Earth and its Interior, The Circulations, Plate Tectonics, The Earthquake, Types ofEarthquakes and FaultsHow the Ground Shakes?Seismic Waves, Measuring Instruments, Strong Ground Motions, Characteristics of StrongGround MotionsWhat are Magnitude and Intensity ?Terminology, Intensity, Basic Difference: Magnitude versus Intensity, Magnitude andIntensity in Seismic DesignSeismic Zones in IndiaBasic Geography and Tectonic Features, Prominent Past Earthquakes in India, SeismicZones of IndiaThe Problem, Objective and ScopeThe Problem, Socio-Economic Considerations, Object and ScopeSeismic effects on StructuresInertia Forces in Structures, Effect of Deformations in Structures, Horizontal and VerticalShaking, Flow of Inertia Forces to FoundationsStructural Performance during EarthquakesEarthquake Effects, Ground Shaking Effects on Structures, Factors affecting seismic load,Nature of seismic stresses, Important parameters in seismic design, Effect of site conditionson building damage, Other Factors Affecting Damage, Building configuration, Rigiditydistribution, Construction quality, Failure Mechanisms of Earthquakes, Wall enclosurewithout roof, Roof on two walls, Roof on wall Enclosure, Long building with roof trusses,Shear wall with openingsSeismic Design Philosophy for BuildingsEarthquake-Resistant Buildings, Acceptable Damage: DuctilityHow Flexibility of Buildings affects their Earthquake Response?Oscillations of Flexible Buildings, Importance of Flexibility
- 78. General Concept of EarthquakeCategories of Buildings, Bearing capacity of foundation soil, Combination of parameters,General Planning and Design Aspects, Choice of site, Fire resistance, Structural framing,Requirements of Structural Safety, Concept of Ductility, Deformability and Damagebility,Ductility, Deformability, Damageability, Concept of Isolation, Concept of Isolation,Foundations.Buildings in Fired-Brick and Other masonry UnitsNon-structural damage, Damage and failure of bearing walls, Damage and failure of bearingwalls, Failure of ground, Failure of roofs and floors, Causes of damage in masonry buildings,Typical Strength of Masnory, General Construction Aspects, Masonry bond, Vertical jointbetween perpendicular walls, Horizontal Reinforcement in Walls, Dowels at corners andjunctions, Vertical Reinforcement in Walls, Framing of Thin Load Bearing Walls, ReinforcingDetails for Hollow Block Masonry, Horizontal band, Vertical reinforcement.Stone BuildingsIntroduction, General Construction Aspects, Mortar, Openings in walls, Masonry bond,Vertical reinforcing of walls.Wooden BuildingsIntroduction, Typical damage and failure of Wooden Buildings, Typical Characteristics ofWood, Typical Structural Properties, The Building Plan, Stud Wall Construction, Bearingwalls, Brick nogged Timer Frame, Joints in Wood Frames.Earthen BuildingsTypical Damage and Collapse of Earthen Buildings, Classification of Walls and MaterialProperties, Suitability of soil, Construction of Walls, Hand-moulded layered construction,Adobe or block construction, Earthen construction with wood or cane structure, Generalrecommendation for Seismic Areas, Foundations, Roofing, Vertical reinforcement in wallsDiagonal bracing, Plastering and Painting, Summery of Desirable Features, Masonrycompressive strength, Shear strength of masonry.How do Earthquake affect RCBHorizontal Earthquake Effects arc Different, Strength Hierarchy, Relevant Indian Standards,Generate EQ Load - Frame stiffness Basis - Direct Analysis, Generate EQ Load - ColumnReaction Basis, Generate EQ Load - Response spectrum method, Seismic Zone, ImportanceFactor, Response Reduction Factor, Response spectrum Coefficients.Non Engineered Reinforced Concrete BuildingsTypical Damage and Collapse of RC Buildings, Typical Material Properties, Detailing OfBeams, Detailing of Columns.
- 79. How do Beams in RC Buildings Resist Earthquakes?Reinforcement and Seismic Damage, Design Strategy.How do Columns in RC Buildings resist Earthquakes?Possible Earthquake DamageHow do Beam columns joints in RC buildings resist earthqaukeWhy Beam-Column Joints are Special, Reinforcing the Beam-Column Joint.Why are Open-Ground Storey Buildings VulenerableBasic Features, Earthquake Behaviour, Improved design strategiesWhy are Short Columns More Damaged During EarthqWhich Columns are short?, The Short Column Behaviour.Why are Building with Shear Walls Preferred in SeismicWhat is a Shear Wall Building, Architectural Aspects of Shear Walls, Ductile Design of ShearWalls, Overall Geometry of Walls, Reinforcement Bars in RC WallsHow to Reduce Earthquake Effects on BuildingsWhy Earthquake Effects are to be Reduced, Base Isolation, Seismic DampersRepair, Restoration and Strengthening of BuildingsRepair, Restoration & Strengthening Concepts, Restoration, Strengthening of existingbuildings, Repair Materials, Techniques to Restore original Strength, Fractured woodenmembers and joints, Substitution or Strengthening of Slabs, Stiffening of the slab,Connection of the slab to the walls, Plannar Modifications & Strengthening of Walls,Strengthening existing walls, External binding, Strengthening RC Members, Strengthening ofFoundations.
- 80. Non Destructive Testing (CE20)Objective: At the end of the course the student will learn about various non destructive testingmethod like ultrasonic testing, radiographic testing, magnetic particle testing, liquid penetranttesting, eddy current testing, etc.ContentsUltrasonic Testing1. Scientific Principles2. Construction of Probes3. Tests on welded joints4. Ultrasonic Flaw Detector5. Advanced Ultrasonic Testing TechnologyRadiographic Testing1. Scientific Principles2. Gamma Rays3. Industrial X-Ray Films4. High Resolution RadiographyMagnetic Particle Testing1. Scientific Principles2. Methods Of DemagnetisationLiquid Penetrant Testing1. Scientific Principles2. Selection of Method and Type of Liquid3. Uses and AdvantageousEddy Current Testing1. Principle2. Factors affecting the eddy current3. Instrumentation For ECT4. Inspection 0f Welds5. Advanced Eddy Current Testing6. Remote Field ECT
- 81. 7. Computer Modelling Of Ect8. Digital Signal Processing9. Eddy Current ImagingAcoustic Emission Technique1. Principle of Acoustic Emission Testing2. On-Line Monitoring Of Welds By Acoustic Emission3. Experimental Setup4. Advantages of AET For Weld Monitoring5. Applications of AET For Monitoring6. AET for Structural Integrity MonitoringLeak Testing1. Introduction2. Methods of Pressure Leak Detection3. Halogen, Hydrogen and Sulphur Hexa-Fluoride Detectors4. Helium Leak Testing of A Large Volume PipelineThermography Testing1. Basic Principle2. Detectors And Equipment

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