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Opening Learning Horizons: eLearning Papers Special Edition 2012
 

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eLearning Papers special edition 2012 presents a selection of the best contributions from last year about open educational resources, virtual learning environments and creative classrooms. A tablet ...

eLearning Papers special edition 2012 presents a selection of the best contributions from last year about open educational resources, virtual learning environments and creative classrooms. A tablet friendly version of this edition can now be downloaded, browsed and enjoyed as an e-journal. Summaries are available in 23 languages.

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    Opening Learning Horizons: eLearning Papers Special Edition 2012 Opening Learning Horizons: eLearning Papers Special Edition 2012 Document Transcript

    • n in g a e s L r re e arn ingp ape rs.eu pl edition w.ele acia wwPpe S Opening Learning Horizons Discovering the Potential of Co-Creation, Games and Open Learning  Diffusion and Adoption of OER Virtual Mobility: The Value of Inter-Cultural Exchange The Language Campus: Role-Play in an eLearning Environment  Typologies of Learning Design and the Introduction of a “LD-Type 2” Case Example  Scaffolding Student Learning Designers with Social Media  Using Patterns to Design Technology-Enhanced Learning Scenarios Fostering Open Educational Practices  AVATAR – The Course: Recommendations for Using 3D Virtual Environments for Teaching  Creating Invitational Online Learning Environments Using Art-Based Learning Interventions  Serious Games and Formal and Informal Learning  Ready, Get Set and GO! ELT Blogathon 2011
    • CreditseLearningPapers www.elearningpapers.euSpecial edition 2012 Mission Statement eLearning Papers aims to make innovative ideas and practices in the field of learning more visible by highlighting different perspectives involving the use of technology.eLearning PaperseLearning Papers is an online journal highlighting the latest trends in the area, published fivetimes a year, and offering an executive summary of each article, translated in 21 languages.eLearning Papers is free of charge, available at its own domain: www.elearningpapers.eueLearning Papers is part of the www.elearningeuropa.info portal, an initiative of the EuropeanCommission’s Directorate-General for Education and Culture, aiming to promote the use ofICT for lifelong learning. The site provides access to extensive information on policy, activitiesand resources and act as a European platform for cooperation and dissemination of good andinnovative practice in the use of multimedia technologies and the internet for improving thequality of learning.eLearning Papers Special Edition 2012 edited by:ISBN: 84-8294-664-1Muntaner 262, 3º, 08021 Barcelona (Spain)http://www.paueducation.comDesign: Mar NietoPhone: +34 933 670 406editorial@elearningeuropa.infohttp://www.elearningpapers.euLegal notice and copyrightBy elearningeuropa.info and eLearning Papers.The views expressed are purely those of the authors and may not in any circumstances be regarded as stating an official position of the EuropeanCommission. Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on its behalf is responsible for the use which might be made of the informationcontained in the present publication. The European Commission is not responsible for the external web sites referred to in the present publication.The texts published in this journal, unless otherwise indicated, are subject to a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-NoDerivativeWorks 3.0Unported licence. They may be copied, distributed and broadcast provided that the author and the e-journal that publishes them, eLearning Papers, arecited. Commercial use and derivative works are not permitted. The full licence can be consulted on http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/eLearningPapers www.elearningpapers.euSpecial edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • Contents eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition 2012 Opening Learning Horizons Contents Editorial....................................................................................................................6 In-depth....................................................................................................................7 Diffusion and Adoption of OER............................................................................................ 8 Virtual Mobility: The Value of Inter-Cultural Exchange...................................................... 19 The Language Campus: Role-Play in an eLearning Environment .................................. 30 Typologies of Learning Design and the Introduction of a “LD-Type 2” Case Example....................................................................................................................... 42 Scaffolding Student Learning Designers with Social Media............................................ 54 Using Patterns to Design Technology-Enhanced Learning Scenarios ............................ 61 From the field.........................................................................................................75 Fostering Open Educational Practices............................................................................... 76 AVATAR – The Course: Recommendations for Using 3D Virtual Environments for Teaching..................................................................... 80 Creating Invitational Online Learning Environments Using Art-Based Learning Interventions...................................................................................... 89 Serious Games and Formal and Informal Learning.......................................................... 93 Ready, Get Set and GO! ELT Blogathon 2011.................................................................. 104eLearningPapers www.elearningpapers.euSpecial edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • Editorial Board [ +] Tapio Koskinen, Head of New Solutions, Jean Underwood, Professor of Psychology Aalto University Professional Development Nottingham Trent University, UK (Aalto PRO). Aalto. Finland [ +] United Kingdom [ +] Lieve Van den Brande, Senior Jos Beishuizen, Professor of educational Policy Officer, European Commission. science and Director of the Centre for Belgium [ +] Educational Training, Assessment and Research VU University Amsterdam.Netherlands [ +] 
 Pierre-Antoine Ullmo, Founder and Director. Matty Smith, Programme Director P.A.U. Education. European Learning Industry Group (ELIG) Spain [ +] United Kingdom [ +] Lluís Tarín, Strategic and Leadership Advisor Nicolas Balacheff, Kaleidoscope Scientifi c Jesuites Education Manager; Senior Scientist at CNRS (National Spain [ +] Scientifi c Research Center), France [ +] Antonio Bartolomé, Audiovisual Communication Ulf-Daniel Ehlers, Director of the European Professor. University of Barcelona Foundation for Quality in E-Learning Spain [ +] University of Duisburg-Essen Germany [ +] Claire Bélisle, CNRS Research Engineer, France Wojciech Zielinski, Chairman of the Board LIRE (University Lyon 2 & CNRS) of MakoLab Ltd; Member of the Board of [ +] Association of Academic E-learning, Poland [ +]Peer-reviewers [ +]Anabela Mesquita. Higher Education. ISCAP Portugal . Giuliano Vivanet. Higher Education. Università degli Studi diAvgoustos Tsinakos. Higher Education. TEI KAVALAS. Greece Cagliari. ItalyAxel Schwarz. Administrative. Germany Guillaume Durin. Higher Education. Jean Moulin Lyon 3 University (France). FranceBulent Cavas. Higher Education. Dokuz Eylul University. Turkey Lucilla Crosta. eLearning specialist. Kelidon AssociationCarlos Morales. Executive or managerial. Sistema UniversitarioAna G. Méndez. Outside Europe Nuno Garcia. Higher Education. Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias. PortugalChris Douce. Higher Education. Open University. UnitedKingdom Pedro Maya Álvarez. Executive or managerial. Divulgación Dinámica S.L.SpainClaudia Panico. Higher Education. Università GabrieleD’ nnunzio Chieti. Italy A Santiago Palacios. Higher Education. Universidad del País Vasco. SpainEvangelos Marinos. Higher Education. Athens Medical School.Greece Paula Peres. Higher Education. PAOL. PortugalEmmanuel Bellengier. Executive or managerial. U&I Learning. Alfredo Soeiro. PortugalFranceChief Editor Jimena Márquez, P.A.U. Education [ +]eLearningPapers www.elearningpapers.euSpecial edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • Guidelinesfor submissionsIn-depth From the field In-Depth articles are full-length texts that discuss current From the field articles are synopses of current practices findings from research or long-term studies. They should or studies taking place within Europe or beyond. They have the following characteristics: should have the following characteristics: −  cademic focus: Articles must be original, scientifically A − Brief communications: These articles should summarise accurate and informative, reporting on new experiencies and practices in education, innovation and developments and recently concluded projects. technology with a focus on the applied methodologies and impact evaluation. −  n good form editorially: Successful articles are clear and I precise. They should develop their argument coherently −  n good form editorially: Successful articles are clear and I and present a unity of thought. precise, they should concisely communicate the key points of the practice being discussed. −  ength: Articles should range from 4,000 to 6,000 L words. − Length: Should not exceed 1,200 words. All article submissions should be in DOC format and must include the following: −  anguage: Both articles and L In-Depth summaries should not captions for each image and indicate summaries must be in English. exceed 200 words. From the field where they should be placed in the Authors are responsible for ensuring summaries should not exceed 50 text. the correct use of English in their words. texts, and translations should be −  eferences: References must R revised before submission. Please −  ey words: Authors should include K be accurately cited following note that the journal gives strong up to 5 relevant key words. international standards, please preference to articles that are consult the online guidelines −  onclusions: Special importance C for more details: http://www. correctly translated in a legible is given to the representation of manner. elearningpapers.eu/elearning_ the conclusions. Articles must go papers/instructions_for_writers −  itle: Must effectively and creatively T beyond telling about a research communicate the content of the process and its methodology and −  uthor profile: Author name, A article and may include a subtitle. provide an analysis of the findings. institution, position and email Conclusions should be clearly stated address must accompany each −  ummary: This is not an executive S both in the summary and at the end submission. For multiple authors, summary but rather should of the article. please specify the relationship of communicate the key points and authors (ie, if a work is co-authored, conclusions of the article to a large − Images: Please send high-resolution if there is a principal author, etc.) audience. It should be written in JPEG files of all images you wish to an attractive and accessible manner. include in the article. Please includeAuthors are encouraged to consult the website for the most recent call for papers:www.elearningpapers.eueLearningPapers www.elearningpapers.euSpecial edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • EditorialOpening Learning HorizonsDiscovering the Potential wide spectrum of game-based learning, an e-journal. Although the complete from schools to informal learning and version of the new e-journal is availableof Co-Creation, Games and language learning. Learning design is only in English, we will continue toOpen Learning addressed by three in-depth articles, provide summaries of all the publishedIn 2011, eLearning Papers has while the potential of virtual mobility articles and editorials in 21 Europeancontinued to support researchers and in higher education is explored in languages at www.elearningpapers.eu.practitioners in the ongoing dialog another. Blogathlon 2011 presents a caseabout the role of ICT in education. study of language learning and another The introduction of the new digitalOver the last year, eLearning Papers case study looks into the potential of format does not mean that we haveadvanced its mission to focus on the art-based learning interventions in completely abandoned the printedfollowing key issues: open educational eLearning. special issues. However, we believeresources, virtual learning environments, in moving in bytes instead of atoms,and creative classrooms. The challenges eLearning Papers continues in its effort whenever possible.and possibilities presented by this to improve the journal’s readability and The Special Issue 2012 marksfield of study are a constant source of access. A new category of published the beginning of the sixth yearinspiration for this journal. We want articles was introduced in the beginning of eLearning Papers. The activeto thank all our 2011 contributors for of the year. The From the field community of readers, authors andsharing their work and enriching the section includes synopses of current individuals who have invested theirdebate. practices or case studies in education, time and effort as guest editors and peer innovation and technology, with aSome of the most popular eLearning reviewers has made the success of our focus on the applied methodologiesPapers saw daylight last year. Thematic journal possible. Together we can make and impact evaluation. In addition toissues on Open Learning, Game Based the world a bit better. more extensive in-depth articles, thisLearning and Learning Design attracted new category has proven its popularityhigh numbers of exceptionally good, among our readers and authors. Pierre-Antoine Ullmoquality contributions. The six In-depth www.elearningpapers.euarticles and five From the field articles Member of the Editorial Board Furthermore, the last issue of 2011 Founder and Director ofbring together selected contributions introduced a new publication format P.A.U. Education [ +]from last year, representing the ‘best in the same look and feel that hadof the best’ of eLearning Papers from been tested in print a year earlier. A2011. Two of the articles cover three Tapio Koskinen tablet friendly version of eLearning www.elearningpapers.eucase studies of OER use in institutional Papers special editions can now be Director of the Editorial Boardcontexts. Three articles address the downloaded, browsed and enjoyed as Design and Innovation Initiative, Secretary General, Aalto University [ +]eLearningPapers www.elearningpapers.euSpecial edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • In-depthFostering analysis and discussion on Learning trends in Europe g D  iffusion and Adoption of OER in Virtual Mobility: the Value of Inter-cultural n Exchange a r T  he Language Campus: Role-Play in an e s eLearning Environment L r T  ypologies of Learning Design and thee e Introduction of a “LD-Type 2” Case Example  caffolding Student Learningpe rs.eu S with Social Media ing pa Designers learn p e ww.Patterns to Design Technology- a w U  singP Enhanced Learning Scenarios eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 8 eLearningPapers Diffusion and AdoptionIn-depth of OER [ ] Authors Cornelis Adrianus (Kees-Jan) van Dorp Former Research Director. European Association of Distance Teaching Universities secretariat@eadtu.eu [ +] Andy Lane Director. OpenLearn, Open University a.b.lane@open.ac.uk [ +] 1. Introduction This paper provides insight into how to improve the diffusion Summary In this paper, the diffusion and adoption of OER through (formal) institutional networks. It does so by of Open Educational Resources (OER), examining two cases: (1) MORIL – the Multilingual Open Resources for Independent Learning task force, a Network through (formal) institutional networks, of Practice that acted as a space for sharing and developing is analysed. An obvious way to start, institutional OER strategies, and (2) TESSA – The Teacher is with an understanding as to what Education in Sub Saharan Africa programme, an R&D initiative OER actually are. OER are defined for OER and course design guidance for teachers and teacher- as ‘teaching, learning, and research educators working in Sub-Saharan African countries. The paper resources that reside in the public reflects on institutional development practices regarding the domain or have been released under an dimensions and models of collaboration and innovation within intellectual property license that permits communities and networks of practice. A frame of reference is their free use or re-purposing by others. used, which aids the analysis of the OER diffusion and adoption Open educational resources include processes in each case. full courses, course materials, modules, textbooks, streaming videos, tests, software, and any other tools, materials, or techniques used to support access to knowledge’ [1], and are being created Tags and used throughout the world through Open educational resources, the utilisation of digital technologies diffusion, adoption, OER competence, and open licences. In many cases, it has been major institutions such as the communities of practice Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) that have been at the forefront of publishing OER, but equally, there are a growing number of individuals who are experimenting with the creation and use of OER. However, the total number of institutions creating and using OER are still small compared to all those who could be involved; and, inevitably adopters have been attempting to collaborate in an area which is based on the philosophy of sharing (see http:// www.ocwconsortium.org). Languages cz da de bg et el es fr it lv lt hu nl pl pt ro sk sl fi sv eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 9 eLearningPapersIn-depth Equally, while the sharing of OER has been the original focus of everyone involved, it is increasingly recognised that it is more about open educational practices and how openness is influencing the way institutions teach and students learn (see [2], for a review of open educational practices and resources). As an innovation themselves and as a prompt for further innovation, it is necessary to look at what features might support the successful diffusion of this innovation amongst institutions rather than individuals. To do so, we first review some of the literature relating to diffusion and adoption of innovations, as well as literature on communities and networks of practice. We then review Figure 1: Five phases in the adoption of innovations [3]. and reflect on two contrasting studies where institutional networks have been critical to innovation diffusion and adoption. of time among members belonging find out more information about to the same social system. In Roger’s the innovation. In the Persuasion Diffusion of Innovations model [3], Phase, the individual (or institution) 1.1 Diffusion and adoption five phases in the adoption process are is interested in the innovation and of OER: a frame of distinguished: Knowledge, Persuasion, actively seeks information/detail about reference Decision, Implementation, and the innovation. In the Decision Phase, Confirmation (Figure 1). the individual takes the concept of the This section introduces a frame of innovation and weighs the advantages/ reference, by which to discuss the Let us now get into the mechanics disadvantages of using the innovation analysis of OER diffusion and adoption. of the five phases. In the Knowledge and decides whether to adopt or reject Diffusion of an innovation can be Phase, the individual (or institution) the innovation. Due to the more closed regarded as a process, an adoption is first exposed to an innovation but or less open nature of this phase Rogers process ([3], [4], [5], and [6]). This lacks information about the innovation. notes that it is the most difficult stage process takes place through a series of During this phase of the process the to acquire empirical evidence. In the communication channels over a period individual has not been inspired to Implementation Phase, the individual eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 10 eLearningPapersIn-depth Imagine an organisation commencing from a zero state, from which it moves to develop competence in OER. When it is able to develop OER competence among only a small quantum of learners (even be it high competence), it will only manage what we call a ‘Silent representation’. The organisational leverage is rather insignificant and the strategic underpinning is negligible. An OER ambition can however be successfully underpinned if the development of OER competence is widely adopted by learners throughout an organisation. In the case of such a Figure 2: Based on the framework of Hamel and Prahalad [7]: The road to OER success collective learning ambition, with a through collective ambition and competence. clear strategic intent, the organisation is likely to move from ‘Silent representation’ towards ‘Successful (or institution) employs the innovation collective learning is needed according strategic exploitation’. Organisations to a varying degree depending on to Hamel and Prahalad [7]. They relate may also cherish very high level the situation. During this Phase the the strategic intent of an organisation OER ambitions, whereas the ‘actual’ individual determines the usefulness i.e., the collective ambition, to the OER development of competence of the innovation and may search for development of core competences and remains largely underdeveloped. In further information about it. In the indicate that when an organisation is such situations, the collective learning Confirmation Phase, the individual not yet successful in an area, but wants ambition remains a rather utopic (or institution) finalises their decision to move ahead, an investment is first of scenario, and as such, the organisation is to continue using the innovation and all made in strengthening the collective out of touch with reality. may use the innovation to its fullest ambition, followed successively by potential. In addition to this model the development of the necessary 1.2 Communities and of adoption, any strategic success of competences. Figure 2 depicts the an institution strongly depends on relation between the collective OER networks of practice the appropriate organisation of its ambition and the development of There has been a growing interest in collective ambition and the presence necessary OER competence. recent years in Communities of Practice of core competences. For building and (CoP) and Networks of Practice developing new core competences, (NoP) in connection with informal eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 11 eLearningPapersIn-depth knowledge gathering, notably in the Aspects What does it mean fields of education and both knowledge management and innovation within Members come together because they are engaged organisations, but also in fields such as in actions whose meaning they negotiate with one Mutual engagement healthcare and computer science [8]. another. They develop shared practices and are linked Although the idea of communities of through their mutual engagement in such activities. practice has been around for many Members work together, explicitly or implicitly, to years, it was first made explicit by Joint enterprise achieve a negotiated common goal, which may or may Lave and Wenger in their work on not be officially defined. apprenticeship and situated learning [9]. Around the same time the notion A common history and culture is generated over time by of networks of practice originated shared practices, stories, tools, concepts and repeated in the work of Brown and Duguid Shared repertoire interactions. Writing, routines, rituals, ways of doing [10], who applied the term to the things and so on, become a common repository. relations among groups of people with looser connections than expected in Table 1: Three aspects of Communities of Practice a CoP. Lave and Wenger [9] define a community of practice as “a set of relations among persons, activity periphery. Communities of practice of practice may sit. Podolny and Page and world, over time and in relation are repositories of explicit or formal [12] define networks as “any collection with other tangential communities knowledge as well as the less tangible of actors that pursue repeated enduring of practice” (p. 98). In simple terms, tacit, informal knowledge, and hold the exchange relations with one another communities of practice are groups of key to any form of change process [10]. and, at the same time, lack a legitimate people who share a common pursuit, They are inherently stable and it is this organisational authority to arbitrate and activity or concern. Members do not stability that allows learning within and resolve disputes that may arise during necessarily work together, but form a around the community to take place. the exchange” (p. 59). Social network common identity and understanding Wenger [11] identifies three aspects theory views relationships in terms through their common interests of communities of practice that work of nodes (individual actors) and ties and interactions. Many different together and that may either hinder or (the relationships between actors) and communities of practice exist and enhance learning (Table 1): views the attributes of the individual we may all be members of several, actors as less important than their for example, through our work or There has been a growing academic relationships (or ties) with other actors hobbies. They are often informal and interest in what happens beyond [13]. This is distinct from theories about self-managed. For some communities communities of practice, in the communities of practice, which focus of practice we may be a core member, informal or formal organisational on an individual’s competences and whereas for others we may sit on the networks within which a community practices. Many networks are viewed eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 12 eLearningPapersIn-depth as having a structure whereby at the of potential innovation adopters is organisation of both the European core are those members who are closely thus subjected to social influence. open and distance learning universities tied to each other and at the periphery Through interactions with other and of the national consortia of higher are members who have more ties to potential adopters, opinions on new education institutions active in the field core members than to each other. technologies are formed and shaped. of distance education and e-learning The concept of networks of practice Therefore, much more is involved than and as such its members have shared is distinctive in that it recognises simple information transmission in the practices and goals that are often that there may be people beyond an adoption of an innovation; it involves distinctive and different to campus organisation within which an individual revisions of judgements, discussions based universities. As an institutional is situated, who share their practice or in a wider practice related or socio- network it is the main voice of the may influence that practice through economic system, and an individual’s community for open and distance their own practices. receptivity to influence. higher education and e-learning in Europe. EADTU aims to promote the However, like CoPs, members often progress of open and distance education participate in several networks of 2 Case study 1: MORIL and e-learning and its position in practice [14]. Networks of practice In this section the results of the first Europe and in the world, through have the same features as communities study are presented: MORIL. The start- active support to the institutional of practice (their subset) but may up phase, adoption phase and extended development of its members and to the have weaker ties. What binds the adoption phase are described, along European wide co-operation between network together is shared practice, with the experiences gained. Following, them in strategic areas. The framework and extensive shared practice leads the analysis of the case is presented and for all this activity is the creation of the to extensive shared know-how important conclusions are drawn. European Area of Higher Education ([10], [15], and [14]), although some (Bologna Declaration), the national of that knowhow may come from and European policies with regard to exchanges with others outside the 2.1 Introduction lifelong learning, the development of network. Whilst not usually applied The European Association of Distance competencies for the European citizen to relationships between organisations Teaching Universities (EADTU) has and the innovation of e-learning and there is no reason why a group of been working on OER strategies in teaching by the use of ICT. institutions cannot come together lifelong open and flexible learning as a network of practice if they have through an EADTU taskforce on shared practices and possibly joint or Multilingual Open Resources for 2.2 MORIL in start-up phase mutual goals. In relation to innovation, Independent Learning (MORIL – The action to place OER on the Deroian [16] drawing on the work see http://moril.eadtu.nl/) and the agenda of the Board, Rectors’ and of others, argues that individuals (and European project ‘Innovative OER in Executive meetings of the EADTU potentially institutions) are embedded European Higher Education (OER- came from the Open Universiteit in a relational network and the opinion HE)’. EADTU is the representative Nederland, in an attempt to learn from eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 13 eLearningPapersIn-depth The Open University in the UK, which and Flora Hewlett Foundation. The came, however, that the bid to the was an early adopter of OER [17]. initial OER taskforce was renamed William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Preparatory work and discussions as to MORIL in accordance with the name would not be accepted in its current what this would imply for universities of the proposal which was submitted form. A renewed (second) proposal commenced. Simultaneously, the to the William and Flora Hewlett was submitted, which focused more on partner universities individually started Foundation. Through the MORIL the valorisation of the lessons learned consultations with experts such as grant, momentum could be created and their dissemination towards other those at The Open University. These within the participating institutions universities and networks inside and experiences were fed back into joint and the exchange of ideas about outside Europe. This proposal was network meetings. The taskforce on institutional strategies for OER could accepted by the William and Flora OER was an attempt to learn from be sustained. Additionally, a conceptual Hewlett Foundation and enabled the early adopters, obtain insight in model with learning modules in three EADTU to organise a series of Best- the pros and cons of OER, and gain tracks was devised: (1) access to fully Practice seminars related to OER experience with ways of working, open courses, (2) access to additional strategy implementation, OER strategy sharing, and partnering. The primary services like competence assessments development and OER capacity objective of the taskforce was to extend and access to learning communities, building. EADTU (also) obtained the commitment base to OER at the and (3) access to formal tutoring, organisational and financial support partner institutions through dedicated examinations and certification. The from both the European Commission individuals, who would then be able to grant by the William and Flora Hewlett and UNESCO for this approach. make preparations for the establishment Foundation was used as a planning of a broader consortium. Firstly, grant, to (also) try to obtain a second • The first seminar i.e., the strategy aiming at the consolidation of the (larger) grant, which could help implementation seminar, took place taskforce, some significant subjects and implement the three-track concept on 27-28 May 2008 at The Open perspectives were discussed in depth. across the MORIL Consortium, and University (UK) in Milton Keynes, Secondly, having received commitment which would foresee funding for all and was intended for high-end from the partners, activities to participating partners and stretch the representatives of the Open Universities. design a roadmap for the future, initiative beyond its start-up scope. To Integral cases by The Open University commenced, including a lot of effort in write the new proposal, a core group i.e., the case of OpenLearn (http:// dissemination and awareness raising. of the taskforce was delegated to do www.open.ac.uk/openlearn) and the the essential work. Meetings took place Open Universiteit Nederland (the in Brussels, Milton Keynes, Hagen, case of OpenER – see http://www. 2.3 MORIL in adoption phase opener.ou.nl/), were discussed, dealing Heerlen, and in Leuven. While awaiting The partner universities only really the outcome of the second bid to the with issues like: strategy, sustainability, entered the adoption process of OER William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, technology, IP, curriculum, academic when the taskforce initiative received all universities simultaneously continued participation, quality, and organisational financial support from the William their own local OER activities. News structures. In addition, various eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 14 eLearningPapersIn-depth institutional approaches of open and and to the 2009 World Conference The new OER HE project enables distance teaching universities were on Higher Education, organised by partners to follow different phases assessed, using Compendium software UNESCO (Paris, July 2009). within the innovation cycle as regards: based mediation and force field analysis awareness raising, strategy building, [18]. institutional frameworks, pedagogic 2.4 Lowards extended adoption models, business models, and pilot • The second seminar i.e., the strategy Innovations such as OER are valuable experiments. The project valorises development seminar, was held on for the mass of individual learners, yet all partners’ practices to date and 28-29 October 2008 in Leuven. It to date have resisted diffusion in many disseminates the successes. The project aimed to facilitate knowledge transfer educational institutions. To sustain also delivers a manual on how to deal between regular universities and open the process of adopting OER, and to with OER development. and distance teaching universities avoid slow movers from developing an as far as OER (best) practices were innovation gap, a new European project concerned. It succeeded in its mission has been formulated by EADTU. This 2.5 Case analysis by presentation of institutes leading in new European initiative is meant to and conclusion OER throughout Europe, including additionally stimulate institutions to Almost every open and distance panel discussions with representatives reach a tipping point, by enabling them teaching university participated in of universities and the European to continue learning from fast movers. EADTU taskforce meetings and Commission. The seminar lived up The new project has been approved gatherings. Mostly all were starting to the expectations of both regular under the Lifelong Learning Programme at the beginning of the innovation universities and representatives of (LLP), within the strand Erasmus. The cycle. However, it was the authority of university associations. project ‘Innovative OER in European key people and their ability to spread Higher Education’ (see http://www. information about OER within the • The third seminar was held on 12- eadtu.nl/oerhe/) now includes 11 own institution that often played a 13 March 2009, at the UNESCO European partners. The project is significant role in adoption. From Headquarters in Paris. It was headed by organised into five study work packages: OpenLearn it was learned that OER the Director of UNESCO’s Division of Higher Education. The objective was 1.  idening participation i.e., best- w could be made functional in the context to explore the potential of OER for practices; of university strategies. OER at the improving the provision of education 2.  ulti campus i.e., education m OU UK had been lifted to the level of in Africa, Arab States, Asia, the Pacific, associations; university policy [19]. With OpenLearn and Latin America, incorporating the 3. nternationalisation i.e., team-based i being part of policy, other departments development of relationships with development; were stimulated to become involved regional and global networks. The 4.  evelopment of instruments for d as well, making the spread of OER seminar had also been organised to quality in OER; skills and competences throughout the provide input to the ICDE/EADTU 5.  evelopment of a European course d university far easier. The involvement Conference (Maastricht, June 2009) portal. of university Board members in the eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 15 eLearningPapersIn-depth acceptance and adoption of OER was must be in place for at least five 3. Case study 2: TESSA crucial in this process. Those members years. Within MORIL, intermediate In this section the results of the second which participated in EADTU changes in top management have study are presented: TESSA. First, meetings but had little scope to reset the process of adoption within an introduction is given on TESSA, influence university policy on their institutions, several times. The ability followed by a description of the design own, may have experienced success of a university to scale up the merits and dynamics of TESSA. The section in exploiting OER on the local of successful innovations apparently ends with the case analysis and the departmental level, but experienced has a lot to do with authoritative drawing of conclusions. great difficulties in scaling up merits persons and governance. As noted for to the university as a whole. However, MORIL, some taskforce participants 3.1 Introduction all participating members of the had direct relations to the university MORIL taskforce did express a certain Board and/or were themselves This case study is heavily based upon passion and willingness to make it an Board members or Rectors. Others the account in Wolfenden [20] and institutional success, as well. acted as representatives or were staff related publications. Over the last four members from departments within years The Open University in the In reference to the innovation the university. The composition of the UK has been involved in an audience adoption model of Rogers, we taskforce, which was not homogeneous specific OER programme; the Teacher conclude that some institutions had but rather heterogeneous, made a Education in Sub Saharan Africa problems, especially in the persuasion future assessment of the impact of (TESSA) initiative (see http://www. phase. The person(s) that needed to OER on institutions, difficult. tessafrica.net/). TESSA is a consortium persuade the university Board often of institutions concerned with the did not stand in direct relation to that At this moment, only a few distance collaborative production of original Board, causing an acceptance barrier. teaching universities have incorporated OER to support teacher development. With high-level involvement from the OER in their institutional strategy. The major funding for the TESSA first phase onward, such a problem As a result, some universities remain initiative has come from the Allan was notably smaller. Turning to the climbing the ladder. However, the and Nesta Ferguson Charitable Trust theory of collective ambition and the processes of MORIL do seem to have and the William and Flora Hewlett development of core competences in created a nascent Network of Practice Foundation. the case of OER, the bottleneck with where the opportunities to interact many institutions is the mobilisation of and share information and knowledge TESSA has five distinct characteristics. the collective ambition, whereby many has sustained the consideration of First, it is a global consortium, including OER projects remain local and do not OER as an innovation throughout organisations like the BBC World reach top management. Because of this, EADTU and also into other networks. Service Trust and the Commonwealth there has been little opportunity for Because of this, in 2010, the EADTU of Learning, as well as the South core competencies to be developed. launched an extended adoption African Institute for Distance Education According to Hamel and Prahalad [7], phase, co-funded by the European (SAIDE), but focussed on the needs top management must be involved Commission, intended to safeguard of teacher education in nine African in developing a robust programme slow movers from an upcoming countries. TESSA is a consortium of 18 for institutional competencies, and innovation gap. national and international organisations eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 16 eLearningPapersIn-depth including 13 institutions in Sub- often materials in each course originate in understanding ways of integrating Saharan Africa, who are using the from only one or two authors. Fourth, the materials into what have been TESSA materials in a variety of teacher the TESSA initiative is creatively termed ‘learning pathways’. TESSA education programmes (for further exploring the use of OER audio development teams are actively details see TESSA in Use). Second, as content. Both different formats – drama, exploring issues of reuse and an OER initiative it is unique in being interviews, features – and modes of interoperability. Colleagues across the audience specific to teachers. delivery including radio, CD and use partner institutions have not been seen of mobile phones. Lastly, significant as consumers of imported educational Third, in TESSA the user, the teacher- time and resources is being put into material but rather as collaborators in educator, has been at the centre of the the implementation and use of the content production, distribution and initiative. The vast majority of the OER resources, an aspect given insufficient utilisation. Awareness of the current have been created collaboratively by attention in many OER initiatives [1]. situation in these institutions together teacher-educators from across Africa with likely short and medium term (over 100 authors have been involved). contexts for exploitation has been at the The developments of both materials 3.2. TESSA design centre of TESSA OER development. and the portal have involved extensive and dynamics consultation with potential user groups In TESSA the project design has The dynamics of the TESSA building on local knowledge, materials allowed the consortium to look in consortium can be represented and approaches. In contrast, most detail at issues such as adoption of the by Figure 3. All eighteen partner OER projects transfer materials from resources for different environments institutions contribute to the strategic existing courses to an open platform; and how best ‘users’ can be supported direction of the initiative through regular workshops, meetings and electronic discussions. Each partner institution is represented on the ‘Partner Advisory Council’ (PAC), the key governance forum for TESSA activity. Support for PAC is provided by a group of academics and administrators from The Open University, UK. Working in a consortium across several countries inevitably brings challenges of coordination and communication; these are vastly increased by the unreliable and uneven infrastructure found in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Regular workshops in different locations across the region have been pivotal in maintaining momentum, building Figure 3: TESSA organisational structure [20]. relationships and shared understandings. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 17 eLearningPapersIn-depth Work around the four areas of activity – The Open University in the UK. structure and governance arrangements - research, technological development Many of the participants were aware for the consortium, working variously (the TESSA portal), curriculum (TESSA of OER but The Open University across a number of activities, has study units) and take up - is determined played a big role in persuading partners been important in developing both in detail by a smaller working group that OER were a necessary part of the communities and networks of practice for each area. Different partners input initiative (when the programme first amongst the partners, which is also to different areas of activity. Some, such started, OER did not feature strongly being carried over in some cases to as the BBC World Service Trust, have at all) and as described in the case, the the work of individual partners in been involved almost exclusively with decision to adopt OER became central particular countries. In fact, while only one sphere of activity, in this case to successful implementation of creating EADTU is a long established network production of curriculum materials. and sharing resources for teacher compared to that created specifically Other partners have contributed to education. In fact, the whole process of and more recently for TESSA, the several strands of activity, represented by educational resource creation and use very openness of OER and associated the links on the represented diagram. was a major innovation for most of the open educational practices means that All thirteen institutions in Sub-Saharan partners and it was the open licensing people are more likely to be aware Africa involved in teacher education and judicious use of technologies of them, can more readily find out have contributed to activity around alongside workshops and meetings more information and see examples implementing use of the OER in designed to share information and of adoption by others (including the courses and programmes. Central to this knowledge about these practices that reasons for doing so) and how they model is the multi-directional interplay helped develop the core competencies have implemented the innovation [21]. between the concurrent different within the organisations once the At the same time, the common goal or strands of activity. The structure and collective ambition was achieved. joint enterprise, represented by distance nature of the curriculum, for example, Equally, the collective ambition within teaching or teacher education in the has been informed by planned contexts and between the partners was aided by two cases, moves the relationship on for use (take up), by the forms of the fact that the consortium aim was from one of just cooperation to greater technology available for distribution the creation of the common resources collaboration amongst the members (technical) and by research activity and shared understanding of educational of the institutional network. So, while within the project. The latter has practices that then enabled different these were formal networks for the included fieldwork exploring the lives partners to go on and use the OER common purpose, the openness also of female primary school teachers living for a variety of other purposes. This enabled aspects of informality between and working in rural or semi-rural areas has led to extended adoption of OER members in sharing information about in Ghana, Nigeria, South Africa, Kenya and extended practices amongst some innovations. and Sudan. of these partners without the need for additional external grant funding. However, it has to be acknowledged, 3.3 Case analysis and conclusion just as with the EADTU network, As with the MORIL project, the external grant funding can be critical TESSA network of practice started with in maintaining the momentum of a desire to share the knowledge and adoption and sustaining the network experiences of an early OER adopter of practice. It is also the case that the eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 18 eLearningPapers ReferencesIn-depth  tkins, D.E., Brown, J S. and Hammond, A.L. (2007). A Review of the Open Educational Resources (OER) Movement: A Achievements, Challenges, and New Opportunities, Report to The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, accessed August 17 2010 from http://www.hewlett.org/oer. ,  eser, G. (2007). Open Educational Practices and Resources: OLCOS Roadmap 2012, 150 pp., accessed August 17 2010 G , from http://www.olcos.org/english/roadmap/  Rogers, E.M. (1962). Diffusion of Innovations, New York: Free Press.  Rogers, E.M. (1983). Diffusion of Innovations (3rd ed.), New York: Free Press.  Rogers, E.M. (1995). Diffusion of Innovations (4th ed.), New York: Free Press.  Rogers, E.M. (2003). Diffusion of Innovations (5th ed.), New York: Free Press.  Hamel, G. and Prahalad, C.K. (1994). Competing for the Future, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.  Hildreth, P and Kimble, C. (2004). Innovations through Communities of Practice, Idea Group Publishing, Hershey USA. .  ave, J. and Wenger, E. (1991). Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Learning, L Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.  rown J.S. and Duguid P (2001). Knowledge and Organization: A Social-Practice Perspective, B . Organization Science 12, 2, pp. 198-213.  Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of Practice, Learning, Meaning, and Identity, Cambridge University Press, New York.  Podolny, J.M., Page, K.L. (1998). Network Forms of Organization, Annual Review of Sociology 24, pp. 57-76. helan, E. (2007). Exploring Knowledge Exchange in Electronic Networks of Practice, W Journal of Information Technology 22, pp. 5-12.  Hustad, E. and Teigland, R. (2005). Taking a Differentiated View of Intra-Organizational Distributed Networks of Practice: A Case Study Exploring Knowledge Activities, Diversity and Communication Media Use, Communities and Technologies, pp. 239-261.  Brown J.S. and Duguid P (2002). The Social Life of Information, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, USA. .  Deroian, F (2002). Formation of Social Networks and Diffusion of Innovations, Research Policy 31, pp. 835-846. .  ourley, B. and Lane, A. (2009). Re-invigorating Openness at The Open University: the Role of Open Educational G Resources, Open Learning, Vol. 24(1), pp. 57-65.  kada, A., Connolly, T., and Lane, A. (2010). Integrating Strategic Views about Open Educational Resources through O Collaborative Sensemaking, International Journal of Technology, Knowledge and Society, 6(6), pp. 165-186. Lane A. (2008). Reflections on Sustaining Open Educational Resources: an Institutional Case Study, eLearning Papers No. 10, September 2008, 13 pp.  Wolfenden, F (2008). The TESSA OER Experience: Building Sustainable Models of Production and User Implementation, . Journal of Interactive Media in Education (3) 16.  Lane, A. and McAndrew, P (2010). Are Open Educational Resources Systematic or Systemic Change Agents for Teaching . Practice?, British Journal of Educational Technology, 41, pp. 952-962. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 19 eLearningPapers Virtual Mobility: The Value ofIn-depth Inter-Cultural Exchange [ ] Authors Rosana Montes. rosana@ugr.es [ +] Miguel Gea. mgea@ugr.es [ +] Dpt. Lenguajes y Sistemas Informáticos E.T.S.I. Informatica y de Telecomunicación University of Granada Claudio Dondi. cdondi@scienter.org [ +] Tania Salandin. tsalandin@scienter.org [ +] SCIENTER 1. Introduction Virtual Mobility makes European and worldwide available Summary According to the “Trends in Global to those who are not able to benefit from existing, physical, Higher Education: Tracking an international exchange programmes, and therefore benefits a Academic Revolution” report – wider community. In this paper, we reformulate the concept prepared for the 2009 UNESCO of Virtual Mobility and introduce the Movinter Modelling World Conference of Higher Education Framework, which supports HEIs in designing and implementing – major trends in higher education an integrated use of Virtual Mobility to enhance the are: massification in higher education; internationalisation of study experiences. globalization and internationalization; The paper closes with recommendations on how to extract distance education and new applications the potential of Virtual Mobility in the next decade. We must for information and communication continue to question why Virtual Mobility is important, and technologies (ICTs); the privatization pay attention to the unexploited potential of this idea, in order of higher education; the global flow of to: (1) democratise access to an international, transdisciplinary talent (globalization has exacerbated and multicultural study experience, now available only to a the worldwide movement of highly relatively small minority of students, thereby contributing to educated people); the academic social cohesion; (2) produce stable collaboration among teaching profession at a crossroads for the student and research teams, and their institutions, building on recognised experience; research universities and the complementarities and specialisations through networking “world-class” phenomenon; financing activities; (3) make the practice of joint titles, at various academic higher education; quality assurance levels (undergraduate, master and doctoral programs) and with and university-industry linkages. To diverse modalities (master classes, single subjects, seminars and cope with these major trends and to workshops) a reality, even before a full institutional recognition strengthen and enhance international of academic titles from other countries are in place; and (4) link cooperation – by encouraging diversity, European universities/HEIs to each other and to universities/HEIs pursuing equity, relevance and quality – in other parts of the world. HEIs can rely on VIRTUAL mobility (VM), one of the most valuable and, at the same time, underestimated tool. Tags higher education, virtual mobility, internationalisation, cultural exchange, equal access Languages cz da de bg et el es fr it lv lt hu nl pl pt ro sk sl fi sv eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 20 eLearningPapersIn-depth Mobility is a key issue in our phones, laptops, GPS navigators, Section 2 focuses on VM as a key society. The benefits of the Erasmus etc.). Technology allows us to create issue in formal training. Section 3 Programme is widely known and the new models of communication and introduces the Modelling Framework, attractiveness of European Higher collaboration, that also require new aimed to support HEIs in designing Education Institutions (HEIs) to HEIs models of learning (Bessenyei, 2007) and implementing an integrated use of of other parts of the world is mainly and tools for adapting traditional VM to enhance internationalisation build by long term commitment to methods to new scenarios based on of study experiences, curricula and institutional cooperation in research digital citizens. The use of information academic titles. Section 4 deals with and teaching, that also minimises and communications technologies the Stakeholders community of leading the concerns about the brain drain (ICT) should be explored to practitioners, policy and decision impact of mobility of individual internationalise curricula and learning makers, and researchers interested in students. Virtual and physical mobility experiences by means of VM. Because the implementation and integration of provide an enrichment to the regular of the importance of VM, several VM; it also introduces the VM services educational environment of higher educational initiatives have been the Movinter Consortium is presently education institutions. Teachers conducted in different countries in working at. Finally, Section 5 highlights and students benefit linguistically, recent years (Op de Beeck, 2006), main pending issues and trends. culturally and educationally from largely independent of one another, the experience of other European emerging virtual higher education 2. The right term for Virtual countries and their (academic) initiatives at regional and national fields of study. Although physical, or level which tend to “reinvent the Mobility traditional, mobility is considered the wheel” over and over again. Virtual Mobility has pedagogical preferred approach by Latin American advantages and enriches the more students to study internationally, VM Building on the above background traditional learning activities. The is the most significant alternative to the Movinter Project (Erasmus learning process can be improved it as it allows to overcome serious Mundus Programme – Action 4) (Gea, through interactive and collaborative economic and social constraints to 2010) aims to contribute to increase learning. It integrates students in a study abroad. cooperation and structural link among collaborative learning environment HEIs of Europe and Latin America while keeping the benefits of a Technology is related with knowledge through an in-depth exploration of structured presence in a university sharing and networking in the new the potential of ICT – and particularly campus. Furthermore,VM creates space of global communication in a VM – to internationalise curricula exchange opportunities for those form of social-computing (Arroyo, in a balanced and mutual benefit students unable to participate in 2008). We can benefit of technology- approach, aware of the significance of traditional Erasmus exchanges. It is aware places (WIFI, 3G connectivity, local cultures and of the need to value almost affordable to the whole student fibre channel, Bluetooth) under existing excellence of research and community in Europe, Africa, Asia richer and richer devices (mobile education in all parts of the world. and America, rather than to a small eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 21 eLearningPapersIn-depth Figure 1: Path towards Virtual Mobility 
 minority of students who are presently Other benefits of VM relate more the MOBILITY contents themselves. able to benefit from a mobility grant. closely to physical mobility and are not People are not mobilised in this case, proper of classical distance education: what is mobilised, and therefore In the framework of the Movinter transferred, is knowledge, that is what Project (Gea, 2010) we proposed to • t helps to develop the habit of inter- i lies at the basis of the Knowledge further explore and reformulate the cultural communication for learning Society.VIRTUAL mobility does not concept of VM in a systematic way. We and non-learning purposes, so raising simply represent the use of tools and started by reviewing the state of the art tolerance for difference and inter- new approaches allowing the transfer of the use of ICT to internationalise cultural awareness; of knowledge, we would then simply curricula and learning experiences • t integrates the students in a i talk about e-Learning and Distance (Boonen, 2009;Vetturini, 2010), and collaborative learning environment Learning. These are teaching/learning clearly differentiating the concept of while keeping the benefits of a approaches, while VM just makes use VM from distance eLearning and structured presence in a university of ICT, and has an inborn political physical mobility (Fisher, 2009). campus. undertone. Compared to traditional lecture-based VM helps avoiding the possible learners’ Virtual Mobility is mainly aimed at the teaching,VM shares a number of feeling of social isolation typical of internationalisation of higher education common potential benefits (Dondi, Distance Education, because a virtual in a mutual benefit approach, in respect 1998) with classical distance education: trans-national group is intrinsically of local cultures to ultimately valorise • t may provide quick access to recent i interacting. If compared to physical existing excellence of education and knowledge for a large number of mobility (Fisher, 2009; Gea, 2009),VM research in all parts of the world. At first learners; adds the benefits of producing intense glance (elearing europa, 2011) VM is familiarisation with communication defined as the use of information and • t encourages learners’autonomy and i technology and being affordable for communication technologies (ICT) to gives them a broader choice on what, practically all the students’ community. obtain the same benefits as one would how and when to learn; have with physical mobility but without The two terms,VIRTUAL and the need to travel. But it’s really much • t gives a relevant meaning to the i MOBILITY, are often misconceived: more than this, virtual courses may be use of technology in teaching and MOBILITY leads one to think to used as a preparatory activity to physical learning by increasing the use of separation rather than to connectivity, exchange, enabling a better preparation existing technological infrastructure; access and community But, presumably, and follow-up of students participating • t increases access to high level i what makes VM really weak is the term in physical exchange programs. learning opportunities to people virtual. In some respects virtual – if who would not otherwise benefit compared to physical – recalls a sense from them for physical, economic or of intangibility and volatility, running organisational reasons. the risk of conveying such flimsiness to eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 22 eLearningPapersIn-depth Figure 2: Virtual mobility features 
 2.1 The proposed concept of VM is a concept that still needs Virtual Mobility and justifies the Virtual Mobility consolidation and has been used to contribution from different countries. describe experiences with different Within the modernisation process 5.  se of appropriate technological U characteristics, inspired by different of HEIs specific areas/activities can solutions - choices that support the educational models, conducted in be identified: the use of VM “to different types of Virtual Mobility. different academic and non-academic complement physical mobility of contexts. In order to understand what 6. oint choice of the subject to be J students and researchers”,VM as a mean VM is, the Movinter Team identified studied through VM - in practically to enhance “Research collaboration”, ten descriptive elements, the so-called any subject in which comparisons to enforce “capacity building”, to VM components: from different national contexts may provide further “opportunities for enhance the value of curricula and postgraduate students and researchers”, 1.  nternational student groups - I prepare students for an international to deliver “joint titles”, to “jointly students from different countries social, economical and professional develop curriculum” and to further who mainly study in their local environment. exploit “ICT potential”. Ultimately, (chosen) university with their fellow VM is a facilitator and aggregating students and without going abroad 7. oint curricula design - which adds J element providing overall coherence to to study for long periods of time; value in terms of reciprocity and HEIs fundamental activities.VIRTUAL for those students,VM is a way to mutual benefits between the HEIs in MOBILITY can be then visualised as a internationalise. the different countries. ‘meeting point’ of these areas/activities 2.  nteractivity & Communication I 8. oint production of learning J that also represent different paths between students of different resources - or any activity easing towards the discovery of VM potential countries through ICT – interaction communication, learning and (Figure 1). an communication among groups of intercultural exchange (reflective Therefore,VM can be reached from students/teachers based in different tools, non-interactive tools, different angles and, most importantly, countries to discuss diversity collaborative tools, communication represents an aggregation point, in depending on national/local/ tools, social networking tools). the neighbourhood of which revolve contextual elements. 9. oint titles - wherever possible, J – at a different pace, depending of based on a long term confidence 3.  nternational teaching groups I HEIs strategy – a number of elements relationship. - cooperation in designing, structuring peculiar HEIs activities, implementing, evaluating courses. 10.  utual confidence relationship M being the comparative analysis dimension the cross-driver of HEIs 4.  ulticultural exchange (as a key M - the originating vision stresses main activities and collaboration, objective to produce added value) - that the choice of subjects and the cooperation, joint the main keywords. the multicultural [intercultural, see design of the learning experience further on] component constitutes should reflect the advantages of a an integral part of the concept of multi/inter-cultural approach. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 23 eLearningPapersIn-depth These ten VM components (also internationalisation strategy respectful intercultural perspective where cultural see Figure 2) may change and adapt of diversity securing that way the diversity is not just recognized but also to different contexts and models, successful implementation of VM: understood, and there is a strive for answering different expectations, dealing with it. Intercultural dialogue ambitions and existing resources that Interculturality – Intercultural dialogue is then crucial in our changing society may change/evolve with the passing and internationalisation of learning/ where people’s interaction is growing of time.VM can also be achieved to knowledge are integral part of VM; faster and – to cope with these changes complement physical mobility (Op when talking about VM, both must – HEIs should strengthen intercultural de Beeck, 2008; Achten, 2010), where be there, as internationalisation does perspective in their internationalisation the technology supports the smooth not necessarily imply interculturality. process. transition from different models of The intercultural dialogue implies the learning styles. Therefore,VM is a recognition of diversity: difference of Right about now multiculturalism is new emerging model to increase opinions, points of view, and values brought into question in Europe, the support of nomadic students when existing within each individual supposed multiculturalism failure has (physical) mobility becomes a natural culture but also between cultures (see been publicly voiced in the European form of specialization and curriculum intercultural dialogue definition of the policy arena. Without knowing what development. International Association of Universities would happened a few months later, the – 2008). Then, intercultural dialogue Movinter VM White Paper “In prise of On the basis of this characterisation, goes beyond HEIs internationalisation, VM. How ICT can support institutional what is proposed is not a uniform and providing and integrating insight of cooperation and internationalisation rigid model, but rather a meta-model diversity when dealing with more of curricula in higher education” or a flexible modelling framework complex environments. In our Society forestalled the discussion by giving adaptable to different contexts, needs, there is a great need for each individual “interculturalism” a lead position in teaching and learning goals and to challenge its own perspectives on the Movinter discussion, in particular approaches.VM experiences may diversity: intercultural dialogue is a because of its dialogic undertone, seen have different facets and degrees of valuable tool to that end. It encourages as a more dynamic alternative to the implementation, ranging from the people awareness of the importance Cartesian monologicality which is one-off seminar up to a full developed of developing aptitudes open to the apparently affecting multiculturalism. programme. For that reason different world, respectful of cultural diversity models of VM may be put in place, leading, ultimately, to common values We are not questioning i.e. Gidden’s involving VM components at a different building. This aptitude also challenges sophisticated multiculturalism vs. development stage. academic institutions carrying on naïve multiculturalism or rejecting their internationalisation process. multiculturalism tout court, we simply But, regardless of the learning format They should slide from a multicultural find that interculturalism better suits and the involved VM components, three perspective (culture peaceful our purpose of describing main VM key-elements are essential to design an coexistence) to the more dynamic facets. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 24 eLearningPapersIn-depth Ensuring all partners’ participation MOVINTER VIRTUAL MOBILITY SUB-MODELS – In accordance with the previous key-element, all partners should actively Sub-model 1. ENHANCED DISTANCE EDUCATION participate in the VM experience. An institution is using International distance education (traditional) and shows at- Each partner should contribute to the tention to intercultural elements by using local support centres abroad, also en- choice of the subject to be studied couraging local content development and adoption (as an example: http://portal. through VM, to the learning resources uned.es). production, to the course/programme Sub-model 2. RESOURCE-BASED INTERNATIONAL eLEARNING design and teaching. The active participation of each partner, allows to avoid the possible inconvenient of Several institutions are using common resources and common repositories (http:// www.universia.es as an example). having a leading HEI providing the conceptual and scientific strength to the Sub-model 3. INFORMAL LEARNING teaching/learning programme and the Comparative studies or common problems to be addressed. Very good use of VM. partner HEIs assuming a mere teaching No recognition of titles. Problem-based learning issues. Informal learning, but very and local support role. Moreover, the relevant to learners and contexts (as an example: educators or medical interna- course/programme resulting from the tional learning communities of practice). active participation is better accepted as Sub-model 4. IN-DEPTH ACADEMIC COOPERATION part of each HEI’s academic production. Thanks to the active participation Several HEIs agree to develop together joint curricula but they do not agree or are not allowed to provide a joint title. of all partners, HEIs develop a real cooperation experience, by fairly Sub-model 5. FULL DEVELOPMENT OF VM COMPONENTS sharing objectives and ways to reach Joint (intercultural) curricula design and implementation with full title. and assess them. Strong communication aptitude – Table 1: Virtual Mobility Spectrum Communication flow among partners should be encouraged and developed at all levels to ensure dialogue, exchange of consideration: they should be easy to 3. The Modelling deploy and easy to use to meet non- ideas and growing mutual confidence. digital natives’ needs and, at the same Framework This aptitude should go beyond the time, new communication tools and To support the capacity of HEIs to HEIs partners sphere involving all phenomena (social networking, the design and implement an integrated VM actors (students, researchers Semantic Web & WEB 3.0) should use of VM and ICT to enhance and teachers). Communication tools be embraced to meet digital natives internationalization of study should also be carefully taken into expectations and needs. experiences, curricula and academic eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 25 eLearningPapersIn-depth 
Figure 3: Virtual Mobility Dynamics titles, the Movinter Consortium contexts, needs, teaching and learning the use of different self-evaluation developed the Modelling Framework goals and approaches. tools, institutions are able to position (MF). The MF in not a practical guide, themselves along the Virtual Mobility but rather an orientation guide, that The process of mapping and studying Spectrum (see Table 1). should allow HEIs (or individuals European and Latin-American VM strictly related to the academic field, experiences and the combination of After self-evaluating its VM state-of- such as professors, researchers, students, the different VM components identified the-art, HEI has then positioned itself …) to clearly define what to expect and by the Movinter partnerships, allowed in the VM Spectrum and can now what not to expect from their approach the identification of 5 VM sub-models work to achieve a different/desired to VM. (that can of course be more than 5, in VM sub-model by going through the the two-year Project lifespan project Virtual Mobility Dynamics (see Figure The Modelling Framework is one activities – process of VM experiences 3). The Virtual Mobility Dynamics is of the key-outputs of the Movinter mapping, best practices identification aimed at supporting HEIs to get to Project. The current section presents and cross-analysis lead to the the desired model regardless of their a dynamic system of VM modelling identification of these 5 sub-models). starting point. The figure below shows framework adaptable to different Thanks to a five-step process involving how the desired VM sub-model could eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 26 eLearningPapersIn-depth be attained: the course starts from the implementation and integration of VM to increase internationalisation of International Distance Education (IDE) in order to: curricula. Physical at best, represents entering the VM context. for Universities less than the 5-10% • dentify and aggregate existing i of the overall of incoming students. The VM Dynamics has a twofold relevant communities, and to As an example, University of Granada purpose: (1) to allow HEIs to clearly support a stakeholders community (Spain) is one of the most recognised identify its position within the scheme to implement the services for virtual universities in Erasmus mobility, and in (2) to provide HEIs with the needed mobility and ICT exploitation for 2007 was awarded as the first University information to get to another VM international cooperation; with more than 3.000 students in the sub-model. There is no hierarchic order • upport the capacity of HEIs to s Erasmus programme. Furthermore, among sub-models, each sub-model design and implement an integrated VM opens new roads (using the can act as a launching pad toward next use of VM and ICT to enhance new opportunities based on Internet sub-model, according to the HEI needs internationalisation of study technology) to share experiences and and context. experiences, curricula and academic joint curricula design in different titles; countries, sharing teachers, students and The modelling framework includes common recognitions. a tool for evaluation. So HEIs are • upport and enhance policy dialogue s provided with quality criteria & on the potential of ICT and VM as an The community through discussion indicators to weight in function of engine of internationalisation; groups and other intercommunication their chose model. By self-evaluating/ tools has been a starting point to weighting the following criteria and •  isseminate project results to the d detect strengths and weaknesses in the related indicators, HEIs gain a clearer relevant communities and to promote Universities’ internationalization and understand of its strategic position by the sustainability of the project cooperation processes. Using the case assessing strengths and weaknesses of outcomes. of University of Granada, the different particular aspects of VM. point of views of stakeholders about The community, in its embryonic stages, is available online at http://movinter. promoting and enhancing such issues eu where an open debate with/among could be clearly observed. At first 4. The EU-LA Movinter Stakeholders has been launched and glance, the positive aspect was that the Stakeholders community supported by a number of local and University itself is the first step to create international awareness seminars on such framework, and therefore: In the context of mobility interchange between Europe and Latin America, VM (carried out in the two-year it is important that each University Movinter partnership is developing project life-cycle). Information gathered (from the rector’s government) has a an online community for leading through seminars and stakeholders decided vision of being international practitioners, policy and decision revealed that VM seems to be an as a strategic direction. In the case of makers, and researchers interested in the emerging trend and a strategic approach University of Granada it is true, as eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 27 eLearningPapersIn-depth evidenced by the efforts to achieve the about their own situation with relation reality, much before a full institutional “International Campus of Excellence in to VM and their objectives,VM reports recognition of academic titles from e-health and ICT”. developed by the Movinter team other countries are in place; and (4) to (available at www.movinter.eu) are just link European universities/HEIs among it is important to set a strategic the first step toward further reports on them and with universities/HEIs of policy to promote in teachers and VM issue. ‘Policy’ and management other parts of the world. students the need of Cooperation advice won’t be neglected, as a matter and Internationalisation to enhance of fact partners are planning to provide On the basis of the re-formulations their skills, share experiences and the necessary advice to support HEIs in of the aim and concept of VM the cooperation. Also, Granada is a good managing its own VM experience or to following twelve lines of action are example by the number of Erasmus identify and overcome possible ‘policy’ proposed as means to build on and mobility experiences, Erasmus Mundus and management constraints to VM from the potential of VM in the next Masters, master in cooperation with introduction or existing successful VM ten years. The Movinter Consortium Latin America and other countries. experiences. proposes and is particularly active in action lines meant to raise awareness of the university should promote ICT VM benefits. These are: among staff members, students and 5. Conclusions at administration levels to achieve 1. et and launch information s We should keep questioning why is the e-government. A successful campaigns to widely disseminate VM Virtual Mobility important and pay implementation should achieve better concept, opportunities and benefits attention to the unexploited potential results in the cooperation with other for individuals, institutions and the of this idea: (1) to democratise access institutions. society as a whole; to international, transdisciplinary The online community has been and multicultural study experience, 2. nvite VM alumni to witness their i developed not only for discussing or now reserved to a relatively small experience to promote VM, but disseminating such ideas through web minority of students, contributing above all to reflect on potential and 2.0 tools. It is also aimed at developing thereby to the social cohesion; (2) to criticalities to be addressed; and launching a set of supporting VM produce stable collaboration among services. This set will support HEIs teaching and research teams, and their 3.  evelop awareness campaigns d intended to start a VM experience, institutions, building on recognised towards policy makers and academic proving advise through a set of best complementarities and specialisations leaderships, presenting VM benefits practices analysed by the Movinter through networking activities; (3) to and urging them to set specific Consortium during the project lifespan make the practice of joint titles, at policies aimed at VM promotion and (already available for downloading at various academic levels (undergraduate, advancement; the Movinter website, www.movinter. master and doctoral programs) and with diverse modalities (master classes, single The Consortium consider important eu), self-assessment tool are/being subjects, seminars and workshops) a the VM experience implementation, developed to guide HEIs reflection eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 28 eLearningPapersIn-depth taking in consideration the following Policy actions to promote and advance 6. Acknowledgments and action lines: VM have been identified: Disclaimer 4.  evelop, document and analyse good d 10.  ropose (or at least allow) VM p This paper has been funded with practices in view of developing an actions within existing policies and support of the Lifelong Learning educational model for VM; programmes (Erasmus, Erasmus Programme of the European Mundus, Alfa, etc.); Commission, (EACEA) project 5. nclude VM elements in best i agreement number 2010 – 3887-Virtual examples and common practices of 11. nvolve student unions in the i Campuses (OER-TEST). This paper international cooperation amongst debate on VM to get inputs and reflects the views only of the authors, higher education institutions; support for the equity potential of and the Commission cannot be held virtual mobility in giving access to responsible for any use which may be 6. nvite top academics and key players i international HE experience to all in specific context-related areas to made of the information contained students; therein. take part in VM experiences; 12. et objectives for student s 7.  evelop a case for VM at all relevant d participation in VM by 2020 and international organisations who commit stakeholders to achieve lead the policy discourse in higher them. education modernisation; Even when all these action lines are 8.  evelop approaches capable of d implemented, coherent long term guiding and assuring sustainability policy support at Government and conditions for best practice, including Institutional level remains a key factor capitalisation of learning resources to be considered if the potential impact developed through VM; of Virtual Mobility has to be achieved. 9.  evelop a quality assurance approach d for VM and present it to the relevant Quality Assurance Institutions as well as HEI and their networks; eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 29 eLearningPapers ReferencesIn-depth  Arroyo, R.F & Gea, M. & Garrido, J.L.& Haya, P . .A.. & Carro, R.M. (2008). Authoring Social-aware Tasks on Active Spaces Journal of Universal Computer Science, vol. 14 no. 17: pp. 2758-2776.  Bessenyei, I. (2007). Learning and Teaching in the Information Society. eLearning 2.0 and Connectivism. In Information Society, R. Pinter (Ed), Ed. Gondolat, 2007 http://www.ittk.hu/netis/doc/ISCB_eng/12_Bessenyei_final.pdf. Access . date: 7 February 2011.  de Beeck, I. (2006). Being Mobile, European Cooperation in Education through Virtual Mobility. A best practice manual. Op http://www.being-mobile.net  M. (2010). The Movinter Project: http://www.movinter.eu Access date: 7 February 2011. Gea,  Boonen, A. (2009). The Role of Virtual Mobility to Enhance International Cooperation among Higher Education Institutions http://elearning.ugr.es/movinter_v4/pg/file/read/22016/report-on-the-role-of-ict-and-virtual-mobility-to-enhance- international-cooperation-among-he. Access date: 7 February 2011.  Vetturini, B. (2010) The Report on Best Practices. http://elearning.ugr.es/movinter_v4/pg/file/read/22017/the-report- on-best-practices. Access date: 7 February 2011.  ondi, C. (1998). An Economic Analysis of Virtual Mobility. Beyond HUMANITIES, long term strategy for ODL in university D environments and virtual mobility (p. 87-98). Brussels: Coimbra Group.  ondi, C., Salandin T. (2010) Virtual Mobility: a modelling framework http://elearning.ugr.es/movinter_v4/pg/file/ D read/12456/modelling-framework-final Access date: 7 February 2011  Dondi, C., Salandin T. (2010). The Movinter White Paper: “In prise of VM. How ICT can support institutional cooperation and internationalisation of curricula in higher education” http://elearning.ugr.es/movinter_v4/pg/file/read/12445/the- . movinter-white-paper. Access date: 7 February 2011.  Fischer, T. & Gea, M. (2009). Mobi-Blog: the European Weblog Platform for Mobile Students. http://mobi-blog.eu/ Access date: 7 February 2011.  M. & Arenas, B. & Montes, R. & Luigi Di Stasi, L. (2009). Web 2.0 for Mobile Students: Informal Learning through Gea, Storytelling Approaches. EDULEARN’09: the International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies. Barcelona 2009. Elearning europa.info: definitions.(2011) http://www.elearningeuropa.info/main/index.php?page=glossary&abc=V. Access date: 17 January 2011.  de Beeck, I. (2008). VM-BASE: Virtual Mobility Before and After Student Exchanges. http://vm-base.europace.org/ Op Access date: 7 February 2011.  Achten, M. (2010) Move-iT: Home & Away Forum: Coaching Students from a Distance. http://move-it.europace.org/ Access date: 7 February 2011. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 30 eLearningPapers The Language Campus:In-depth Role-Play in an eLearning Environment [ ] Authors Dr. Paul Pivec PhD, MComp, GDipHE, CranberryBlue R & D Limited, New Zealand paul.pivec@mac.com [ +] 1. Introduction Collaborative learning allows participants to exchange Summary Pillay (2003) studied groups of information as well as produce ideas, simplify problems, children playing computer games and and resolve tasks. When using an e-learning platform in a their subsequent ability to complete collaborative environment, the teacher becomes an active partner, instructional tasks. Pillay suggested moderator and advisor in the educational process, as do the that playing recreational computer other learners. This paper looks at how multiplayer role-play games might influence performance of games (games that have a social environment allowing players subsequent computer-based educational to communicate) are adept at fostering this type of learning tasks. This could suggest that cognitive experience and, based on previous studies by the author and abilities have been increased while others, discusses why role-play games are the most suitable digital playing digital games, or the focus game genre for Game Based Learning (GBL). and motivation for completing subsequent computer-based tasks has The article describes specific areas that should be considered been enhanced. Butler (1988) and when designing a role-play scenario to be used within a digital McGrenere’s (1996) earlier findings game and shares the experience of creating and subsequently were similar to those of Pillay, both testing these theories using a single-player example game. The concluding that by using games for resulting platform, the Language Campus, is used to exemplify a learning: best practice model of GBL that incorporates role-play scenarios within a collaborative, social e-learning environment. 1. he time to learn information is t reduced; 2.  erformance is increased through p greater interest; 3. earners are motivated to participate; l and Tags 4. learner attendance is increased. language acquisition, role-play games, Games for learning, or serious games as Game Based Learning, best practice model they are often called, vary from single player to multiplayer games. Different types of games have different sets of features that have to be considered in respect to their application for education. For declarative knowledge, features such as content, assessment ability, and the scaffolding of levels Languages cz da de bg et el es fr it lv lt hu nl pl pt ro sk sl fi sv eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 31 eLearningPapersIn-depth along with time constraints, are all consideration (Pivec & Pivec, 2008). failure is considered a point where the very important. To acquire skills, games The main areas to be considered are as user gets some feedback. In Game- must be session based, where attention follows. Based Learning making a mistake - or is paid to creating an immersive trial and error - is a primary way to •  etermine a pedagogical approach for D environment, thus encouraging learn and some consider it to be the the lesson plan persistent re-engagement invoking a motivation for players to keep on drill and practice regime. In the area of •  ituate the task to achieve the S trying. In games, we learn through decision-making and problem solving, learning outcome in a model world failure and consequence and feedback games should be narrative based where is provided in the form of action (as •  laborate on the details needed to E chance is a factor, accurate in the opposed to feedback in the form of complete the task problem descriptions, with background the text explanation that is provided in knowledge of the content being vital to •  ncorporate the underlying I instructional material). successful completion. pedagogical support •  ap the learning activities to interface M Salen (2007) and Buckingham, There are specific educational actions of the game Burn, and Pelletier (2005) advocate domains where game-based learning that allowing students to design and concepts and approaches have a •  ap the learning concepts to M create their own educational games high learning value. These domains interface objects on the game encourages meta-level reflection and are interdisciplinary topics where fosters creativity.Yatim (2008) from skills such as critical thinking, group When designing an example of an the University of Magdeburg, tested communication, debate and decision- educational game we must reflect upon this with students between the ages of making are of high importance. didactical approach and related topics. 9 to 12, and found through designing Such subjects, if learned in isolation, Pivec & Pivec (2008) suggest that we their own educational games, students often cannot be applied in real world have to create the situation asking, appeared to be enthusiastic and showed contexts. But, if real world contexts are “What do we want learners to learn?” a high level of interest. Prensky (2006) taught in collaborative environments, Before defining the activities we should also suggests that games designed by learning is often accelerated. reconsider the saying, “failure opens the students for students would have a gate to learning”, and we should try higher level of engagement, although 2. Digital Games versus to provide an answer to the question no supporting research was offered “Why are the learners learning this?” in this publication. However, this Simulations versus Role There are many interactive learning would possibly overcome some of the Play techniques that have already been barriers to acceptance (Rice, 2007) To create a successful Game-Based used in Game-Based Learning. One by allowing teachers to work with Learning opportunity, defined steps of of those techniques is learning from students aligning the game content to game design with elements of learning mistakes (Prensky, 2001; Gee, 2003; the curriculum. Although designing and engagement should be taken into Squire, 2003; Shaffer, 2006), where digital games to learn provides many eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 32 eLearningPapersIn-depth Figure 1: The Overlap of Simulation, Game, and Pedagogy (Aldrich, 2009) 
 opportunities (Pivec & Kearney, 2007) in conflict defined by a set of rules and the topic of digital games, Aldrich for students and teachers, the theory of the result is a defined outcome. They concludes that elements of games are learning from mistakes and failure is not argue that while games and role-plays often controversial in the educational included. share the key features that define them arena. He states that digital game both as games, they are different in one elements often; There are various platforms available critical respect; role-plays do not always that offer an environment where have a defined outcome. However, • dilute the learning, teachers and trainers, and even students, Salen and Zimmerman concede that can define their own on-line role- • are subjective in the “fun” aspect, this depends on the framework or playing scenarios or simulations, and platform that provides the role-play. • reduce the accuracy of any learning, provide the opportunity for learners They suggest that where a game and a to apply factual knowledge, learn from role-play overlap is that they are systems • focus on competition, and mistakes through experiential learning, requiring players to interact according and to gain experience through a safe • are often badly implemented. to a set of rules in a contest or in finite digital world. Teachers can define conflict (Salen & Zimmerman 2003). Kelly (2005) agrees and argues that new games or adopt and modify sample simulations have an enormous impact games without any programming Linser (2008) suggests that for on education and many products skills. Similar to the concept from pedagogical purposes, a role-play is such as Microsoft’s “Flight Simulator” EC funded project Unigame (2004), closer to a simulation than a game. are in fact simulations and neither products such as “Fablusi” (2009) Linser argues that with the acquisition games nor role-plays. But, Fortugno provide a variety of communication of real world knowledge, and the and Zimmerman (2005) suggest means within the scenarios; players can understanding and skills acquired by that teachers and trainers do not yet communicate with the use of discussion the player, a role-play is designed as an understand the use and potential of forums, email, and text chat modules. attempt to simulate processes, issues and games or simulations, and most games An important feature of this concept conditions that exist in the real world. do not include sound pedagogical is the collaborative learning design, Aldrich (2009) defines simulation, principles in their design. However, which allows participants to exchange games, and pedagogy in three distinct Sitzmann and Ely (2010) argue that information as well as to produce ideas, areas but with overlapping elements simulation-type games have the simplify problems, and resolve the tasks. (Figure 1). He suggests that the potential to enhance the learning When using an e-learning platform pedagogical (also referred to as didactic) of work-related knowledge and such as this for role-play scenarios, the elements of a simulation or a game skills. Their study concluded that teacher is the active partner, moderator can act as a mentor and take the place when simulation games are actively and advisor of the educational process of the teacher. He also states that used within the lesson, and at any (Pivec & Pivec, 2009b). simulations require game-like elements other time available to the learner, Salen and Zimmerman (2003) define to be more engaging, and pedagogical declarative knowledge increased by games as systems where a player engages elements to be more effective. On 11%, procedural knowledge by 14%, eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 33 eLearningPapersIn-depth retention 9%, and self-efficacy by 20%, technical resource and the barriers in 7. Motivational and emotional than that of their comparison group. allowing games to be installed into the influences on learning. school environment. As the majority Akilli (2007) states that designers of of schools have Internet access with 8. Intrinsic motivation to learn. both simulations and digital games need browser-based systems (EUN, 2009; to improve their instructional design 9. Effects of motivation on effort. Futurelab, 2009), an e-learning platform and equally, instructional designers need would be a sustainable and cost effective •  evelopmental and Social D to give more attention to game design solution. Factors principles, as there is a lack of guideline documentation supporting this area 10. Developmental influences on of pedagogy. Sitzmann and Ely (2010) 3. Role-Play Game-Based learning. state that designers need to exploit the Learning in an e-Learning motivational capacity of simulation-type 11. Social influences on learning. games. Linser (2008) agrees and argues World To create any successful e-Learning • Individual Differences that while he considers role-play as a simulation, given the right environment opportunity, the 14 learner-centered 12. Individual differences in learning. and delivery platform, a role-play can psychological principles defined by the include all the engagement, immersion, American Psychological Association 13. Learning and diversity. and motivation elements that are (APA) are often regarded as a inherent in the commercial recreational benchmark. They are grouped in 4 areas 14. Standards and assessment. game environment. and listed as: (Learner-centered psychological Hence, through the successful •  ognitive and Metacognitive C principles revised, 1996) implementation of documented Factors Many educational technologists game design principles for GBL, advocate the shift from instructor- 1. Nature of the learning process. and an appropriate environment and centered to learner or learner- delivery platform, role-play games 2. Goals of the learning process. centered approaches (constructivism). would appear to harbor a promise of Learner-centered pedagogy looks at persistent re-engagement and recursive 3. Construction of knowledge. what the learners need to learn, what learning to support quality learning their learning preferences are, and within education. The following 4. Strategic thinking. what is meaningful to them in their section examines the use of e-learning 5. Thinking about thinking. specific environment. E-Learning platforms to create such games, as one platforms provide opportunities for of the main issues raised by teachers at 6. Context of learning. learning materials, tasks, and activities the Online Educa conference (2006) to fit individual learning styles and and reiterated by Clarke and Treagust •  otivational and Affective M preferences. Networks of learning (2010), was the lack of adequate Factors eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 34 eLearningPapersIn-depth information, such as digital libraries and motivation of the learners and online training games to teach their employees e-Learning platforms, are also available socialization, there is no possibility for and students (Bell, Kanar, & Kozlowski, to motivate learner interests and spark successful development of stages 3, 4, 2008; Summers, 2004). The challenge ideas. An online role-play game fits and 5. The motivation of the learners was to create a game for learning within this realm and if designed and online socialization are two of the that would be accessible to the target correctly, can be categorized as a requirements highlighted by participants audience, and come within a time multiplayer game, and could be equated in part two of this thesis. allowance and minimal budget. to collaborative e-Learning. Kennedy (2002) suggests that e-Learning To create a role-play game, we need In line with comments from Online environments have implications for to develop a storyline or scenario. Educa (2006), where it was suggested individuals with diverse skills filling Reese (2007) suggests that a successful that schools often have difficulties with different roles “whose strengths lie story can create the immersion the technical resources and required in a various types of intelligence as needed to invoke a sense of Flow platforms form digital games, it was suggested by Gardner ” (p.8). Gardner’s (Czikszentmihalyi, 1990). However, we perceived that many learners would (1993) theory suggests that providing also need a set of goals and challenges not have the state-of-the art computer students with ways to be creative allows (Rollings & Adams, 2003) to create the systems that most commercial games them to find and solve problems and gameplay and this needs to be incased and game engines require. For this communicate ideas in various forms, in a structure or framework. Finally, reason, Adobe’s Flash was chosen and collaborate successfully with others. through selecting an appropriate topic as the game engine and Flex as the and transforming it into a role-play development platform. This enabled Salmon (2002) proposed the design Scenario or virtual game, we have the rapid development for the software and of a collaborative e-Learning process basis to create effective Game-Based would result in a professional product that includes a five-stage framework, to Learning. that would be accessible through any build online courses to fit individuals Internet browser or Flash player. with similar or diverse skill sets. 4. A Single Player Game 1. Platform design for access and The scenario (storyline) data was motivation of the participants. Example written as a separate file to enable the Creating a recreational digital game to be used in other situations 2. Online socialization of the learners. game can costs tens of millions of and for other target audiences. The 3. The exchange of information. dollars (Federation of American player data for restarting and progress Scientists, 2006), involving many feedback, was originally stored on 4. Knowledge construction. professionals from graphic artists to the players computer, however as the 5. The development of knowledge. skilled programmers. Universities and game developed it became a server- Companies are also investing large based program, storing player data on Salmon notes that without successful sums of money in the development an Internet server and allowing for processes in the first two stages, of in computer-based simulation and teachers to access and view the player’s eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 35 eLearningPapersIn-depth progress through each level and their The screen design incorporates game- how to respond and therefore acquire results. like feedback to the player, for example competences primarily in areas: satisfaction meter of the guest, resources The main focus of the original • problem solving, resolution of information, player financial situation scenario was to provide a single player conflicts and player time. Additional feedback is training game for learning soft skills also provided after each decision and • communication and co-operation and competencies. The storyline of a the visual mood of the character is skills hotel management scenario used for displayed with changing graphics. In- • managing cultural diversities and the usability testing in this Game- game help is provided by the narrator, multicultural dialogue Based Learning example game, could “Smooch” or “Marvin” depending on also be self-employed people offering Depending on decisions made by the which interface has been selected, as player and thus further development accommodation to tourists (e.g. well as the context sensitive help system. in rural tourism) and other bigger of the storyline, other competences Popup dialogs and rollovers are context are addressed e.g. change management accommodation providers, as well as sensitive and are linked to the screen kitchen staff or room service staff. and learning to learn. Each level of a and players progress through the game. scenario can be played multiple times Additional scenarios could be easily The game can be saved at the end of created with other fictional storylines with the player choosing different each level and the player’s progress can answers and thereby changing the by using the web-based authoring be seen from the level screen. Levels tool, storylines such as “Managing outcome of each level. The path can be played in any order, and replayed through the game is not linear and this an International Conference”, “The at anytime to improve on one’s score. Uncooperative Staff Meeting”, and “ adds to the re-playability of the game. Computer generated audio has also It also allows the players to choose their Dealing with Plagiarism”. been added for the character’s question. own level of difficulty, by starting the However, sometimes the player must game with troublesome characters and The example scenario was designed concentrate to understand the audio, as low satisfaction, thereby increasing the for interactivity and high player this adds a “real life” aspect to the game complexity of the game. involvement. It was based on serious – especially in the level titled “Dealing but very often humorous situations. with the language barrier”. Possible answers contain humor as additional motivation for the player 5. Design Principles of the The game framework is based on a (apart from curiosity to see also what problem-based learning approach, Single Player Example comes next). However, the situations where learning is fostered by real life The single player game includes might be humorous, they are still based situations and pertinent feedback a role-play scenario in a graphical realistic which supports problem-based provided to the player. environment that is played within an learning and direct transfer of learned Internet browser. The game is a text- competences into practice. Striving to maximize the satisfaction based role-play game, where the player of the character, the player learns assumes a role within the scenario, eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 36 eLearningPapersIn-depth and during the game must to react to 2. Are there clearly definable goals learning objectives, or the same ones various challenges presented in the or tasks that can be solved? from a different angle. The games form of real life situations. At first can be saved and the player’s progress glance, it may appear to be a multi- This scenario includes an overview of resumed at the end of each level. Levels choice quiz as in the game Inquizitor what the overall storyline and object can also be replayed in any sequence (3MRT, 2009), however this game entails, as well as an introduction to using any route through the game. is based on a branched decision tree, each chapter and character. The goals providing a rich variety of situations are displayed the beginning of each 5. Are the players able to choose and several possible answers. This level and context sensitive help is the level of difficulty to match enables a development of the story and available at any time throughout the their existing abilities? invites the player to come back and try game. The player is able to choose which level other solutions creating an experiential 3. Is there sufficient feedback to they wish to complete. Each of the learning environment. the player about their progress levels displays the learning outcomes There are many aspects that should with the learning outcomes? and the abilities needed to achieve to be considered when designing a success. Players are able to decide where Feedback in the single player game is their weaknesses may lie and where Role-play scenario. Rollings and Adams provided in the form of health bars, (2003) provide a worksheet to test a they need more practice. In the server both for the player and the character, version of this platform, the players game for good Gameplay within any in popup dialogs, if they are struggling game design, recreational or otherwise, are also able to choose from various with the answer or it is totally scenarios that they are enrolled in by and this can be adapted for Role-play inadequate, and visual representation of scenarios. Their worksheet includes the moderator and play them in any the character, with their change in body order. the following questions that have been language. Additional feedback is also answered in relation to the Single- provided at the end of each level and at 6. Is there a scaffolding of learning player example. the end of the game. objectives throughout the game? 1. Are there clearly articulated 4. Are both the learning objectives If the game is played in a linear learning objectives within the and scenario goals achievable approach, the level of difficultly is scenario? within the given timeframe? increased through the game. However, The learning objectives of the single the player can choose to start at any The levels of the game are kept short to level, and the storyline will still be player game are clearly spelt out to the allow them to be played and replayed player. Furthermore, the player has the relevant to the scenario. within a 10 to 15-minute period. This ability to review the learning objectives allows for small bursts of game play to 7. Is the storyline able to be at anytime throughout the game via the fit within a lesson or when time allows. described adequately for the help system. Each of the levels may cover different players? eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 37 eLearningPapersIn-depth The storyline for the demonstration players have completed which scenarios earlier, the scenario is in separate files game is described in text form. and which levels. to the program and therefore no re- However, the platform also allows for programming is necessary to reuse or graphics and multimedia, such as sound 11. Does the scenario allow for modified the storyline or the dialog. bites and video clips, to be embedded. cross-team collaboration and is The description of the storyline is this desirable? dependent on the scenarios that are The single player example game did 6. Field Testing the Example created. not allow for collaboration of players, Game however as this platform is server-based, To test the game for bugs/errors, three 8. Is there additional resource and mechanisms are available to support this. volunteer testers played the game from research information available to 12. Does each team have sufficient start to the end. The participants were the players? power within the scenario to asked to note required changes, make The demonstration scenario for report on errors, etc. for improvements the single player game was to teach achieve the stated objectives? of the game that resulted in the soft skills such as communication Each player has the ability to achieve subsequent version. The platform techniques. Further information on the learning outcomes within this was also tested for consistency of play, these topics can be found in the built in game. The platform is designed to allow accuracy of scoring, and the validity help system or by researching outside repeated access to each and every level, of saved games. Further tests included sources. allowing the player to drill and practice feature functionality, accuracy of as well as experiment with different wording, and browser compatibility. The 9. Are there sufficient roles within options. each team for individuality and testers also played the game as an end equal opportunity to participate? 13. Can the players customize user would. The total game playing time their role to allow them to feel an by each of the testers was 1 hour and The single player game is to be used as 20 minutes per player, providing a good a standalone resource or as a training ownership of the scenario? estimate for total game time, however tool for multiplayer scenarios. Hence, as In example version of the single player this does not take into account the it is single player, all users have an equal game, no customization is provided. replayabilty of each level. Each of the opportunity to participate. However, in the server version testers also took various paths through currently in beta, the interface can be 10. Can the workloads of players the questions and answers, highlighting personalized, as can the avatar associated be adequately balanced? the re-playability of the scenario. with the collaborative features. For assessment purposes, this product Further sets of tests were subsequently has developed into a server-based game 14. Is the scenario re-usable? carried out with respect of usability with level completion and success This platform has an authoring tool and overall perception of the game. being reported back to the teacher or to allow scenarios to be changed, For these tests, two different groups of moderator. Hence, it is obvious which modified, and updated. As stated players were consulted for feedback. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 38 eLearningPapersIn-depth To obtain input from learners, fifteen “most of the competencies are obvious but it at children aged 5 to 14 years, the university students were recruited to reinforces them” product is written in Adobe Flash to participate in the test. While some “ the feedback was good, you knew how you be easily accessed via a web browser students tested the game in groups, were doing” and has now been translated into 31 applying usability test methods, others languages. The game centres on a “the game is great way to learn English” played it independent. After playing the village populated by flamingos and the game feedback was solicited in paper “I played the same level several times to see player completes activities to advance form as well as a moderated discussion different outcomes” through the mission within the game. session. In addition to the above tests, two The subscriber-based product is used didactic experts also reviewed the game. within the school lesson and at home, The usability tests resulted in feedback and Sorensen and Meyer recommend stating that the game is easy to use and They suggested that it was a great way to get sensitised about the importance that “Mingoville” is an excellent that the interaction with the content is example of how Game-Based Learning possible without any prior explanation of various competencies. They also pointed out that the game provides can successfully supplement traditional or prior tuition. All participants enjoyed teaching, by providing a motivational the game and commented on the excellent opportunity to learn English, “the language that most target markets environment successfully aimed at the “replayabilty” of the created scenario. appropriate target audience. Being They enjoyed the fact, that they could would need in a real-life situation”. This was especially true in the level titled a browser-based product, the game replay parts of the game or the entire can also be easily accessed in a low- game with selecting various different “Dealing with the language barrier”, where player concentrates on the audio resourced school environment. answers and thus experimenting with what will happen if they decide to understand the character, adding the Sorensen and Meyer (2007) suggest that differently. “real life” aspect to the role-play. to foster learning, game-based products should also allow communication Shown below are some selected between the players; the original statements that suggest all players 7 The Evolution of the . example game discussed above did enjoyed the game, and the targeted Language Campus not. Collaborative learning not only design features of humour, player Sorensen and Meyer (2007) reviewed a accelerates learning (Zagal, Rick, & feedback, and expected learning Game-Based language course (English His, 2006), but was also a requested outcomes were achieved. as a foreign language) introduced into design feature from an extensive “the game made me laugh, it was fun” primary schools in 2006 in Denmark. survey of over 1000 learners and game Using a web-based platform, the players previously conducted by the “way more fun than just reading pdf files or game “Mingoville” (2009) contains 10 author (Pivec, 2009). Communication books” missions in which players complete between players not only fosters “I like the humour built into the answers” activities focused around vocabulary, collaboration, but also helps to build “humour helps make learning fun” spelling, and word recognition. Aimed a social environment and can often eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 39 eLearningPapersIn-depth create a meta-game around the game chat rooms, forums, and buddy lists, the 8. Conclusions (Consolarium, 2009), allowing players campus includes the above role-play Game-Based Learning provides an to discuss and debrief outside of the scenario framework, and extends it interactive and collaborative platform gaming cycle (Kearney & Pivec, 2007a). with learner feedback in the form of a for learning purposes, especially when Communication between the teacher bubble chart scorecards. The scenario used in a collaborative e-learning or trainer who is moderating the “Dealing with the language barrier” environment. Collaborative learning game is also paramount, as is precise was used as a basis to created a library allows participants to produce new ideas feedback from either the game itself, if of scenarios dealing with conversational as well as to exchange information, an intelligent platform is used, or the situations involving cultural differences simplify problems, and resolve the tasks. moderator. and multicultural dialogs. Linser, Ree-Lindstad and Vold, (2007) Learners also require knowing what While the Language Campus is conclude “While experience and they are learning and how well they currently work in progress at the research suggests that using games and are doing, as opposed to learning by time of writing, it is envisaged that simulations is clearly good pedagogy the stealth. Sandford and Williamson (2004) the same field trials and evaluation next step is to infuse this pedagogy with agree stating the “Games for learning exercises as the single player example, engaging sparkle by implementing good should not be developed in such a will be concluded for this expanded game design principles in the creation way that their educational content is platform. It is hoped that data collected of educational games” (p.8). It is hoped delivered ‘by stealth’. The reason to will support role-play e-learning in a that the Language Campus achieves just develop games in learning is to help collaborative environment as the above this goal. engage students with complex material referenced literature suggests that it and processes, not to pretend that they should. Further research will also be Many studies have examined games are ‘having a break’ from the hard conducted into language learning in a and simulations and the pedagogy business of their education.” (p.28). The game-based environment, specifically associated with both. They ask learners participants in the earlier survey (Pivec, English language. While products such and players what would engage them 2009) stated that learning is serious and as “Mingoville” (2009) already exist, in the playing of education games. should be treated as such. They require their target market is children aged 5 The conclusions were incorporated concise feedback during and after the to 14 years. The Language Campus in game design principles associated period of play. and included scenarios, specifically with the creation of role-play scenarios targets non-English speaking University for quality learning, resulting in an Taking both the above paragraphs students wishing to improve their e-learning framework integrating role- into account, and the statement from language skills, and travellers from non- play games called the Language Campus didactic experts that the game provides English speaking countries requiring (http://www.thelanguagecampus.com), excellent opportunity to learn English, help with conversational techniques and and providing for further research into the Language Campus was created cultural issues. game-based learning. (The Language Campus, 2011). Using a social networking environment with eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 40 eLearningPapers ReferencesIn-depth  3MRT (2009) Game Development Company. Retrieved 1 May 2009 from http://www.3mrt.com/  killi, G. K. (2007). Games and Simulations: A new approach in Education? In Gibson, D., Aldrich, C. and Prensky, M. A (eds.), Games and Simulations in Online Learning: Research and Development Frameworks (pp.1-20). Hershey PA: Information Science Publishing.  ldrich, C., 2009. Virtual worlds, simulations, and games for education: A unifying view. innovate: Journalof Online A education, 5(5).  ell, B. S., Kanar, A. M., & Kozlowski, S. W. J. (2008). Current issues and future directions in simulation-based training in B North America. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19, 1416-1436.  uckingham, D., Burn, A., Pelletier, C. (2005). Making games: Creative game authoring in and beyond the classroom. B Immersive Education. http://www.immersiveeducation.com/uk/documents/MakingGamesIOE.pdf  utler, T. J. (1988). Games and simulations: Creative educational alternatives. Techtrends, (September), 20-24. B  larke, G. & Treagust, M. (2010) Gaming for Reading – A Feasibility Study. Retrieved 1 August 2010 from C http://www.readingagency.org.uk Consolarium (2009). Scottish center for games and learning. European funded Project. Retrieved May 2009 from http://www.ltscotland.org.uk/usingglowandict/gamesbasedlearning/index.asp EUN (2008): How are digital games used in schools?. Retrieved from http://games.eun.org Fablusi (2009) Simulation Role Plays. Retrieved 1 May 2009 from http://www.fablusi.com/  ederation of American Scientists, (2006). Harnessing the Power of Video Games for Learning. Proceedings of the F Summit on Educational Games, October 25th, 2005, Washington DC.  ortugno, N. & Zimmerman, E. (2005). Learning to Play to Learn - Lessons in Educational Game Design. Retrieved 8 July F 2008, from: http://www.gamasutra.com/features/20050405/zimmerman_01.shtml Futurelab, (2009). Computer games, schools, and young people: A report for educators. Retrieved May 1st 2009, from http://archive.futurelab.org.uk/resources/documents/project_reports/becta/Games_and_Learning_educators_ report.pdf  ardner, H. (1993) “Multiple Intelligences: The Theory Into Practice. New York: Basic Books. G ”  ee, J. (2003). What Video games have to teach us about learning and literacy. New York: PalGrave-McMillan. G  earney, P & Pivec, M. (2007a). Recursive loops of game based learning. In Proceedings of World Conference on K . Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and telecommunications 2007 Vancouver BC, Canada, 2007 pp. 2546 – 2553 ,  elly, H. (2005). Games, cookies, and the future of education. Issues in Science & Technology, 21(4), 33-40 K  ennedy, D. M. (2002). Visual mapping: A tool for design, development and communication in the development of IT-rich K learning environments. In A. Williamson, C. Gunn, A. Young, & T. Clear, (Eds.), Winds of Change in the Sea of Learning: Charting the Course of Digital Education: Proceedings of the 19th Annual Conference of the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education (pp. 339-348). Auckland, New Zealand: UNITEC.  earner-centered psychological principles revised. (1996). Newsletter for Educational Psychologists, 19(2), 10. L  inser, R. (2008) The Magic Circle – Game Design Principles and Online Role-play Simulations. Proceedings of World L Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and telecommunications 2008 Vienna, Austria, 2008., pp. 5290 - 5297.  inser, R., Ree-Lindstad, N. & Vold, T. (2007). Black Blizzard: Designing Role-play Simulations for Education. International L Educational Technology Conference Proceedings (pp. 354-359). Nicosia, North Cyprus: Near East University. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
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    • 42 eLearningPapers Typologies of Learning DesignIn-depth and the Introduction of a “LD-Type 2” Case Example [ ] Author Eva Dobozy eva.dobozy@curtin.edu.au Curtin University [ +] Introduction This paper explores the need for greater clarity in the Summary Technology-mediated life experiences conceptualisation of Learning Design (LD). Building on Cameron’s (2010) work, a three-tiered LD architecture is are on the increase. This ‘ICT- introduced. It is argued that this conceptualisation is needed isation’ (Rush, 2008) or ‘digital turn’ in order to advance the emerging field of LD as applied to (Buchanan, 2011) of all aspects of our education research. lives, through the increased importance that is placed on technology- This classification differentiates between LD as a concept (LD mediated (inter)action, is, so it could Type 1), LD as a process (LD Type 2), and LD as a product be expected, also greatly affecting (LD Type 3). The usefulness of the three types is illustrated by a all levels of education. However, case example of a virtual history fieldtrip module constructed in a recent study found that many LAMS as Type 2 LD. This case shows the workflow from LD Type Australian and Canadian secondary 1 to LD Type 2, followed by LD Type 3 research and development and primary History classrooms still data. History as a learning area was chosen in this paper for its operate in traditional ways, showing ability to illustrate LD concepts and the interrelationship of LD the same war movies to various year types. groups, using outdated textbooks and The case serves to illustrate the foundations, scope and ambitions taking children to the local museum of this learning design project, which was underpinned by an (Clarke 2008). As one student in educational psychology framework and firmly linked to the goals Clarke’s (2008) study observed: “The of the new Australian curriculum. The purpose of LD as process videos are shocking and some of the is to inform other teachers of the affordance of LD, providing textbooks, too, are like from 1988, contextualised data and to invite critique of particular TEL and that’s how old we are’ (p. 7). This practices. research finding echoes others and is illustrative of two problems in teacher and school education in Australia and elsewhere: (a) the persistent disconnect between students’ ‘life world’ and classroom experiences, and (b) the ineffectiveness of ‘ad-hock’ and ‘add-on Tags professional development solutions’ to learning design, LAMS, Australian the traditional teacher-centric, whole- curriculum, history teaching class pedagogical strategies that have been successfully applied over the last few decades in schools and teacher education in Australia. Languages cz da de bg et el es fr it lv lt hu nl pl pt ro sk sl fi sv eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 43 eLearningPapersIn-depth The teaching and learning of effective & Littlejohn, 2009). There is still in the educational psychology literature technology-enhanced and/or mediated reluctance in the education community referred to as ‘technological pedagogical learning design that is student-centric to embrace TEL as possibly providing content knowledge (TPCK) (Juang, Liu, and highly personalised and teachers’ more effective learning opportunities & Chan, 2008). Despite the variety of general understanding of the value- than traditional, whole-class face- terms used, the phrase ‘learning design’ added nature of new developments to-face teaching, because it is highly seems to gain prominence in Australia in pedagogy is urgently needed (see interactive, flexible, personalised and and the United Kingdom. Nevertheless, Dobozy, forthcoming). The ‘digital relevant to today’s students (Conole, the increased use of the term ‘learning literacies’ component of the curriculum Brasher, Cross, et al. 2008; Ertmer, 2005). design’, without a specific definition will need to be introduced to teacher of its meaning, makes it problematic education students, not only in an to further this emerging field of study. isolated ICT workshop or spcialised Learning Design 101 For example, in their recent Open professional development course, but This paper utilises History teaching Education Resource impact study, Liz rather will need reinforcement and and learning in the new Australian Masterman and Joanne Wild (2011) modeling through the embedding of curriculum as a learning area case used the term ‘learning design’ close TEL as part of their ‘normal’ learning example. Nevertheless, what is under to thirty times, mixing and matching experience and situated in context. review here is not so much the learning it with other common educational The inclusion of technology-enhanced content, but rather the pedagogical terms to construct phrases such as curriculum design and the expansion approaches taken that support the ‘learning design tools’, ‘learning design of traditional modes of learning and learning of the required content. environments’, ‘open learning designs’, teaching have to be documented in In the case of pre-service teachers’ and even refer to ‘the learning design a way that is accessible to teachers, learning about History and historical approach’ without defining the concept. providing a nexus between theory literacy, the content of the compulsory Conducting research into Learning and applied practice. This will allow social studies units inevitably includes Design demands an understanding of pre-service and in-service teachers to pedagogical content knowledge (Fisher, the concept and the development of become cognisant of the range of new Higgings & Loveless, 2006). In the shared understanding among researchers pedagogical strategies and enable them recent educational literature, this area and participants. The lack of conceptual to develop an informed view about of study, which increasingly involves clarity leads to confusion as Berggren the effectiveness (or otherwise) of technology to enhance learning, is and colleagues (2005) powerfully current teaching and learning practices. referred to as ‘learning design’ (Dalziel, illustrate: Increasingly the educational literature 2009); ‘instructional design’ (Chu & is critical of formal education’s ability Kennedy, 2011); ‘curriculum design’ The initial immersion into Learning to provide learners with opportunities (Ferrell, 2011); ‘educational design’ Design gave us an experience of that enable them to develop knowledge (Goodyear & Ellis, 201), ‘design for confusion over terms,concepts and and skills needed in a globalised and learning’ (Beetham & Sharpe, 2007), tools. Our group constantly mixed networked world (Beetham, McGill ‘design-based learning’(Wijen, 2000) or discussions amongst conceptual points, eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 44 eLearningPapersIn-depth codified specifications and multiple more insight into the learning design (see Dobozy, Campbell, & Cameron, tools which are in various stages of construct. 2011); LD makes the teaching and development. learning process explicit to teachers Echoing Cameron’s (2010) views that and learners, therewith contributing to Teachers will need to grasp these the emerging field of LD holds great teacher and/or learner accountability differences before a meaningful promises, it is contended that the and reflection. The potential for quality discussion can take place. (p. 4) consistent structure for experimenting, improvement of learning and/or documenting, reflecting and sharing teaching is possible precisely because it The following table is taking Cameron’s teaching and learning strategies allows is a cycle of innovation, dissemination (2010) classification work as a starting for the development of generic models translation and transformation, which point. Synthesising and adapting her as templates to be used in a variety can be conceptualised as a new, conceptualisation of learning design of contexts and with diverse students. community-based, ecological paradigm (LD), the purpose here is to make Following specific design norms, of teacher learning (Berggren, Burgos, meaning of this elusive concept and underpinned by social constructivist Fontana et. al., 2005). The underpinning contribute another tentative construct and/or connectivist learning theories notion of LD, as expressed in Table1, that can be advanced further as we gain Type Description Goal LD – Type 1: LD as a concept, underpinned by social A documentation of the establishment, LD as a concept constructivist/connectivist learning theory, is benchmarking and testing of and adherence to a standardised (re)presentation of technology- design-based principles and practices with the enhanced learning sequences and prescribed aim of providing a theoretical foundation to assure design-based procedures that are content consistency and contribute to the testability of the independent. effectiveness of this new theoretical construct. LD – Type 2: LD as a process is an illustration of the Providing a documentation of process in a particular LD as a process interpretation of the generic LD principles and an context, with the aim of informing other teachers of attempt of the implementation of LD into practice the affordance of LD (benefits, obstacles and risks) by outlining learning intent, planning and enacting through a detailed explanation of experiences of of a particular learning sequence in context, which various stakeholders. includes subject-specific content. LD – Type 3: LD as a product is a documentation of teacher and Providing a documentation of process with the aim LD as a product student roles and resources needed (similar to to construct a model, template or pre-engineered documenting and sharing paper lesson plans) in the learning construct to share with other teachers to be enactment of a particular LD sequence. adopted, adapted and enhanced. Table 1: Typologies of Learning Design eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 45 eLearningPapersIn-depth Work flow LD concept LD processes in context LD model or template Figure 1: Conceptual structure of LD type integration is that learning design can be classified LD (Type 1) is a conceptual construct way these online learning systems are according to type (Type 1: LD as making explicit epistemological and conceptualised and used by lecturing concept; Type 2: LD as process, and Type technological integration attempts by staff and students. Whereas LMS are 3: LD as product). It is argued here the designer of a particular learning used mainly as resource repositories and that unless there is greater clarity about sequence or series of learning for management purposes, LAMS seems the LD classification, the advancement sequences. The design process to have a pedagogical focus (see also of learning design knowledge may be is generally informed by social Dalziel, 2005). inhibited. constructivist and/or connectivist learning theories and aims to share How these various types of LD the LD theory/praxis nexus in an Traditional history teaching seamlessly integrate is illustrated in attempt to open the LD sequence/s and the new Australian Figure 1 up for adaption, adoption and/or curriculum enhancement. LD as a process is an illustration of the History as a learning area has gained learning intent, planning and enacting Based on this conceptualisation of LD prominence in the new Australian of a particular learning sequence in – Type 1, the Type 2 LD was built as an curriculum, which is currently being context, which includes subject-specific online module constructed in LAMS developed. Although it is not the content. What the above discussion and seamlessly embedded through a first time a national curriculum is alerts to and Figure 1 illustrates is that it plug-in in the Blackboard LMS. It was on the agenda, it is the first time it is imperative to make explicit the way designed to introduce undergraduate is being actualised. The reason given LD is conceptualised (Type 1), prior to and/or graduate diploma teacher by the current Federal Government engaging with LD as a process (Type 2), education students enrolled in the concerning the need for a national applying LD – Type 1 principles. Hence, compulsory Society and Environment curriculum, which is “one of the in what follows, I offer an alternative, units (SSE2105/SSE4215) to the first in the world to be delivered more precise description of LD to principles and practices of virtual online”, is “to ensure Australians are the one outlined in Table 1, prior to history teaching, through the illustration armed with the knowledge and skills providing an example of LD as a process of the nature and purpose of virtual to meet the demands of the 21st (Type 2 LD), illustrating the learning History fieldtrips. LAMS is an ideal tool Century” (Australian Labor, 2011). The intent, planning and enacting of one for the actualisation of LD, described inclusion of History in the first phase learning design sequence in LAMS. by Dalziel (2005) as a ‘learning design of the development of the Australian The definition of LD (Type 1) offered system’ (p. 1), which is remarkably Curriculum is based on the realisation below is somewhat different from the different from conventional LMS, such that today’s young are generally adopted work of Cameron (2010) and as Blackboard, Moodle or Desire2Learn disinterested in and ill-informed about is reflecting my current understanding (Dobozy, Reynolds, & Schonwetter, Australia’s system of government, its of LD (Type 1) in an attempt to provide 2011). The major difference described current role in a globalised world and a system of classification: by Dobozy et. al. (2011) is in the its recent history. An example of the eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 46 eLearningPapersIn-depth lack of historical literacy is provided students can be attributed to learning the curriculum material. History in a report prepared by the Ministerial design issues. Teachers note that there education includes the goal to commit Council on Education, Employment, are often insufficient resources available students, at all levels of education, to Training and Youth Affairs (2006), and students generally find the subject become active and informed citizens, which explains that the vast majority area ‘boring’: able and willing to express their own of Year 10 students (77%) in a national views and to be creative in the pursuit Civics and Citizenship proficiency Students are sick of repeating topics and of knowledge. Hence, it is important assessment did not know that the boring material; they want engaging to engage students of History with Australia Day celebrations are attributed teachers who love what they do and questions of values, beliefs and to the arrival of the first fleet of 11 can bring imagination to their lessons. attitudes that relate to the teaching ships from the British motherland in For their part, teachers and curriculum and learning of historical facts and 1788. A more recent study conducted officials also want the subject to come concepts. Therewith students develop by Clarke (2008) into the ways alive in the classroom and to be as their historical literacy as outlined by students and teachers think about relevant and interesting as they feel it the Australian Curriculum Assessment Australia’s history found that there is an can and should be. (Clarke, 2008, p. 11) and Reporting Agency (ACARA) acknowledgement of the importance of in the new Australian curriculum Given Clarke’s findings, which support the learning area, but the disconnection (ACARA, 2011), rather than simply the evidence provided by MEETYA of students with History as a subject learning to remember disjointed facts. (2006) concerning students’ lack matter is attributed to the way it is This holistic conception of History of interest in and understanding of taught. Clarke (2008) observes: teaching includes the development History, it was seen as imperative that of affective processes and cognitive While … students overwhelmingly teacher education needed to take some information processing (O’Donnell, acknowledge the importance of learning responsibility and review its history Dobozy, Bartlett et. al., forthcoming). about the national history in school, teaching curriculum. As a result, The virtual history fieldtrip module many of them criticise the subject for novel pedagogical approaches were that was constructed in LAMS and is being boring and repetitive. …[T] introduced in the compulsory unit used here as a case example, illustrates eachers frequently felt disappointed they Society & Environment (SSE2105/ the balancing of different learning couldn’t do more for the classes. And SSE4215) at our university. The design goals as set out by ACARA (2011). It is even in those schools with better access of the curriculum was based on underpinned by a social constructivist to resources there remains the question inquiry-based and interactive learning and/or connectivist epistemology. The of how teachers use the material principles and informed by latest aim of the LAMS learning module available to them. (p. 5) research (Hill & Fetherston, 2010). was to provide experiential learning The learning design had to make opportunities for teacher education Clarke’s (2008) research found that the the learning area relevant to teacher students and introduce them to a new main reason of frustration with the education students and provide ways way of history learning and teaching learning area reported by teachers and to engage them with each other and that is cost-effective, interactive and eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 47 eLearningPapersIn-depth responds to school students’ interest in and knowledge of Web 2.0 applications (Chu, & Kennedy, 2011). LD – Type 2 case example: The virtual history module in LAMS The virtual history module commenced with a general introduction about online history teaching, alerting to the extensive resources and various mediascapes developed recently by Australian and international educational authorities (see Figure 2 for an author’s view of the complete module). One of the many attractive features of LAMS, as a learning design platform, is the possibility of seamless integration of external resources into the learning Figure 2: Author’s view of virtual History learning module activity, making access easy and convenient for learners (see Figure 3). Students can choose to explore as many sense of agency in students. The new range of materialities of texts and of the outside resources provided as mode of communication, referred who then highlight the materiality; they see practicable or useful for their to by Anne Wysocki (2004) as ‘new such composers design texts that help learning, or simply engage with the set media texts’, provides a platform for readers/consumers/viewers stay alert activity. various forms of engagement with the to how any text-like its composers and multitude of resources that are ‘pulled readers- doesn’t function independently The deliberate composition of into’ the particular learning activity. of how it is made and in what contexts. multimedia texts, taking advantage of Wysocki (2004) explained the value of Such composers design texts that make the possibility of multimodality (Kress, this form of LD as follows: as overtly visible as possible the values 2010) of technology-enhanced learning they embody. (p. 15) design, incorporating YouTube videos, I think we should call ‘new media digital archive documents, webpages, texts’ those that have been made by The composition described here is blog entries etc, aims to encourage a composers who are aware of the the learning design process (Type 2), eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 48 eLearningPapersIn-depth Figure 3 Seamless integration of external resources into LAMS activities which, naturally, is underpinned by LD and secondary school excursions and context. Hence, it will continue to principles (Type 1) and the definition fieldtrip memories (see Figure 4). outline the design steps of this learning of LD provided above. It offers module in some detail. The personal opportunities for personal exchange The particular design sparked interest experience sharing activity is followed in conjunction with the acquisition and encouraged students to participate by the dissemination of technical and of new information provided through actively in the discussions, sharing pedagogical information concerning multiple media resources and activities. personal experiences. Following the the organisation of History Excursions The deliberate design provides an goal of LD – Type 2, this section of the (see Figure 5). avenue for student agency and freedom paper is concerned with documenting (see Dobozy, 1999). the design process in a particular Following on from the general introduction to the module, the learning sequence commenced with a statement about the common occurrence of fieldtrips in social studies classes and their relevance in the new Australian curriculum. It made reference to and built on students’ previous curriculum topics in educational psychology units Figure 4 concerning ‘cooperative learning’, Interactive forum activity exploring personal experiences ‘student motivation’ and ‘personal values developments’. This introduction segment, which was linking to various current national policy documents and information from previous units was then followed by an interactive learning activity developed using the LAMS Forum tool. The task was purposely designed to ground the policy document review and past unit reference information by way of connecting them with personal experiences during students’ primary Figure 5 Fieldtrip preparation – linking personal experiences with pedagogical knowledge eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 49 eLearningPapersIn-depth As depicted in Figure 6, a case scenario was constructed that requires students’ input and deep engagement with the subject matter. The real-world case scenario was inviting learners to analyse their prior knowledge, and synthesise the theoretical and practical information to arrive at a conceptual framework that can be discussed and debated with peers. Following on from requesting students to provide their ideas and considerations to a number of questions, a list of possible locations for the History Figure 6 – parts (a) and (b) Scenario-based collaborative learning Excursion is provided. The activity then invited students to review possible excursion sites that do not include the typical local museum trips, but instead provide attractive alternatives, complete with links to websites and other multimedia resources. Students are required to explain their top three preferred history excursion places and calculating the financial cost and time investment for one of their choices. Completing the segment on the customary physical history fieldtrip, students were then introduced to the concept of virtual history fieldtrips and their organisations, again complete with external links and plenty of resources (see Figure 7). Only after exploring traditional physical fieldtrip preparations and reflecting on personal past experiences did the module progress to outline the nature and purpose of virtual history Figure 7 Experiential, problem-based learning example fieldtrips. Many practising and trainee eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 50 eLearningPapersIn-depth Figure 8 Collaborative reflection about pedagogical reality in primary classrooms teachers have limited knowledge The final discussion activity intended the LD classification, learning design and understanding of virtual history to draw learners’ attention to the vast research and development activities fieldtrips, their purpose, organisation time investments required of teachers may not advance at the rate possible and benefits for teachers and learners and financial costs associated with otherwise. History as a learning area (Brush, Saye, Kale, et. al., 2009). Hence, traditional History fieldtrips. This was chosen to illustrate LD concepts it was important to provide teacher LAMS module was designed to engage and the interrelationship of LD types. education students with sufficient teacher education students, many of The introduction of the nature and information and interaction possibilities whom were, similar to the school purpose of virtual history fieldtrips to to experience the preparation and students they will be teaching in the pre-service teachers as a particular case enactment of various forms of history not so distant future, not particularly example of LD – Type 2 illustrated the excursion. interested in or excited about pedagogical strength of LAMS as a LD History as a learning area. Providing system, enabling the documentation The virtual history fieldtrip activity more opportunity to (a) connect and critiquing of all types of LD. The (see Figure 7) was designed to be the personal experiences with theoretical virtual history fieldtrip case example highlight of the module, providing information (such as illustrated in this makes explicit the pedagogical a clear example and experience of a LD-Type 2 example), and (b) enlist decision-making of teachers and virtual history fieldtrip based around a Web 2.0 technologies in teaching and operationalisation of the decisions taken. problem to be solved in collaboration learning, for example, through virtual The LD – Type 2 is, as noted above, with peers. Teacher education students history fieldtrips, may help students gain illustrating LD process in a particular were able to experience the benefits interest in and connect with the new context, with the aim of informing of accessing multimedia resources that Australian curriculum. Although this other teachers of the affordance of have been carefully chosen and linked module did not form part of students’ LD and also to invite critique of in with the activity. Using LD – Type 1 assessment requirements of the unit, particular, contextualised learning and principles, the module was constructed it was encouraging to see the general teaching processes. Hence, it is a case in a way that permitted students to interest in and engagement with the illustration, not of a ‘perfect’ case, but spend as much or as little time with curriculum content provided. rather, in the sense of ‘perpetual beta’ the additional resource material of a ‘case in the state of becoming’. For provided, dipping into the movie this conceptualisation to be feasible, or watching the complete segment, Discussion it is vital that pedagogical, conceptual depending on interest and motivation. The underpinning notion of LD, and epistemological considerations Self-regulation and the mobilisation as exemplified in this paper, is that are documented and shared with the of intrinsic motivation are both vital learning design can be classified wider professional community. In this 21st century learning skills and are according to type (Type 1: LD as sense, the current paper outlined how increasingly demanded as key attributes concept; Type 2: LD as process, and the module was purposely designed of knowledge workers (see Beetham, Type 3: LD as product). It was argued to commence with learners’ personal McGill, & Littlejohn, 2009). that unless there is greater clarity about experiences as students, providing a eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 51 eLearningPapersIn-depth connection to students’ life world, – Type 1) in particular contexts and evidence-based practices. Slavin (2008), enabling them to link into the topic through model development for further who has a long history of criticising the and curriculum theory. This activity adaptation. It was further argued that lack of clarity and unity in educational was then linked with considerations by making the teaching and learning research and practice, explained that and preparation activities of teachers process explicit, the emerging field of “education today is at much the same which need to be observed for physical LD is potentially able to contribute pre-scientific point as medicine was fieldtrip activities, such as the need to substantially to teacher and/or learner a hundred years ago”. To advance describe learning goals, contacting the accountability, in an environment that LD as a field of applied education institution to be visited, booking the requires a departure from traditional research, it will need to mature and venue, education officer, parent helpers teacher-centric and content-driven agreement will need to be reached and transportation, writing parent low-level knowledge production upon some core shared values and letters, gaining consent from the school and testing of the past, in favour of explicitly stated foundational thinking administration and parents/guardians of more complex knowledge and skills that will underpin future empirical students, prepare a budget and organise development, vital for success in 21st work. To this end, a three-tiered LD the collection of funds and so on, prior century knowledge societies of the architecture was outlined, which was to focusing on the vital element of present and future. based on Cameron’s (2010) initial ideas preparing the children for the fieldtrip. and further developed. Moreover, LD – Type 2 (LD as process) was introduced LD and the introduction of virtual Conclusion as a case example to illustrate the way fieldtrips in LAMS provides teaches In an effort to change teaching cultures in which the three-tier model can be with a framework to enhance the to enable greater value to be placed utilised. The current conceptualisation engagement of students with history on teachers’ and students’ ‘literacies of and typologies of LD was intended to learning that can be adopted, adapted the digital’ (Beetham, et. al., 2009) in serve as a starting point for discussion or expanded. Enhancing the provision higher, further, teacher and/or school and debate. It is hope that future of TEL is not only a requirement of the education, educational researchers theoretical and empirical researcher will new Australian curriculum, but is also working in the field of learning design advance the model and therewith work potentially improving the quality of will need to work towards unity of towards greater clarity of LD principles history learning and teaching through conceptualisation and agree on a and practices in the future. the application of LD principles (LD tentative classification system to advance eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 52 eLearningPapers ReferencesIn-depth  Dobozy, E. (2011). Resisting student consumers and assisting student producers. In: Claus Nygaard, Nigel Courtney & Clive Holtham (eds.). Beyond Transmission: Innovations in University Teaching. Faringdon, UK: Libi Publishing, pp. 11-26.  Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (2011). The F-10 Curriculum – A position paper on the whole curriculum, achievement standards and support for students with disabilities. Retrieved from: http://www.acara.edu.au/verve/_resources/The+F-10+Australian+Curriculum+(post+July+MC).pdf  ustralian Labor (2011). The National Curriculum – Let’s move Australia forward. Retrieved from: A http://www.alp.org.au/agenda/education---training/national-curriculum/  Beetham, H., McGill, L., & Littlejohn, A. (2009). Thriving in the 21st Century: Learning literacies for a Digital Age (LLiDA). Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) UK, Final Report. Retrieved from: http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/projects/llidareportjune2009.pdf  Berggren, A., Burgos, D., Fontana, J., Hinkelman, D., Hung, V., Hursh, A., & Tielemans, G. (2005). Practical and pedagogical issues for teacher adoption of IMS Learning Design standards in Moodle LMS. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 02, Special Issue: Advances in Learning Design. Retrieved from: http://jime.open.ac.uk/2005/2  rush, T., Saye, J., Kale, U., Hur, J., Kohlmeier, J., Yerasimon, T., Guo, L., & Symonette, S. (2009). Evaluation of the B persistent issue in history laboratory for virtual field experiences (PIH-LVFE). Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 8(1), 1-22. Retrieved from: http://www.ncolr.org/jiol/issues/pdf/8.1.3.pdf  Buchanan, R. (2011). Paradox, promise and public pedagogy: Implications of the federal government’s digital education revolution. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 36(2), Article 6. Retrieved from: http://ro.ecu.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1524&context=ajte  Cameron, L. (2010). How learning design can illuminate teaching practice. The Future of Learning Design Conference. http://ro.uow.edu.au/fld/09/Program/3  S., & Kennedy, D. (2011). Using online collaborative tools for groups to co-construct knowledge. Online Information Chu, Review, 35(4), 581-597.  Clarke, A. (2008). A comparative study of history teaching in Australia and Canada. Final Report. Retrieved from: http://www.historyteacher.org.au/files/200804_HistoryTeachingReport.pdf  Conole, C., Brasher, A., Cross, S., Weller, M., Clark, P & Culver, J. (2008). Visualising learning design to foster and ., support good practice and creativity. Educational Media International, 1469-5790, 45(3), 177-194.  Dalziel, J. (2009). Prospects for Learning Design research and LAMS. Teaching English with Technology, Special edition on LAMS and Learning Design, 9(2). Retrieved from http://www.tewtjournal.org/VOL 9/ISSUE 2/Foreword.pdf  Dalziel, J. (2005). From reusable e-learning content to reusable learning designs: Lessons from LAMS. Retrieved May 7, 2005 from http://www.lamsfoundation.org/CD0506/html/resource/whitepapers/Dalziel.LAMS.doc  Dobozy, E. (forthcoming). Resisting student consumers and assisting student producers. In: Claus Nygaard, Clive Holtham & Nigel Courtney (eds.). Beyond Transmission: Innovations in University Teaching. Copenhagen, Denmark: Copenhagen Business School Press, pp. xxx  Dobozy, E. (1999). Constructivist and Montessorian perspectives on student autonomy and freedom. Proceedings of the 14th Annual Forum of the Western Australian Institute for Educational Research (WAIER). Fremantle, WA: Notre Dame University, 27-28 August. Retrieved from: http://www.waier.org.au/forums/1999/dobozy.html eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 53 eLearningPapers  Dobozy, E., Reynolds, P & Schonwetter, D. (2011). Metaphoric reasoning and the tri-nation classification of eTeaching ., and eLearning platforms. Refereed proceedings of the 23rd World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia andIn-depth Telecommunication. Lisbon, Portugal: AACE.  Dobozy, E., Campbell, C., & Cameron, L. (2011). ‘Connectivism’: Who is the new kid on the learning theory block? ECULTURE 2011. Retrieved from: http://ro.ecu.edu.au/eculture/2011/  Ertmer, P (2005). Teacher pedagogical beliefs: The final frontier in our quest for technology integration? Educational . Technology Research and Development, 53(4), 25–39.  Ferrell, G. (2011). Transforming curriculum design – transforming institutions. Briefing paper. Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC). Retrieved from: http://www.jisc.ac.uk/publications/briefingpapers/2011/bpcurriculumdesign.aspx  Fisher, T., Higgins, C. & Loveless, A. (2006). Teachers learning with digital technologies: A review of research and projects. FutureLab Series Report 14, FutureLab press. Retrieved from http://archive.futurelab.org.uk/resources/documents/lit_reviews/Teachers_Review.pdf  Goodyear, P & Ellis, R. (2010). Expanding conceptions of study, context and educational design. In: R. Sharpe, H. ., Beetham, & S. de Freitas (eds.). Rethinking learning for the digital age: how learners shape their own experiences. New York, NY: Routledge, pp. 100-113.  S., & Fetherston, T. (2010). Research-informed teaching at ECU: A discussion paper. Perth, WA: Edith Cowan University. Hill,  Juang, Y., Liu, T., & Chan, T. (2008). Computer-supported teacher development of pedagogical content knowledge through developing school-based curriculum. Educational Technology & Society, 11(2), 149-170.  Kress, G. (2010). Multimodality: A social semiotic approach to contemporary communication. London, UK: Routledge.  Masterman, L. & Wild, J. (2011). OER Impact Study: Research Report. JISC Open Educational Resources programme. Retrieved from: http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/programmes/elearning/oer/JISCOERImpactStudyResearchReportv1-0.pdf  Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs. (2006). Civics and citizenship Years 6 and 10 report 2004. Melbourne, VIC: Curriculum Corporation.  O’Donnell, A., Dobozy, E., Bryer, F Bartlett, B., Reeve, J., & Smith, J. (2012, in press). Educational psychology. Milton, ., QLD: John Wiley & Sons, Australia.  Slavin, R. E. (2008). Evidence-based Reform in Education: what will it take?, European Educational Research Journal, 7(1), 124-128. http://dx.doi.org/10.2304/eerj.2008.7.1.124 ijen, W. (2000). Towards design-based learning. OGO brochure, No 2. Educational Service Centre. Eindhoven, NL: W Technische Universiteit. Retrieved from: http://w3.tue.nl/fileadmin/stu/stu_oo/doc/OGO_brochure_1_EN.pdf Wysocki, A. (2004). Opening new media to writing: Openings and justifications. In: A. Wysocki, J. Johnson-Eilola, C. Selfe, & G. Sirc (eds.). Writing new media: Theory and applications for expanding the teaching of compositions (pp. 1-41). Utah, UT: Utah State Press. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 54 eLearningPapers Scaffolding Student LearningIn-depth Designers with Social Media [ ] Authors Leanne Cameron. Leanne.Cameron@acu.edu.au [ +] MiriamTanti. miriam.tanti@acu.edu.au [ +] Faculty of Education. Australian Catholic University Introduction The ‘students as learning designers’ approach challenges Summary It has been stated that the field of transmission models of pedagogy and requires teachers to learning design holds the promise of relinquish some control to their students so that they might have providing teachers with a framework the space to experiment and discover how to learn. that will enable them to design high This paper outlines the findings of two studies that allowed quality, effective and innovative learning students to explore new ways of learning, where they were experiences for their students (Cameron, encouraged to take responsibility for their own learning, and 2009). By creating the possibility of outlines what potential social media tools may have in facilitating deconstructing their existing teaching this experience. These projects demonstrate that when students strategies; aiding reflection on their own are empowered to design their own learning activities, they can practice; documenting and scaffolding deeply engage in the learning process. innovative learning activities; and sharing and reusing expert practice, the field of learning design has the potential to improve the quality of teaching throughout the higher education sector. Traditionally, the key stakeholder in the learning process, the student, is not given a central design role, however, with the advent of web 2.0 tools, it has never been easier to provide students with the opportunity to contribute to their own learning. Many students have already chosen to use social media, eg. Facebook, Twitter, for their own communications and social interaction (November, 2011). In this paper, we report on what happens when students are empowered to design Tags their own learning, and how best to scaffold the design process using the students as learning designers, social media, social media tools with which they are participatory media already familiar. Languages cz da de bg et el es fr it lv lt hu nl pl pt ro sk sl fi sv eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 55 eLearningPapersIn-depth Overview students to creating and sharing their learner understanding using questions. own learning designs. It aimed to: However, they often needed lots of The paper describes two separate, support in understanding the relationship but related, studies. The “Students as •  rovide an opportunity for students to P between the learning activities and the Learning Designers Project” (Cameron have ownership over the design and pedagogy. & Gotlieb, 2009), involved five teachers creation of their learning experiences; and 165 students from five elementary It was not just a matter of helping the schools. A key element of the project • Determine the key teaching and  students think up relevant and authentic was that the students were asked to take learning opportunities afforded by learning tasks, their teacher’s role was a significant amount of responsibility student authoring projects; to provide students with carefully in planning for, and creating, their considered scaffolds that enabled them own learning. During the project, the •  nalyse the depth and variety of A to achieve beyond what they could as students produced 230 learning designs. the designs provided by students individuals with the resources before Research data was collected from when access to authoring software is them. In the “Scaffolding Student teachers and students via a pre-project provided; Learning Designers” Project, the survey and video recorded post-project •  valuate the tools that could provide E potential of social media tools to scaffold interviews. Throughout the project, the an efficient means of involving students this experience was examined. teachers took a problem-based learning in learning. approach and it became quickly apparent Several studies indicate that the features that the students required significant In the second project, “Scaffolding of social media tools may be used scaffolding, particularly in the early stages Student Learning Designers”, the same for educational purposes (Boling, et of the process. project design was employed, but an al., 2008; Glass & Spiegelman, 2008; additional aim was included: Haramiak, Boulton, & Irwin, 2009; In the subsequent project, “Scaffolding Kajder & Bull, 2004; Martindale & Wiley, Student Learning Designers”, the •  nalyse how social media tools were A 2005; Quible, 2005; Ray, 2006; Wassell potential of social media to provide employed to scaffold the learning & Crouch, 2008). Researchers argue the identified need for scaffolding design process. that social media tools, namely blogs was explored. The support received and microblogs can be used as effective by students designing their learning, In each project, students and teachers instructional tools in which teachers and both from their teachers and their were asked to look beyond their current students can communicate with each peers, was analysed. This study involved approach to teaching and learning and other and make connections between 206 Masters students at the Australian analyse the attitudes and conceptions content and pedagogy (Overby, 2009; Catholic University in their first year of that inform that approach. The project- Ray, 2006). Students can also utilise the study. Data was collected from students’ based learning strategy adopted required technologies to collaborate and share Tweets, blog entries and a post-project students to take a more active role their resources. online survey. in planning and creating their own learning. Understanding how they In the learning design environment might do this was a complex and multi- in the “Scaffolding Student Learning Objectives faceted problem. Designers” study, students were not The initial project, “Students as Learning merely using the social media tools to Students generally understood how to Designers Project”, was designed to receive information: they were engaging structure a basic learning task, eg. provide determine the educational impact of some information and then check eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 56 eLearningPapers Instructional Design Advantages to Students Disadvantages to StudentsIn-depth Considerations Collaboration Can learn from each other. Only as strong as the weakest link. Synergy results from 2 minds working together. Too many chiefs, not enough Indians. Can share workload & responsibilities “Many hands Difficult for some students to deal with responsibility for make small work” leadership Major amounts of time are necessary. Relevance Empowers learner to connect theory & hypotheses If it’s the wrong track, it’s a waste of time. to actual/ practical context. Adds realism to learning process. Provides pride in ownership of product Allows for constructive learning Learner control Encourages diversity. Can produce off-task results. Encourages multiple approaches to solutions. Lack of direction can occur when losing sight of objectives Allows for more sophisticated approaches. Procrastination can result. Encourages self-confidence. Allows control of own pace & time Technological Provides advance notice of content, context, and May intimidate the less well informed or skilled. preparation applications to be used. May get lost & overwhelmed by “information overload. ” Increases familiarity & ease with technology. Table 1: Advantages and Disadvantages to Students as Designers and Teachers (Murphy, Harvell, Sanders & Epps, 1999) in a constructive learning design process When students were given the didn’t know how to design to meet the with both their teachers and their peers. opportunity participate in a discussion challenge. with the researchers in their role as learning designers (with equal status It was noted that for those students Students as learning with their teachers), they rose to meet who were not autonomous learners, designers the challenge and provided insightful it was really important for the teacher comments, eg. How can groups be used to scaffold the learning activities so As learning designers, students are given to pull together individuals of similar the students were able to achieve and the opportunity to be creative and of different interest?; What constitutes a focus on learning the meacognitive and pursue their goals actively (Lui & Hsiao, ‘good’ answer?; how and why we provide communication skills necessary for this 2002). The initial project demonstrated feedback. type of work. The teachers needed to be that students are able to make decisions able to identify gaps in the students’ skills (with varying degrees of guidance) The table below most effectively and knowledge, and provide scaffolding about both content (what to learn) and summarises the advantages of using to help get the students to the next level. pedagogy (how to learn it), (Reigeluth, students as designers of learning and it 1996). In the latter “Scaffolding Student also outlines a number of disadvantages, some of which that the teachers in this Learning Designers” project, explicit Designing learning is a complex task. project also discussed in the post-project teacher presence was intentionally Caver, Lehrer, Connell & Erickson interview. withheld from the social media (1992) identified five categories of environment. The students were aware critical thinking skills they observed their tweets and blog entries were public students exhibiting when they were designing learning environments and/ The Teacher’s Role so their teachers could read them at any The presence of the teacher was clearly time, however, the teachers did not make or tools. These thinking skills were also evident throughout the initial “Students posts themselves. This was a conscious observed to be taking place in these as Learning Designers Project” project. effort on the part of the teachers to projects: Initially the research team set criteria encourage peer support, which was • Project management; with the students about what makes a indeed what occurred. • Research; good learning design but the teachers The value of scaffolding during the needed to have further discussions with • Organisation and representation; design process became evident in students to identify where they hadn’t • Presentation; and the initial project. The concept of completely understood the criteria, or scaffolding is derived from cognitive • Reflection. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 57 eLearningPapersIn-depth psychological research. It is defined as a the teachers provided criteria for the and encourage active engagement with “social interaction that a knowledgeable learning designs, taught metacognive and students. All of these were observed: participant can create, by means of communication skills, provided feedback speech, supportive conditions in which on the learning designs and provided •  ndependent learning, negotiated I the novice can participate in, and extend, some instruction on the use of the between student and teacher; current skills and knowledge to higher technology. • Personal development; levels of competence (Greenfield, 1984 • Problem-based learning; as quoted by Donato, 1994). Teachers often think that what they do is necessarily more important for •  xplicit reflection by students on their E According to Wood, Bruner & Ross student learning that other activities learning; (1976), scaffolded help is characterised in which they engage. Although the • Independent group work; by six features: importance of the teacher was clearly • Learning by doing; demonstrated in both projects, teachers • Recruiting interest in the task; • Developing learning skills; and had to be careful not to place themselves • Simplifying the task; in the position of mediating all the • Project work. • Maintaining pursuit of the goal; students needed to know. This may In order for the students to design their not only create unrealistic expectations, own learning activities, the teachers had •  arking critical features and M but teachers can potentially de-skill to relinquish some control. This resulted discrepancies between what has been their students by preventing them from in their students being: produced and the ideal solution; effectively learning from each other •  ontrolling frustration during C (Boud et al, 2001). • Given the initiative; problem-solving, and •  llowed to choose from a diversity of A •  emonstrating an idealized version of D sound methods; the act to be performed. Encouraging Student •  ork in teams on authentic, real-world W Engagement tasks; Donato (1994) reports that peer collaboration provides the same Throughout both projects, the •  tilise the features of advanced U opportunity for scaffolded help as does teachers and students developed a technologies; and that of the expert/novice relationship. highly engaging, customised learning environment that fostered student •  llowed to persevere until they reached A It is often assumed that scaffolding only appropriate standards (Reigeluth, 1996). occurs in the presence of an identifiable independence, initiative, teamwork, expert and that this assistance is thinking skills, metacognitive skills and There is no doubt the students were unidirectional, that is from the teacher to diversity. Within this environment, the actively engaged, however, just being the student. students collaborated to design effective allowed to do something that is not a learning activities. Their design task usual part of formal learning, and/or In the initial “Students as Learning required them to use higher order being recognised for creating something Designers Project” project teachers thinking processes and reflection, not just clever, is enough to keep students sometimes saw a need to “formalise the the lower order thinking skills normally motivated and on task (Prensky, 2007). informal” to realise the potential benefits used when they are simply required to Hence novelty may have been a factor of peer learning so that all students could reproduce knowledge. for the high level of student motivation benefit from it, not just those who were observed. already proficient learners. For example, Kimber & Wyatt-Smith (2006) cite eight strategies to foster deep learning eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 58 eLearningPapersIn-depth Additionally, both projects observed resources from their peers anywhere, any their approach to the curriculum. similar student behaviour to that time; share ideas, thoughts, reflections Teachers began to look at curriculum reported by Liu & Rutledge (1997), and and support and challenge each other. frameworks for allowing student that was that while students were highly The question was often asked, “What creation and sharing motivated in many respects and were on can I do to make this better?” and they task, the critical design skills of planning frequently got instant feedback. The Chang et al (2008) noted that resistance and time management were not easy for 140 character limit was a challenge for to the change in the teacher’s role is not them to acquire. some in this context but it provided a only felt by the teachers. Students have discipline that was beneficial in many also voiced a reluctance to accept the cases. shift away from teacher-centred learning. Learning with Social Media Have students been conditioned to the These results of the initial “Students The students excelled at picking up status quo, or are they at a time in their as Learning Designers Project” were the new technology in different and lives where they don’t want to upset impressive but what emerged during interesting ways and the teachers found their peers? the study was that students required they learnt from the students in this area. timely and effective support throughout This also helped create an environment the learning design process. Hence where the control of the learning process Conclusion the search began for tools to scaffold was more student-centred. The “students as learning designers” students’ learning without diminishing approach clearly demonstrated that the value of peer interaction and support the act of designing can facilitate deep that had been witnessed in the initial The Findings learning in the classroom. It enabled study. These projects clearly demonstrated the students to be independently engaged act of designing learning can facilitate in investigation, work autonomously The value of a blog to record work-in- students’ engagement and deep learning and collaboratively, and it also provided progress and as a reflection tool is well in the classroom. The findings were: their teachers with rich opportunities documented (Dawson, Murray, Parvis for key teaching moments. This & Paterson, 2005; JISC, 2008). Blogging •  here was an increase in use of the T approach challenges transmission models often increases student participation language of metacognition and an of pedagogy and requires teachers to in reflective activity, improves student increase in the use of and sharing of relinquish some control to their students engagement and can change the metacognitive strategies; so that they might be given the space dynamics of face-to-face sessions. to design, discover how to learn and to •  he classroom dynamic changed. T deeply engage in the learning process. However Twitter emerged as the social There was a recognition of teachers as Additionally, the paper outlined the media tool of choice with which to co-learner and guide and an increased potential social media tools have to provide scaffolding advice. Doggett recognition of peers as co-learners and facilitate this experience. In our projects (2009) outlines nine reasons why Twitter a source of support and advice; students were not merely using the social might be beneficial in an educational media tools to receive information: they •  tudents developed highly diverse S setting. Our project confirms that Twitter were engaging in a constructive learning learning designs; and was an invaluable tool in our project. design process with both their teachers •  his project provided an opportunity T and their peers. Using Twitter, students were able to for teachers to explicitly reflect on source a wide range of views and metacognitive skills and rethink eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 59 eLearningPapers ReferencesIn-depth  oud, D., Cohen, R. & Sampson, J. (eds). (2001). Peer learning in higher education: Learning from and with each other. B London: Kogan Page. Boling, E., Castek, J., Zawilinski, L., Barton, K., & Nierlich, T. (2008). Collaborative literacy: Blogs and Internet projects. The Reading Teacher, 61(6), 504-506.  ameron, L. (2009). How learning design can illuminate teaching practice. Proceedings of The Future of Learning Design C Conference, December 10, 2009. Paper 3. Retrieved from http://ro.uow.edu.au/fld/09/Program/3  Cameron, L. & Gotlieb, C. (2009). Students Participating in the Learning Design Process Using LAMS. In L. Cameron & J. Dalziel (Eds), Proceedings of the 4th International LAMS Conference 2009: Opening Up Learning Design., pp. 40-47 3-4th . December. 2009, Sydney: LAMS Foundation. Retrieved from: http://lamsfoundation.org/lams2009sydney/CD/pdfs/03_Cameron.pdf  Carver, S.M., Lehrer, R., Connell, T. & Erickson, J. (1992). Learning by hypermedia design: Issues of assessment and implementation. Educational Psychologist, 27(3), pp. 385-404.  Chang, R., Kennedy, G. & Petrovic, T. (2008). Web 2.0 and user-created content: Students negotiating shifts in academic authority. In Hello! Where are you in the landscape of educational technology? Proceedings ascilite Melbourne 2008. http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/melbourne08/procs/chang.pdf  awson, J., Murray, K., Parvis, S. & Paterson, J. (2005) Using weblogs to encourage reflective learning in History and D Classics – http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/cross_fac/heahistory/elibrary/resources/CS_Dawson_Weblogs_200707xx.pdf  Doggett, L. (2009). Nine great reasons why teachers should use Twitter. Retrieved from http://lauradoggett.com/2009/03/nine-great-reasons-why-teachers-should-use-twitter/ on 21 October, 2011.  Donato, R. (1994). “Collective scaffolding in second language learning” in Bygotskian approaches to second language research. Norwood, J. J.: Ablex Pub. Corp.  lass, R., & Spiegelman, M. (2008). Incorporating blogs into the syllabus: Making their space a learning space. Journal of G Educational Technology Systems, 6(2), 145-155.  aramiak, A., Boulton, H., & Irwin, B. (2009). Trainee teachers’ use of blogs as private reflections for professional H development. Learning, Media and Technology, 34(3), 259-269.  JISC. (2008). Effective Practice with e-Portfolios, p.18 – www.jisc.ac.uk/effectivepracticeeportfolios  ajder, S. B., & Bull, G.. (2004). A space for “writing without writing. Learning & Leading with Technology, 31(6), 32-35. K  imber, K. & Wyatt-Smith, C. (2006). Using and creating knowledge with new technologies: A case for students-as K designers. Learning, Media and Technology, Vo. 31, No. 1, March 2006, pp. 19-34.  iu, M. & Hsiao, Y. (2002). Middle School Students as Multimedia Designers: A Project-Based Learning Approach. Journal L of Interactive Learning Research, 13(4), 311-337 Norfolk, VA: AACE. Retrieved from . http://www.editlib.org/p/9529  M. & Rutledge, K. (1997). The effect of a “learner as multimedia designer” environment on at-risk high school Liu, students’ motivation and learning of design knowledge. Journal of Educational Computing Research. 16(2), pp. 145-177.  Murphy, K.L., Harvell, T.J., Sanders, B. & Epps, M.L. (1999). Students as designers and teachers of their courses via computer-mediated communication. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT), Houston, Texas on February 13, 1999. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 60 eLearningPapers  November, A. (2011). Students as contributors: The digital learning farm. Retrieved from http://novemberlearning.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/students-as-contributors.pdf on 21 October, 2011.In-depth Overby, A. (2009). The new conversation: Using weblogs for reflective practice in the studio art classroom. Art Education, 62(4), 18-24.  Prensky, M. (2007). Students as designers and creators of educational computer games: Who else? Retrieved from http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky-Students_as_Game_Creators-.pdf  eigeluth, C.M. (1996). IT Forum Paper #17: What is the new paradigm of Instructional Theory. Indiana University. R  uible, Z. K. (2005). Blogs: A natural in business communication courses. Business Communication Quarterly, 68(1), Q 73-76.  J. (2006). Welcome to the Blogoshere. The Educational Use of Blogs (aka Edublogs). Kappa Delta Pi Record, 42(4), Ray, 175-177.  assell, B., & Crouch, C. (2008). Fostering critical engagement in preservice teachers: Incorporating weblogs into W multicultural education. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 16(2), 211-232.  ood, D., Bruner, J.S., & Ross, G. (1976). The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of Child Psychology and W Psychiatry. 17 pp. 89-100. , eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 61 eLearningPapers Using Patterns to DesignIn-depth Technology-Enhanced Learning Scenarios [ ] Authors Félix Buendía-García. fbuendia@disca.upv.es [ +] José Vte. Benlloch-Dualde. jbenlloc@disca.upv.es [ +] Universitat Politècnica de Valencia Introduction Research on designing for learning is a field that has concentrated Summary The research on designing for learning a lot of efforts in the context of technology-enhanced settings. is a field that has concentrated a lot This fact has demonstrated the need to represent learning of efforts, particularly, in a context of scenarios using a more formal perspective. ongoing innovations in technology- This paper reviews some representation mechanisms which enable enhanced settings. Such fact has the systematic design of learning issues in technological settings, pushed the need to represent learning and proposes an approach that applies pattern notations in an design issues in a more formal view effort to better understand and prepare for different learning in order to face this changing context. context. The current work describes some representation mechanisms which A case study is also described to show the application of these enable the design of different learning scenarios in a specific technology-enhanced setting for teaching issues in a systematic way and take into computing curricula. This application is based on the use of account the restrictions imposed by digital ink technologies and demonstrates how patterns may be specific technological environments and able to mediate between pedagogical and technical issues. products. The interest to formalize or interpret different learning issues in a more methodical way comes from disciplines such as the Instructional Design (ID) or Instructional Systems Design (ISD) that provide systematic strategies and techniques in the design of teaching processes. Designing instruction has been addressed in technology-based settings (Rogers, 2002) and ID models have been used to produce tools which automate their application Tags (Kasowitz, 2002). However, some technology-enhanced setting, learning scenario, limitations have been detected when automating instructional design because design patterns, digital-ink technologies the complexity of learning scenarios (Spector & Ohrazda, 2003), especially, in such technical settings. In a parallel way, Learning Design (LD) deals with Languages cz da de bg et el es fr it lv lt hu nl pl pt ro sk sl fi sv eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 62 eLearningPapersIn-depth the need to guide and support teachers practitioners to make informed some conclusions and further works are in the preparation of effective learning decisions and choices to undertake remarked. scenarios and specific tools called specific teaching and learning activities” “pedagogical planners” have been (Conole, 2008). Moreover, these developed to assist teachers in this goal mechanisms should help to mediate Review of learning design (Masterman, 2008). Besides, LD adds or connect pedagogical questions with notations an interesting feature that concerns the technological-based solutions. There are multiple kinds of mechanisms representation of teaching and learning and notations which have been issues, for example, to document them This work proposes the use of design proposed to design different issues in in some visual format (Agostinho, patterns as “mediating artifacts” to pedagogical or instructional topics. This 2006). This feature allows instructors to represent technology-based learning review does not intend to cover all share and reuse good learning practices scenarios. Patterns are a well-known the potential mechanisms to represent but it also helps them to model and notation to design different kinds of or model these issues but it tries to organize their tasks in a systematic way. information items whose application is highlight those which have contributed The representation of teaching and widely spread in Software Engineering to mediate between pedagogical and learning issues is not only related to LD disciplines. Patterns have been also technological aspects. For instance, areas and there are multiple initiatives used in other disciplines, including Nervig (1990) explored some of in the last years which have contributed pedagogical and e-learning areas. these mechanisms in the ID context to the modeling and documentation Therefore, they seem a right mechanism and initiatives such as IDT (Merrill, of these learning information items. to represent learning design issues in 1996) or MISA (Paquette et al, 2001) Computer science and software specific technology-enhanced settings proposed elements and languages for engineering disciplines have promoted enabling the connection between both specifying instructional applications. different notations and mechanisms sides. Nevertheless, the formal specification of in this context. Hypermedia models, these applications and their components The remainder of the work is structured ontology proposals, modeling languages, was usually disregarded (Wiest&Zell, as follows. The next section provides standard specifications or conceptual 2001). a general overview about several maps are some examples which are mechanisms and notations which have reviewed in the next section. These Educational hypermedia was one of the been formulated to represent different mechanisms provide several ways to first mechanisms used to formalize the LD issues. The third section presents an represent learning issues in text or design and development of instructional approach to use patterns for designing graphic format, using natural language applications in a systematic and learning in technology-enhanced or through a restricted vocabulary and widespread way. They were based on settings. The fourth section describes differing in their formalization level or specific software engineering models the application of the introduced abstraction degree. Anyway, the crucial such OOHDM (Schwabe & Rossi, approach in a specific context based aspect is considering such mechanisms 1995) or AHAM (De Bra et al, 1999) on digital ink technologies. Finally, as “mediating artifacts which help to produce educational products using eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 63 eLearningPapersIn-depth UML diagrams (Papasalouros & Retalis, some references about using ontology “translate” their pedagogical view into 2002) or other kind of graphical notations in learning design (Knight this kind of specification. However, it notations (Diaz et al, 2001). Buendía et al, 2005), (Koper, 2006) but, in is important to recognize the relevance & Díaz (2003) proposed a hypermedia general, most of their application have of IMS-LD to build and share learning framework to manage educational been focused on modeling domain designs from the XML notation used contents conjugating instructional and concepts or developing specific to express such specification and there technical issues. Hypermedia models products such as ITS (Intelligent Tutor are multiple tools and platforms which and tools were adequate for designing Systems). Nevertheless, the research on support their processing. Moreover, specific educational applications. ontology notations has derived towards UML diagrams have been provided However, the fact they were based on other interesting fields such as map to represent these learning design graphical notations made them difficult specifications or educational modeling specifications using a graphical display. to understand by non-computer literate languages as powerful representation This notation was complemented users such as teachers or instructors. mechanisms in the LD context. with text narrative descriptions that contributed to a better understanding Another type of mechanism (or Modeling languages have been of the IMS-LD learning scenarios. artifact), traditionally applied to proposed in different areas and represent pedagogical and instructional education was not an exception. A more tailored way to represent LD issues, is the ontology which can Education modeling languages (also issues in specific learning scenarios can be defined as “a specification of a known as EMLs) were analyzed in consist in using map-based or any kind conceptualization” (Gruber, 1992). the context of the “Workshop on of simple graph notations. For example, Murray (1996) defined special Learning Technologies” project (CEN/ concepts maps can be used to describe ontologies for representing pedagogical ISSS, 2002) as a review of the multiple the ‘best fit’ strategy for designing an knowledge and ontological modeling notations proposed to facilitate the e-learning course (Adorni et al, 2009) has been used for designing educational description of pedagogic aspects under the particular lecturer view. systems (Mizoguchi et al., 1997). involved in educational-learning Perhaps, that situation hampers the Therefore, constructing ontologies in processes (Koper, 2001). The different sharing of learning designs produced by educational design is a well-known EML proposals were considered different lectures but in a further step, area with the advantage that explicit in order to produce a standard this collection of map-based designs relationships between learning specification called IMS-LD (IMS, can be processed in order to get a concepts help to infer or discover new 2003) addressed to “support a wide common design template. Moreover, knowledge from previous. For example, range of pedagogies in online learning”. concept mapping can also be seen as from the Bloom’s objective taxonomy This specification provides a generic a first step in ontology-building, and certain terms can be extracted to be neutral language that can be adapted meanwhile, be used flexibly to represent linked with other learning concepts to many different pedagogies but that specific learning designs adapted to such as instructional needs or a task feature is, perhaps, its main weakness technology-enhanced settings (Buendia, vocabulary (Conole, 2008). There are because it is not trivial for instructors to 2011). Mind-maps provide similar eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 64 eLearningPapers Name Pattern identifierIn-depth Context Description of the learning scenario in which the selected pattern is applied Problem Overview about the learning or instructional requirements to be faced Discussion Explanation to motivate the addressed problem and its justification Solution Description of the way to apply technologies to solve the addressed problem Diagram Sketch to represent the solution in a graphical display including descriptive tags Relationships Links to other patterns which could be useful in the learning scenario design Keywords Collection of terms which reference specific aspects of the learning scenario Table 1: Pattern language for learning design. representation facilities and mapping means of design patterns. The use approach proposed in this work is tools can be deployed to generate LD of patterns can be considered as a based on promoting a “guide rather templates from different case studies structured method of describing good than prescribe” philosophy to apply (Conole & Weller, 2008). A further step design practices in different fields of patterns, focused on small-scale learning is based on the use of topic maps as an expertise. Originally, design patterns experiences and bounded to specific ISO standard whose aim is describing were introduced by Alexander et al technology settings. Next subsections knowledge structures with XML (1977) in architecture disciplines as describe such approach to use design encoding schemes that facilitate their “a careful description of a perennial patterns which is structured into processing. Topic maps have been applied solution to a recurring problem within two main phases: (i) the Preparation in LD contexts (Adorni et al, 2008) a building context”. This pattern notion of the target patterns and (ii) their and there are specific environments has been adopted in other disciplines Deployment in a specific context. for authoring educational topic maps such as Software Engineering or (Dicheva & Dichev, 2006). Interaction designs. Furthermore, pedagogical patterns are recognized Preparation In summary, there have been reviewed as efficient mechanisms to document In a first approach phase, a pattern several mechanisms to represent LD good practices in teaching (PPP, 2005), language has to be chosen. Table 1 issues. They range from highly structured including visual flow representations shows a summary of the language and formal notations like hypermedia (Hernandez et al, 2007) and there proposed to define patterns that models, ontology notations or topic are design patterns which have been fit the learning design philosophy maps to semiformal mechanisms such as proposed in e-learning contexts “as aforementioned. This pattern language educational languages, concept or mind conceptual tools to support educational is mostly based in the original maps. Next section describes design design” (Goodyear, 2005). Rohse, S., Alexandrian definition which is patterns as an alternative representation & Anderson, T. (2006) also justify the mainly narrative with some additional tool which combines the flexibility of use of design patterns recognizing attributes and special features: i) the narrative textual-based representation that learning is a complex process, diagrammatic part is complemented techniques, the visualization capability particularly, when digital technologies with tags that specify particular of sketches or similar graphical displays in continuous change become a key concepts with a potential instructional and the ability to incorporate controlled component in this process. purpose and ii) an extra field called vocabularies or ontology terms into their Keywords that gathers some of the definition. Therefore, patterns seem a powerful previous tags and other terms which mechanism to allow instructors and characterize the learning scenario practitioners designing different through the proposed pattern. Learning design approach learning issues related to items such based on patterns as theoretical contents or laboratory The second step consists in classifying The current work introduces an activities in a certain technology- patterns in several categories in order approach to represent LD issues by based educational context. The to facilitate their further detection, eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 65 eLearningPapersIn-depth definition and processing. Figure 1 shows a map example that displays some basic concepts that can be part of a learning scenario in which a given pattern could be applied such as content resources or learning activities. These map concepts could be extracted from an educational ontology in order to improve their connection with pattern information items. The concepts represented in Figure 1 can be distributed in four main groups: contents, activities, interaction and Figure 1: Instructional concept map in a learning scenario sample. assessment. From this distribution, an initial pattern classification can be set up to organize them into the next • Interaction enablers: contain patterns straightforward way. The current work categories: to support actions, maybe, not directly is focused on producing those potential addressed to teach about a certain topic patterns which can be useful in a •  ontent managers: composed by C or acquire specific competencies. Such specific technology-based educational patterns that help practitioners to actions should encourage the student setting (Buendía & Cano, 2006). There elaborate the didactic materials or participation or enable their interaction are some methods to detect or induce resources by enriching the original with other students. these learning patterns (Brouns et al, contents with multimedia formats 2005) but the selected approach is based or adding annotations or signals to • Assessment producers: associated to on the observation of learning scenarios provide instructional hints that assist patterns that allow teachers to elaborate in close disciplines and the detection their teaching. different kind of mechanisms to assess of successful practices when certain the student performance or their technologies are involved. • Activity facilitators: include patterns behavior (e.g. multimodal assessment or which assist the instructor in the formative vs. summative evaluation). preparation of learning tasks based on “problem solving” techniques, or Deployment To finish the pattern preparation, allow teachers to design seminars that The pattern deployment is based on these can be produced or defined contribute to discuss specific topics and a well-known instructional design considering different possibilities. In improve their learning. method called ADDIE (Molenda, some cases, there is available a catalog of 2003) which stands for Analysis, patterns according to different criteria Design, Development, Implementation (PPP, 2005) which can be applied in a eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 66 eLearningPapers Goal category DescriptionIn-depth Remembering To identify and recognize the computer entities Understanding To interpret or explain a data structure algorithm Applying To apply a procedure to implement a logical circuit Analyzing To decompose or organize the computer components Evaluating To test or check the phases in an data structure management Creating To design or produce a new logical circuit Keywords Collection of terms which reference specific aspects of the learning scenario Table 2: Potential learning requirements. and Evaluation. The Analysis phase Discussion or the Keywords attributes. application has been successful. In this should gather those requirements This process is usually manual but it case, instructional experts could evaluate relevant to the target learning could be supported by a wizard tool this application by checking the scenarios such as instructional goals or assisted by experts in the pattern matching between pattern sketches and or learning objectives. Table 2 shows management. teacher proposed solutions. The next a list of requirements which could be section describes an application case to assigned in the context of a revision An advantage provided by design elucidate this deployment process. of the Bloom’s taxonomy (Anderson& patterns is they are usually represented Krathwohl, 2001) for Computing by sketches or diagrams easy to curricula. These examples of learning interpret by teachers who are non- Approach application requirements contain actions that computer literate. The pattern narrative The aforementioned approach has can be mapped to the components structure also contributes to facilitate its been applied in a specific learning of a learning scenario such as the systematic application and the inclusion context based on the use of digital-ink one represented in Figure 1. For of tags in the graphical display permits technologies. Next subsections describe instance, actions such “recognize the a better understanding of the Solution the context that enabled the proposed computer entities” or “implements a attribute description. The proposed approach and the preparation and logical circuit” can be linked to display approach also encourages explaining deployment of digital-ink patterns in educational contents or perform how specific technologies are applied this context. academic activities in a learning in the context of the target pattern scenario context. and detailed instructions either text or graphic-based should be incorporated Context The matching process between in the Solution description. Then, such Patterns have been applied in a learning requirements and pattern technological details could give support Higher Education context at the UPV information is the critical stage to select to the Development of the required (Universitat Politècnica de València). In the right design pattern that should LD component to elaborate certain particular, they were essayed in several solve the stated need or problem and learning resources from recommended courses of undergraduate Computing using the pattern categories defined multimedia formats or design activities degrees, in an attempt to adapt these in the Preparation phase. In this exploiting the pattern potential. In courses according to the Bologna point, ontology notations can help to a similar way, the Implementation Declaration guidelines. Some studies determine the terms or concepts to phase has to address the particular have been carried out over the last six be searched in the pattern catalogue. conditions provided by the available academic years that reveal instructional The information contained in the learning platforms to accommodate problems such as: low participation pattern Problem attribute should also those patterns which are implemented and student interaction, pupils’ lack facilitate this matching process and in such platforms. Eventually, the of motivation, low class attendance other information items can be taken Evaluation step should check the rates, high course drop-out rates and into account such as the Context, the pattern application in order to test if its eventually, poor students’ performance. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 67 eLearningPapersIn-depth To deal with these problems, the UPV implemented in another pilot group Preparation of digital-ink raised several educational innovation of a core second-year course called projects and one of them was granted Data Structure and Algorithms that patterns by Hewlett Packard in the framework in contrast with the first experience, The experiences aforementioned of the HP Technology for Teaching could be considered a Computer enabled to generate a catalogue Grant Initiative, Transforming Teaching Science subject rather different from of patterns based on digital-ink and Learning through Technology the Computer Engineering course technologies (see Appendix A with (HP, 2008). The central idea of this focused in the first experience. some pattern samples classified by project was to exploit the potential of Nevertheless, the team in charge of categories). The detection of good digital ink technologies to deploy a the HP project realized that the design practices and satisfactory outcomes was more interactive teaching and learning of the learning experiences based on crucial to start such pattern generation environment based on the use of Tablet digital ink technologies in both cases but another factor can be considered PCs and similar devices. were very close and similar outcomes essential in this process. This factor was were obtained (Benlloch et al, 2010). the need to conceptualize the potential Tablet PCs can be considered as During the course 2010-2011, new of digital-ink technologies. traditional laptops including an LCD experiences were implemented in screen on which the user can write Figure 2 shows a concept map that different Computing disciplines and using a special pen. These devices rely displays some of the basic notions and analogous good practices were detected on digital ink technology, where a actions related with the instructional in their implementation. digitizer can capture the movement of the pen and thus, allowing users to put data onto the screen in a natural way. Digital inking enhances the chances for active learning activities allowing actions such as handwriting, highlighting, marking, drawing, sketching or doodling. The project granted by HP equipped a special classroom with twenty Tablet PCs where several learning experiences were developed since the year 2009. The first experience was applied during the spring 2009 semester to a pilot group of Computer Technology, a core first- year Computing Engineering course. In the next semester, a new case was Figure 2: Concept map of digital-ink technologies. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 68 eLearningPapers Name Half-bakedIn-depth Context Half-baked Problem Teaching in a traditional classroom with electronic slides to display contents Discussion Classroom sessions are boring and difficult to follow due to overloaded slides Solution Slide-based teaching is a usual technique but these slides can evolve in a dynamic way allowing students to focus on the teachers discourse Diagram Instructor completes the prepared “half-baked” slide on the fly by means of instructional elements based on digital-ink technologies Relationships See Figure 3 Keywords Light and shade, Augmented reality Electronic slides; classroom contents; understanding goal; adding explanations; framing concepts; drawing diagrams Table 2: Potential learning requirements. use of “digital-ink” technologies. For instance, how “Handwritten inputs” can be used to introduce math special symbols or the ability to “Sketch” diagrams or “Highlight” information items. This conceptualization process was fundamental in the preparation of learning design patterns and it also contributed to select tags which characterize the Keywords attribute in the proposed pattern definition. Such process also enabled the connection   with the learning scenario components mapped in Figure 1 (Buendía, 2011). One sample of digital-ink pattern in the Content category is called “Half- Figure 3: Sketch of the “Half-baked” pattern. baked” and it describes the possibility to provide an initial version of a slide- based presentation whose main points Deployment of digital-ink can be considered an essential tool can be complemented with additional in the Analysis step for the proposed annotations or drawings during the patterns approach. These answers contributed lecture. After their preparation, such digital- to detect the potential digital-ink ink patterns were applied in the patterns that could be useful for a set of Table 3 shows a short description of context of Computing degree courses instructors who taught a wide range of the pattern attributes according to their to validate their use in real learning computing disciplines. Moreover, some previous definition that includes bold scenarios. Appendix B displays part of instructor’s answers were analyzed and terms remarking singular concepts. a questionnaire that was submitted to their interpretation leads to advise these Figure 3 displays the diagrammatic lecturers who wished to participate instructors against the use of digital-ink representation of the pattern which in these evaluation experiences in technologies in their teaching activities. contains red-labeled tags that refer order to gather their instructional In this analysis process, the matching instructional actions associated to the requirements. This questionnaire was between learning requirements and digital-ink technologies in the pattern based on a checklist format to ease the pattern possibilities was manually context. instructor’s answers and its outcomes performed. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 69 eLearningPapersIn-depth After this Analysis stage, selected instructors participated in several experiments on the proposed patterns in their courses. These experiments consisted in the elaboration of a real pattern sample implementation by each instructor in a specific learning scenario using the pattern sketch as a template guide. For instance, Figure 4a shows an example of pattern application in a Computer Technology subject. This example corresponds to a “Half-baked” pattern (see Table 3)   that fits with the “Understanding” goal category referenced in Table 2 and it demonstrated the teacher ability to instantiate such pattern by completing a) “Half-baked” implementation sample its presentation with handwritten annotations. Figure 4b shows a similar application in the case of a “Filling blanks” pattern within a Data Structure subject. In this example, the instructor who implemented the pattern instantiation confirmed the way to design an interactive learning task that allowed him to check a data structure operation. b) “Filling blanks” implementation sample Figure 4: Example of pattern deployment. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 70 eLearningPapersIn-depth Conclusions description and connect them with practitioner support. Moreover, it instructional issues. must be acknowledged that evaluation The current work has described experiences have been developed on an approach to use patterns in the This pattern-based approach has been isolated learning scenarios and other design of learning scenarios supported applied in an educational context experiments are needed to generalize by technology-enhanced settings. corresponding to Computing curricula the pattern application in learning The choice of design patterns was in order to validate such approach. In sequences and flows. performed after the review of different summary, a two-phase process has been mechanisms to represent learning performed i) to prepare a list of design Other further works include, on the issues in a formal or semiformal way. patterns associated to a technology- one hand, the preparation of new The proposed approach has taken enhanced setting based on digital pattern catalogues, the development of advantage of the pattern features which ink technologies and ii) to deploy wizard tools that assist instructors in combine the narrative textual-based these patterns in this kind of settings the pattern application and the research expression power with visual notations demonstrating their effectiveness. in the integration with ontology easy to understand by non-computer The approach application has enabled notations. On the other hand, new cases literate users. These design patterns the generation of digital-ink patterns studies are being planned to complete have been considered flexible enough which have been used by teachers in the approach evaluation, taking into to be adapted to different instructional specific learning scenarios and the account other issues such as the student conditions enabling the representation obtained outcomes have revealed performance or their point of view of multiple types of learning scenarios a general pattern success among about the benefits of a pattern-based and they have been extended with new involved teachers. However, such learning approach. features such as tags that complement experiences have also shown that some the pattern diagrammatic information teachers are still reluctant to apply and keywords which permit to identify these representation mechanisms and fundamental concepts in the pattern their application requires a stronger eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 71 eLearningPapers ReferencesIn-depth  Adorni, G., Coccoli, M., Vercelli, G. & Vivanet, G. (2008). IFIP International Federation for Information Processing, Volume 281; Learning to Live in the Knowledge Society; Michael Kendall and Brian Samways, Boston, Springer, 357–358.  Adorni, G., Brondo, D. &Vivanet, G. (2009). A formal instructional model based on Concept Maps Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, 5(3), 33 - 42.  Agostinho, S. (2006). The use of visual learning design representation to document and communicate teaching ideas. In Proceedings of ASCILITE 2006, Sydney.  Alexander, C., Ishikawa, S. & Silverstein, M. (1977). A pattern language: Towns,buildings, construction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of educational objectives: Complete edition, New York , Longman.  Benlloch-Dualde, J.V, Buendía, F Cano, J.C. (2010). Supporting instructors in designing Tablet PC-based courses. , Proceedings of 10th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies” ICALT 2010, Sousse, Tunisia, 591- , 593.  Brouns, F Koper,R., Manderveld,J., Van Bruggen,J., Sloep, P Van Rosmalen P Tattersall, C. & Vogten, H. (2005). ., ., ., A first exploration of an inductive analysis approach for detecting learning design patterns. Journal of Interactive Media in Education 2005 (03).  Buendía, F & Díaz P (2003). A Framework for the Management of Digital Educational Contents Conjugating Instructional . . and Technical Issues. Educational Technology & Society, 6(4), 48-59.  Buendía, F Cano, J.C. (2006). WebgeneOS: A Generative and Web-Based Learning Architecture to Teach Operating ., Systems in Undergraduate Courses. IEEE Transactions on Education, Education, 49(4), 464-473.  uendia F (2011). Supporting the Generation of Guidelines for Online Courses, Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge B . Society, 7(3), 51-61.  CEN/ISSS, (2002). CEN/ISSS Information Society Standardization System, Learning Technologies Workshop.  Conole G. & Fill K. (2005). A learning design toolkit to create pedagogically effective learning activities” Journal of . Interactive Media in Education, 2005 (08).  Conole, G. (2008). Capturing practice: The role of mediating artefacts in learning design. In L. Lockyer, S. Bennett, S. Agostinho & B Harper (Eds), Handbook of research on learning design and learning objects: Issues, applications and technologies, 187-207 Hersey PA: IGI Global. .  Conole, G. & Weller, M. (2008). Using learning design as a framework for supporting the design and reuse of OER. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 5.  Bra, P Houben, G. & Wu, H. (1999). AHAM: A Dexter-based Reference Model for Adaptive Hypermedia. Proc. of ACM De ., Hypertext ‘99, Darmstadt, Germany, 147-156.  P Aedo I. & Panetsos F (2001). Modeling the dynamic behavior of hypermedia applications. IEEE Transactions on Díaz ., . Software Engineering, 27 (6), 550-572.  Dicheva, D. & Dichev, C. (2006) TM4L: Creating and Browsing Educational Topic Maps, British Journal of Educational Technology – BJET, 37(3), 391-404.  Goodyear, P (2005). Educational design and networked learning: Patterns, pattern language and design practice. . Australasian Journal of Education Technology, 21(1), 82–101.  Gruber, T. R. (1993). A translation approach to portable ontologies. Knowledge Acquisition, 5(2), 199-220. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 72 eLearningPapers  ernández, D. , Asensio, J.I., Dimitriadis, Y. & Villasclaras, E. (2007). Diagrams of learning flow patterns’ solutions as H visual representations of refinable IMS learning design templates. Handbook of Visual Languages for Instructional Design,In-depth IGI Group, 395-413. HP (2008) Higher Education HP Technology for Teaching Grant Initiative Recipients, retrieved September 7 2011 , http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/socialinnovation/us/programs/tech_teaching/hied_global_emea.html?jumpid=reg_ r1002_usen  (2003). IMS Learning Design Specification. Retrieved September 7 2011 IMS , http://www.imsproject.org/learningdesign Kasowitz, A. (1998). Tools for Automating Instructional Design. ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology. Syracuse (USA).  night, C. Gasevic, D. & Richards, G. (2005). Ontologies to integrate learning design and learning content. Journal of K Interactive Media in Education. Special Issue on Advances in Learning Design, 2005 (7).  oper, R. (2001). Modelling units of study from a pedagogical perspective: the pedagogical meta-model behind EML. K Educational Technology Expertise Centre (OTEC), Open University of the Netherlands.  Koper R. (2006). Current Research in Learning Design. Educational Technology & Society, 9 (1), 13-22.  asterman, L. (2008). Activity theory and the design of pedagogic planning tools. In L. Lockyer, S. Bennett, S. Agostinho M & B. Harper (Eds.), Handbook of research on learning design and learning obkects: issues, applications and technologies, Hershey, New York: Information Science Reference,1, 209 - 227 .  Merrill, M.D., & ID2 Research Team (1996). Instructional Transaction Theory: Instructional Design based on Knowledge Objects. Educational Technology, 36 (3),30-37.  izoguchi, R., Ikeda, M. & Sinitsa. K. (1997). Roles of shared ontology in AI-ED research: intelligence, conceptualization, M standardization, and reusability. In B. du Boulay and R. Mizoguchi, editors, Artificial Intelligence in Education, Proceedings of AI-ED 97 537-544. ,  Molenda, M. (2003). In search of the elusive ADDIE model. Performance improvement, 42(5), 34.  Murray, T. (1996). Special purpose ontologies and the representation of pedagogical knowledge. In Proceedings of the 1996 international conference on Learning sciences, D. C. Edelson and E. A. Domeshek (Eds.). International Society of the Learning Sciences, 235-242.  Nervig, N. (1990) Instructional systems development: a reconstructed ISD model. Educational Technology, 40-46.  apasalouros, A. & Retalis, S. (2002). Ob-AHEM: A UML P -enabled model for Adaptive Educational Hypermedia Applications. Interactive educational Multimedia, 4.  Paquette, G., Rosca, I., De la Teja, I., Léonard M. y Lundgren-Cayrol , K.(2001). Webbased Support for the Instructional Engineering of E-learning Systems. WebNet’01 Conference, Orlando (USA).  (2005). Pedagogical Patterns Project, retrieved September 7 2011 PPP , http://www.pedagogicalpatterns.org  Rogers, P (2002). Designing instruction for technology-enhanced learning. Hersey, PA: Idea Group Publishing. .  Rohse, S., & Anderson, T. (2006). Design patterns for complex learning. Journal of Learning Design, 1(3), 82-91.  Schwabe, D. & Rossi, G. (1995). The Object-Oriented Hypermedia Design Model. Communications of the ACM, 38(8), 45-46.  Scott, B., & Johnson, Z. (2005). Using topic maps as part of learning design – some history and a case study. Proceedings III International Conference on Multimedia and Communication Technologies in Education, Cáceres, Spain.  Spector, J.M. & Ohrazda, C. (2003) Automating instructional design: Approaches and limitations. Educational Technology Research and Development, 26, 685-700. iest, S. & Zell A. (2001). Improving Web-Based Training Using an XML Content Base. Proc. Of Educational Multimedia W and Hypermedia. EDMEDIA’01, Tampere (Finland), 2045-2050 eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 73 eLearningPapersIn-depth Appendix A. Digital-ink Pattern Catalogue Category Name Short description Content manager Light and shade Some content items need to be clarified using an extra explanation or highlighted by means of visual artifacts. Focus of attention There are items that require to be located, by signaling, underlining or framing certain information (e.g. Pointing out a diagram or underling a sentence). Half-baked Some resources such as slide-based presentation can be completed on the fly by using freehand inputs to facilitate presentations or improve the discourse. Augmented reality Some content resources such as images, video sequences or documents are better understood if additional information items are placed on them. Activity facilitator Make connections There are activities that require to link or set up relationships among their component items. Do it freehand Some activities entail the elaboration of a diagram, drawing a sketch or introducing an equation. Sharing efforts Several students need to participate and collaborate to solve a problem, sharing and exchanging information. Organize your ideas A learning activity can require elaborating a concept or mind map. Filling blanks Different activities can demand to introduce information on a previously prepared structure (text, table, diagram, map…) Interaction enabler Raise your question Anonymous contributions can help those students who are reluctant to ask in public (this pattern could be related with “Focus of attention”). Post your opinion Students can contribute with their point of view in a topic discussion. The audience responds A poll mechanism can be used to gather the overall student preferences or the knowledge about a topic. Exchanging messages Students should communicate among them during a collaborative task (this pattern could be related with “Sharing efforts”). Assessment The right option A rapid answer to a closed set of questions (objective test) is required. producer Connection game A learning activity based on matching options could be evaluated (this pattern could be related with “Make connections”). Grading opinion The student point of view about a certain topic can be assessed (this pattern could be related with “Post your opinion”). Bad news Instructor can signal or remark the corrections made in the student works (fixing common mistakes). Good news Instructor can highlight the strong points in the student works (providing positive reinforcement). eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 74 eLearningPapersIn-depth Appendix B. Instructional Requirement Questionnaire Contents Text documents require introducing special marks on them. Images such as photos, graphics, or diagrams need annotations or additional descriptions. Slide-based presentations require some kind of annotation or highlighting their components. In video sequences or “screencast” some elements need to be signaled or marked. , Activities Students have to carry out matching or filling blanks exercises. Course exercises require “freehand” inputs (e.g. symbols, equations, diagrams…). Students are required to summarize topics by using a graphical representation. Students share tasks in which annotations or diagrams are produced. Interaction Students can anonymously ask questions focused on the course resources during the class sessions. Students can post their point of view about a certain topic. Students participate in collaborative works. Students can vote or select a certain topic. Assessment An objective assessment is performed using a closed set of answers or matching options. Student opinions about a certain course topic can be assessed. Instructors perform annotations on the works delivered by students. Some student responses are selected and reviewed in front of class. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • From the field Experiences with technologies in learning environments n in g F  ostering Open Educational Practices r A  VATAR – The Course: Recommendations for Using 3D Virtual Environments for Teaching a e s C  reating Invitational Online Learning L r Environments Using Art-Based Learning Interventionse e S  erious Games and Formal and Informal u Learning pap ers.e rning R  eady, Get Set and GO! ELT Blogathon 2011 p lea ww.e a wP eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 76 eLearningPapers Fostering OpenFrom the field Educational Practices [ ] on paths, guidance and ways to learn. Open Educational Resources (OER) are becoming accepted as part of Institutions can evolve by offering the the range of materials that learners and educators can use. However the missing elements of support, assessment methods and practices that enable learners, teachers and institutions to and accreditation to link the non- best engage with OER are not yet established and may well be more formal to the formal. However, there important in enabling change in education systems than the availability of are also more radical options where the resources themselves. By looking at the experiences that The Open new practices are needed. University in the UK has in direct provision of OER and the broader research carried out by the Open Learning Network (OLnet) initiative This paper builds on the experience several factors and related practices can be identified that should help we have had at The Open University encourage openness and engagement with OER. in Open Educational resources. First in OpenLearn where we released content to the world for free. And then in the OLnet initiative which has a research focus that looks much more outside the Experiences from The Open as existing courses make use of the Open University to find evidence. The resources or much less formally through University individual or group learning around and Open University has always been open The Open University in the UK has with the open resources. The practice in various ways (McAndrew, 2010) direct experience working with OER of learning in this open way does and so there is an interest in new ways through OpenLearn, research into the not come naturally to everyone and to make use of openness. OpenLearn impact of OER through the OLnet methods that link together individual provided an experiment in opening up initiative, and understanding as an experiences need to be developed. content that had previously only been institute of how OER can influence For the educator this means thinking available for those paying fees. The future options. We see OER as having through the design and operation of evaluation of OpenLearn (McAndrew the potential to change the practice of an open approach to education. A key et al, 2009) found there were several learners, educators and organisations in element is the release of resources with benefits. These included accelerating a profound way. The learner is given a licence that allows change and reuse innovation, establishing collaborations, choice by OER of ways to learn, either leading to new forms of course based and attracting new students to the Tags engagement with OER, best practices, case-based analysis Author Patrick McAndrew, Associate Director (Learning & Teaching) Institute of Educational Technology. The Open University. p.mcandrew@open.ac.uk [ +] Languages cz da de bg et el es fr it lv lt hu nl pl pt ro sk sl fi sv eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 77 eLearningPapersFrom the field University. In contrast to the inward infrastructure of legal elements, such of learning. To complete the learning looking work on OpenLearn, OLnet as copyright and process models. The experience other elements such as is considering the developments across models are changing from producer- management, support, assessment all of those involved in OER. For led such as OpenCourseWare (Carson, and accreditation all have roles to example part of the work has been 2007) to more open approaches where play. Content can be seen as part examining more that 100 reported all may share content. Each approach of a disaggregation of each of these results from OER project funded by the offers different advantages with the components allowing institutions to William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. more formal having clearer messages of build revised models around bringing The Hewlett Foundation has been quality and expectation, while the latter together free content alongside other a major catalyst for the adoption of has greater potential for diversity. services. However there can also be more open approaches. Analysis of more radical models demonstrated by the projects over time shows a move 2 Use: with the greater availability initiatives such as P2PU (http://p2pu. from initial work on the concept of of content there is more opportunity org/), OpenSE (http://opense.net/), open content, to supporting the open for use and to recognise the way in OpenEd 2.0 (http://www.open-ed. provision of existing content to now which OER can act as an attractor for eu/) that are each offering open courses work on advocacy and models of use. communities of learners. Social spaces based on open content or rethinking The concept of resources themselves can be established on top of content. of the value of education and the more as the core of openness is gradually Even in a move towards greater value personal control summarised as “Do-It- being augmented with the concept of in social learning and the gaining of Yourself University” (Kamenetz, 2010). Open Educational Practices (OEP), “21st Century Skills” (Trilling and notably through the work of the EU Fadel, 2009) the role of content as a 5 Policy: an increasingly important funded Opal project (Ehlers, 2011). In way to bring people together and allow aspect of OER is the recognition other words; how does the presence self-directed learning is a great enabler that they have characteristics to of approved and free resources change of learning. support change at many levels, the operation of individuals and including institutional and national 3 Design: designing for openness policies. Adjusting the copyright and institutions? both in terms of the content itself, permissions to content may seem like but also the models for use of a minor change. However the use Elements of practice educational contents. Research has of openness enables the crossing of shown (Dimitriadis et al, 2009) that barriers and an easy path for sharing In OLnet our analysis has picked out considering designing for use of the experiences without having to establish five factors content and establishing patterns around all agreements and components. 1 Infrastructure: the tools that are free and open content may bring needed for sharing of content, but benefits more quickly than embedding also of practice and experiences. Such the design in the materials. Contexts infrastructure includes the software The context provides a further 4 Adoption: how to make use of basis that is becoming well established underlying factor. Contextual matters OER as the basis for the practice of as free and open systems underlie include the country, culture, level, institutions and individuals. This places much of the Internet, but also the organisation and other special aspects content as only part of the function eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 78 eLearningPapersFrom the field of each situation. The OLnet fellowship outreach by institutions. In Turkey problems solved in one context often programme illustrates the way in (http://olnet.org/node/195) to support can be adopted for other contexts. which OER can both adjust and apply the expansion of tertiary education. in different contexts. The fellowship Working with UNESCO in Russia and 2. Use: there is greater opportunity in programme has supported 30 fellows CIS (http://olnet.org/node/422) to making use of the thousands of free an over the 3-year period of OLnet. These help set up a study of the readiness for open resources than in concentrating can be loosely characterised as “expert OER in that part of the world. on production of new material. fellowships”, where the recipient is 3. Design: focus on the way in which bringing in their specialist knowledge a learner may work with a variety of and being given the space and direction Conclusion content rather than specific content. to apply that expertise to OER research The greater spread and availability of and as “open fellowships”, which are Open Educational Resources has given 4. Adoption: content is only part of more developmental in nature and a platform for change and adoption the answer, the role for support and focussed on solving particular problems of Open Educational Practice. These accreditation remains but there may also using OER. require a process of change and be a chance for innovation. development if they are to give the Each fellow brings their own greatest benefit. The evidence that is 5. Policy: governments often appear experiences and situation. Being able emerging is that embracing openness to seek the impossible of an expanding to work across these contexts has can provide many opportunities. education system that costs less. given an important pointer to how to The first recognised moves to open Openness is one of the few approaches operate in a more open future. This content took place approximately 10 that may be able to achieve this aim. work has helped us share and reflect years ago with the 10th anniversary on approaches already identified and, of OpenCourseWare marked in 2011 Open approaches continue to develop more importantly, we have also been at the annual OpenCourseWare and it remains clear that there is much able to bring in new lessons in each Consortium conference. The level of to learn from new contexts and systems case. Examples of contexts that the maturity of the field means that there in this period of change. The role for fellows have brought from different are chances for new innovations but international bodies such as UNESCO countries and cultures include: In China also lessons that should be taken as in encouraging awareness of the (http://olnet.org/node/485), to share involvement continues to grow. The five approaches and developing two way teaching methods as much as teaching factors outlined above can be treated as communication can help to improve resources and to bring in use of open the basis for recommendations such as: connections and provide a catalyst to environments alongside the programme taking up the chances that are available. of national courses linked to the use of 1. Infrastructure: an open approach the open environment of OpenLearn. needs to be transportable and so there is In Brazil OER (http://slidesha.re/ no need to develop new systems. Legal eZLgpa) are being used to support eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 79 eLearningPapersFrom the field References  Carson, S. (2007). StephenCarson,The OpenCourseWare Model: High-Impact Open Educational Content, Educational Technology, vol.47 no.6 (November/December 2007), pp. 23–25. ,  imitriadis, Y., McAndrew, P Conole, G. and Makriyannis, E. (2009). New design approaches to repurposing open D ., educational resources for collaborative learning using mediating artefacts. In: ascilite 2009: Same places, different spaces, 6-9 Dec 2009, Auckland, New Zealand. http://oro.open.ac.uk/19378/  hlers, U-D. (2011). OPAL: Open Educational Quality Initiative. http://www.oer-quality.org E  Kamenetz, A. (2010). DIY U: Edupunks, Edupreneurs, and the Coming Transformation of Higher Education. Chelsea Green Publishing: White River Jct. VT.  McAndrew, P (2010). Defining openness: updating the concept of “open” for a connected world. Journal of Interactive . Media in Education, 2010(10), pp. 1–13. http://oro.open.ac.uk/25819/  cAndrew, P and Cropper, K. (2010). Open Learning Network: the evidence of OER impact. In: Open Ed 2010: The M . Seventh Annual Open Education Conference, November 2-4, 2010, Barcelona, Spain. http://oro.open.ac.uk/23824/  McAndrew, P Santos, A., Lane, A., Godwin, S., Okada, A., Wilson, T., Connolly, T., Ferreira, G., Buckingham Shum, ., S., Bretts, J., and Webb, R. (2009). OpenLearn Research Report 2006-2008. The Open University, Milton Keynes, England. http://oro.open.ac.uk/17513/  McAndrew, P Scanlon, E., and Clow, D. (2010). An Open Future for Higher Education. Educational Quarterly ., http://oro.open.ac.uk/21894  Trilling, B., and Fadel, C. (2009). 21st Century Skills: Learning for Life in Our Times. Jossey-Bass, Hoboken, NJ. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 80 eLearningPapers AVATAR – The Course:From the field Recommendations for Using 3D Virtual Environments for Teaching [ ] world, includes the identification and The AVATAR project developed a global course for teachers, which consideration of constraints in the was delivered remotely over a period of four months. The course had learning setting, computer skills of nine modules, distributed via e-learning and v-learning platforms. The both students and teachers, and the course was created in English, however to support the learning curve of knowledge of how the desired learning multilingual and international groups, several modules were moderated outcomes would be realized. Other in national groups. This communication details the rationale behind issues include technical requirements, the course, documents two case studies of completed projects within a licensing policies, sustainability, and virtual world, highlights the challenges and successes of the modules, and more. culminates with conclusions and recommendations for running courses and lessons within an online 3D virtual world. Some commercial educational games such as “Chemicus”, “Physikus”, and “Informaticus”, by Heureka- 1. Introduction platforms and virtual environments Klett (2002), a German software have been made available from past EC Highlighted in the EUN report on engineering company, have the quality projects (Pivec, Koubek, & Dondi, 2004; “Games in Schools” (EUN, 2008) one of recreational games and include Pivec, 2008), but teachers and trainers of the main reasons for Game-Based defined learning outcomes. These cannot be expected to know how to Learning (GBL) being under utilized games employ an interface very similar integrate these virtual environments as an education resource is the lack to the popular commercial adventure into their lessons to achieve the of teacher/trainer skills in developing game “Myst” from the game publisher desired learning outcomes. The digital and utilizing games and GBL resources UbiSoft (2007), and provide an technology can take a considerable to assist them. Digital games,Virtual interactive storyline that transports the amount of time to learn, often with Worlds, and their appropriate use player into a virtual world of fantasy the students knowing more about it for education vary considerably. and creates an immersive environment. than the teacher. Part of the process of Taxonomies of commercial game types Reese (2007) suggests that these virtual choosing and utilizing a digital game or genres and lists of recommended worlds have the potential to create a for learning or learning within a virtual Tags virtual learning environments, teacher training, online course development, case study Authors Maja Pivec. Information Design, FH JOANNEUM, University of Applied Sciences, Graz, Austria. Maja.Pivec@fh-joanneum.at [ +] Cristina Stefanelli. Consorzio FOR.COM. - Formazione per la Comunicazione Interuniversity Consortium, Rome, Italy. c.stefanelli@forcom.it [ +] Inger-Marie F. Christensen. Department for Competence Development, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark imc@sdu.dk [ +] Jutta Pauschenwein. ZML – Innovative Learning Scenarios, FH JOANNEUM, University of Applied Sciences, Graz, Austria Jutta.Pauschenwein@fh-joanneum.at [ +] Languages cz da de bg et el es fr it lv lt hu nl pl pt ro sk sl fi sv eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 81 eLearningPapersFrom the field player immersion (Kearney & Pivec, Burmester, and Reiners (2008) also The EUN report on Games in Schools 2007) and cites the concept of flow created simulations of Container (EUN, 2008) also suggests that the from Czikszentmihalyi (1990). Reese Terminals using the virtual environment lack of ICT use in teaching is a advocates that virtual worlds should be of Second Life. They suggest that the predominant issue in secondary schools used as an alternate space for learning blended learning approach taken by throughout Europe. The AVATAR because of this immersive quality. the University of Hamburg allows for course discussed in this paper aimed Calleja (2007) agrees with Reese and a richer environment for the students at enhancing the level of ICT use in promotes a game experience model and a safer one than the real alternative education by providing teachers with to incorporate the concepts of both when teaching terminal logistics and relatively new methodological and immersion and presence, to further the management. They conclude that pedagogical tools, and was offered to understanding of social significance and although the virtual world of Second teachers in secondary schools in Austria, personal values of digital environments. Life suits their purpose at the present, Bulgaria, Denmark, Italy, Spain and the they have structured their resources as United Kingdom. The course included Game-Based Learning can successfully to be able to port them to other virtual approximately 100 hours of learning supplement traditional teaching, by worlds or digital game environments in activities broken down into group providing a motivational environment the future. activities, individual study, planning and successfully aimed at the appropriate carrying out the project work with target audience. Sorensen and As suggested in all of the above students. Meyer (2007) reviewed a Game- examples, digital environments and Based language course (English as virtual worlds are often used to provide a foreign language) introduced into the motivation necessary to learn, be 2. AVATAR - The Course primary schools in 2006 in Denmark. it as drill and practice for homework, The course was delivered through The online world of “Mingoville” or as a safe experiential environment both an E-Learning and a V-Learning (2009) contains 10 missions in which to supplement the structured lesson. platform comprising a mix of tutorials, players complete activities focused Clark (2004) maintains that commercial individual and group activities, and around vocabulary, spelling, and word recreational game designers are practical tasks. Second Life was chosen recognition. Aimed at children aged successful because they focus only on for the virtual world and subsequently 5 to 14 years, the product is written engaging the player and making the used for the course delivery to the in Adobe Flash to be easily accessed game fun to play. He states that it is the participating teachers. Groups of via a web browser and has now been design of the interactivity that provides teachers from each of the participating translated into 31 languages. Mayer the motivation necessary to invoke the countries were moderated by national and Bekebrede (2006) successfully repeated and persistent re-engagement moderators (virtual world experts), implemented Game-Based Learning by the player. This can be achieved at who communicated with them in using simulations. Their games titled an emotional level or an intellectual their native languages. Participants also “Containers Adrift”, the planning and level, but for the player to learn in partook in transnational activities and design of an inland container terminal, the virtual environment, Clark argues reflection in English. “Ventum On Line”, the simulated that the design must include action management of a wind farm, and “SIM and consequence and learning can The overall learning objectives of MV2”, the planning of infrastructure then be achieved through reflection, the AVATAR course were for the for a 2nd port in Rotterdam, are especially when a moderated debriefing participants to: all successfully utilized at the Delft is utilized. University of Technology. Burmester, eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 82 eLearningPapersFrom the field develop skills and confidence in using Socialisation and getting to know the 3. Case Study - Learning various social internet resources as well functions of the E-learning platform as massively multi-user online worlds English as a foreign 3.V-Learning Platform Introduction language in Second Life such as Second Life Module This project work was designed and develop a deeper understanding of these Accessing Second Life, acquiring basic developed by three English teachers environments and their uses with regard skills, accessing Second Life support at the 10th grade school 10’eren in to learning scenarios resources Glostrup, Denmark: Jens Kjær Olsen, gain knowledge of teaching methods, 4.V-Learning Intermediate Module Pernille Lomholt Christensen and best practices and educational design Vinnie Holst-Jensen. Three classes with Search, Groups and Communication a total of 30 students aged 16-17 took usable in virtual worlds 5.V-learning Advanced Module part in this 3-week project that was identify and reflect upon the efficacy carried out in Spring 2011. The 10th of the outcomes of different learning Basic Object Creation grade is optional, and therefore many activities carried out in-world 6.V-Learning Advanced Module 10th grade schools have creative and practical subjects that allow students design strategies, activities and resources Advanced Object Creation to get a feel of different trades and for learning different subjects in virtual professions. 7.V-Learning Educational Design worlds Module The purpose of this project was to integrate virtual worlds as an innovative 8. Ongoing V-Learning Seminar work with English as a foreign language means in their daily teaching within the virtual world of Second Life. 9.V-Learning Project Work One of the goals of learning English as experience virtual worlds with their The course spanned four months, and a second language is to give students students covered educational design of virtual the opportunity to speak the language. evaluate the educational use of virtual world teaching, the management and The teachers behind the project felt worlds in their classrooms construction of virtual objects and that a virtual world would be the learning environments, and examples perfect setting for language teaching To achieve these objectives the course of learning activities in virtual worlds. because the students could “hide” was offered in nine Modules with During the course, the teachers behind their avatar and thus overcome activities as follows: developed project work and use it some of the embarrassment that might directly in their classroom with their be involved. Also, it was believed that 1. Introduction Module students. The project work incorporated Second Life would provide more Access to the E-learning platform and a practical application of knowledge realistic communication situations course overview and skills gained during the course, (speaking, reading and writing/chatting) with regards to the creation of a than speaking English with your fellow 2. E-Learning Platform Introduction virtual-world learning environment and Danish students. Another important Module learning activities for a specific subject. goal of the project was to enable the students to pay virtual visits to sights in eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 83 eLearningPapersFrom the field the UK and the US, so as to intrigue quickly got a good grasp of how to you wish to use, and get the necessary them and create a desire to see the navigate within the Virtual World documentation and information before places in real life. A secondary purpose and how to change their appearance using the resources with your students. of the project was to pose creative tasks etc., due to their prior knowledge of to the students that would allow them Virtual world games such as the World Also, the students would have gained to work with digital audio and video of Warcraft. This prior knowledge of more if they had worked in groups as part of the subject “junior computer online computer games also meant across the countries in the AVATAR driver’s license”. that some students behaved offensively project. This proved not to be possible towards other avatars. However, they within the timeframe. It would also During the first week of the project, were soon introduced to netiquette to have been ideal to carry out the project the students were given an introductory amend their behavior. in the autumn i.e. in the beginning of course to familiarize them with the the semester. relevant functions of Second Life and With regards to the goal of learning to give them time to create an avatar. English as a second language, the Finally, mastering Second Life was not The students were given the assignment students spent time communicating in as easy as hoped. The teachers pointed to visit different places in Second Life English and were able to understand the to a steep learning curve for themselves all relating to Berlin and to create a English language instructions that they and those students without online game photo story with music and text. This received. They thus had a lot of practical experience. It is not a plug and play exercise was linked to an actual study training and appeared to have fun in educational product. trip to the city of Berlin. The second the process. However, it was mostly Links and further information from this and third weeks of the project were the reading, understanding and writing case study are as follows: devoted to the Robin Hood Quest (chatting) skills that the students were which is available in Second Life at practicing and less their oral English. The Robin Hood Quest the British Council Isle. The students When communicating with each other, worked in groups to solve the riddles the students used Danish probably as The aim of the quest is to free Maid and tasks in the quest. They had to use a result of the very complex tasks they Marion. In order to free her, a code is English when communicating with were facing. As a side effect of the needed. The code is obtained by solving each other and when seeking help from project, some students formed a band different tasks and solving a crossword the guides (their teachers and teachers and chatted with avatars from other puzzle. from Austria and Italy who were also countries. Sherwood Forest of the British Council engaged in the AVATAR course) in Challenges and Reflections from Isle: http://robinhoodquest.wetpaint. Second Life. Again the students were this project: com/ asked to create a photo story with English texts and with music. It turned British Council Intro film: http://www. The Robin Hood Quest appeared to youtube.com/watch?v=Sty91tJZyqA out that only by collaborating could be an ideal task for language teaching. the students solve the tasks of the quest, However, it turned out to be too The student films are available here: which made the project very successful. complex a task to solve the riddles http://www.youtube.com/ involved. Using existing resources in watch?v=sVx_ZH5zNfg Some students felt that the Robin Hood Quest was very difficult, and they Second Life is not always easy and http://www.youtube.com/ had much help from their teachers and hence it is recommendable to contact watch?v=Jxi4qZDUsJA fellow students. However, the students the institution behind the resources eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 84 eLearningPapersFrom the field http://www.youtube.com/ Competences (communication, - recognize and valorize successful watch?v=hVpKjCXzXXc problem-solving, cooperative-learning) results, appreciate and analyzing even http://www.youtube.com/ smalls improvements. The outcomes and purpose of this watch?v=ocCc1ksCMpU practical experiment were related to The project work itself consisted of Europe 2020 strategy, Digital Agenda two phases that had been preceded by 4. Case Study - What & (IP/10/225) and to the eight key an internal communication targeting how can I do? competences for lifelong learning students, teachers (colleagues) and This project work was designed and (Recommendation 2006/962/EC of the technical staff of the school. carried out by Claudia Malta teacher the European Parliament and Council). This communication was aimed at of Italian Literature and History with motivate students, inform colleague The purpose of the project work, in and technicians of the educational her students of class 4ª B Mercurio, terms of the learning outcomes for Technical School “Giuseppe Ginanni”, potentials of virtual worlds, and inform pupils, revolved around 3 core themes: participants of the AVATAR project and Ravenna, Italy. The project work involved 17 students aged 17 to 18 of the idea for the project work. Core theme COMMUNICATION: years during the period April 1 to May Phase one: preparatory phase 7 of 2011. The length of the project in - decode verbal and non verbal total was 24 hours, 8 curricular and 16 messages efficiently The length of this phase was 8 extra-curricular hours. The goal is of curricular hours. Main tasks of this - use ICT for communicating the project work was to create a Bazaar phase were: within Second Life containing 3D Core theme COOPERATIVE objects created by students. Creation of the Second Life accounts LEARNING: for the students. This project focused on competences - compare with peers representation of Creation of the students’ Avatars. rather than disciplinary contents. It a setting or a specific theme aimed at enable the students to gain: Phase one consisted of an introduction - interact using an efficient role as to to virtual worlds and their educational Knowledge (Italian, English, Computer, achieve a common goal possibilities. Students’ virtual existence Civil Law); as Avatars in Second Life was opened Core theme PROBLEM SOLVING with basic instruction on how to Skills (how to use the computer, learn new ways of using the computer, - define goals and expected outcome of change appearance, how to move create things using computers, create a problem around and communicate. The students things based on their own ideas, were very positive regarding their use technology to contribute to - analyze the context, evaluate available involvement in the project even though the surrounding community and to strength point and detect challenges they did not have previous experience collaborate); in SL. The main characteristic of this - define strategies, role of involved phase was that all students had “a Attitudes (the fields of study of students actors, and deadline for the solution of willingness to participate”. Spending are Business, Finance and Software a problem time on the virtual island, students design: some of them have purchased an visited all the buildings of the estate and ECDL Skill card); started building their own objects. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 85 eLearningPapersFrom the field In order to facilitate the student’s stay During this phase a number of frontal thesis that students will design for their in SL, the teacher defined some rules lessons and dialogues took place in- final exams. (in addition to the Conduct by users world in the open-air classroom of of Second Life by Linden Labs). Due the AVATAR project’s estate. Next The work in SL with the students has to the total number of pupil’s aged was the operative part of the project never been a “cold” and impersonal 16-18, the confined setting of the island (focused on problem-solving) with didactic unit with students drawn along was the ideal place for these activities. the aim of acquiring basic skills to the module. The project work was Students started to be creative, learning interact with objects in SL and to very constructive and collaborative. digital competences and shaping 3d realize “interesting” 3d object, realistic The teachers believe that the project objects by using and modifying textures in terms of dimensions, with an eye contributed to built skills, in particular and scripts available in the Resource to aesthetic and using scripts. Some in terms of problem solving and Centre. students were creative and others had pointed towards personal attitudes and been determinate and persistent facing giving value to them. Phase two: laboratory phase some personal challenges (e.g. how can “I believe that a similar experience I put an umbrella in the right direction may be transferred to many different The length of phase two was 16 extra- in the hand of an avatar?) contexts, using guided tours and more curricular hours. Phase two was carried out at school on Fridays from 16:00 Challenges and Reflections from activities instead of scripts, if students to 17:00 (after the normal lessons) and this project: less skilled with ICTs are involved. Saturdays (students do not have lessons on Saturday) at school and/or at home. Many of the colleagues at school were A real problem may occur in many interested in the progress of the project schools: connection to the internet The main steps of phase two were: work: the ICT responsible, the board and technical capacity of computer of teachers and even the Didactic at school. The collaboration of the Lessons (in Italian) on Regulatory text technical staff of the school and their Manager entered SL to see the Bazaar. and instructional/procedural text. involvement since the earliest stage of The students became the “Avatar group” of the school and some pictures the activities is highly recommended for Group activities for the students, on of their in-world activities were placed a successful result of the project works. texts were to: on the bulletin-board in the hall of I just discovered the potential of •  ead, summarize, analyse (regulatory r the school. A wider report was also teaching in virtual worlds. I believe texts); published in the school institutional that there are many opportunities for website. The project work is still open. teaching virtual in many disciplines, like •  ead, analyse, use as resources to r Students do not want to leave their mathematic, chemistry, physics, etc. and produce things (instruction / avatars and there are plans for a “second there are many ways for motivating and procedural texts) half ” i.e. continuum of this project, that good working educational pathways.” •  reate and present, in a small Bazaar, c will be carried out next school year. Claudia Malta, Teacher for Italy the 3d objects (created by students) The teacher is considering using this experience during the next year for the eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 86 eLearningPapersFrom the field 5. Transferability of the 6. Unexpected way of interdisciplinary contextualized learning and furthermore, collaboration acquired competences developments and other and working on problem solving with Competences acquired within the challenges students of different grades and age. AVATAR experimentation phase One of the teachers involved They challenged younger children to described in previous chapter have been in the AVATAR course, from a create two-dimensional drawings of transferred in a video used by a group small traditional rural community, their surrounding natural environment. of students to apply for the competition experienced a massive attack by parents Then, the teachers built a model Enterprise – European Business Game, because of using Second Life in her world in SL with those drawings developed together with a teacher of teaching. (Parents were not opposed to and presented them to the students Business Economy in the same school. SL but were questioning application of of 17-18 with the task to develop a The Enterprise project has foreseen a teaching with technology as opposed to sustainable and ecologically acceptable guided set-up of an enterprise, starting traditional teaching methods, and were solution for this environment, including from an idea for a product or service concerned that new methods might observation research, modeling, to be put on the market. The AVATAR be less effective.) A meeting with analysis and synthesis in this learning group identified in case study 2, realized teacher, parents and head of school was experience. This approach demonstrated a video in SL for the commercialisation organized to discuss these issues. The the concept of engaging students of of a carpet that, once stamped, activates teacher turned to the AVATAR project different ages working on the same the lights of cabinets or showcases so community for support and advice how problem in a 3D virtual environment. that the power consumption is limited to handle this issue. However, at the same time it calls to the time that people look at the out to use virtual worlds without age cabinets. The subsequent meeting went well limits (e.g. open sims or active worlds) with the parents giving their full in educational environments when The AVATAR Group has been support for experimental work. working with minors. placed sixth and the video has been The teacher and school used this fundamental for this success. The video momentum to organize an info day Finally, some teachers experienced can be seen at: http://www.youtube. in their city, involving all teachers difficulty when working alone in SL com/watch?v=AbmEFaR_VKU of the school, other schools, parents with larger groups of students. Although and of course students, presenting the students very much enjoyed the Another group of students from the and informing about her work and virtual world experience, some teachers same class, won the national award and innovative teaching practices. They also found the work load unmanageable they are now working for the European invited regional office for education and without technical assistance and at times competition in the end of June 2011. distributed some press releases. The local stressful. These have been the most exciting moments of the project: in a few weeks seminar was very successful with more students acquired competences that that than 100 teachers and pupils attending. were able to use in a different context Other teachers enrolled in the and with a great creativity. AVATAR course found a very creative eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 87 eLearningPapersFrom the field 7 Recommendations and . •  reate activities to support mixed C •  nvolve the technical staff in your I interdisciplinary and international school at an early stage of your Conclusions teams project, they will help you with all the In this paper we wanted to give you an technical problems (open Firewalls, insight of the discovery journey of the Factors to success are listed as install Viewer, etc). AVATAR course – how we defined follows: the curriculum and course work for •  alorize the work of your students. V teachers, what was their feedback, •  ntroduce the students to netiquette, I their use cases, and the results from the so that they can interact with other Finally, we leave you with a quote from experimentation phase where teachers avatars in the virtual world without one of the participating teachers….. created and carried out lessons with causing offence. “What a night - and all the hard work their students. •  upport the students in-world by S behind! And one can prepare and Experience and feedback from offering note cards with SLURLs, prepare - and then things don’t work the piloting of the first 8 modules instructions etc. out! Well, it is like in RL - you cannot course are listed in form of control it! So what is the dif. in SL?” •  rovide a framework of modules and P “Recommendations for Successful deadlines that explain the task. Comment from Jens Nerido, teacher Intercultural and Interdisciplinary from Denmark, posted on the AVATAR Delivery of an E-Learning Course”. •  everal teachers took part in this S forum, May 2011 project. This meant a lot in terms of •  hoose carefully the platform and C supporting each other in the process technical environment, so it supports of getting to know Second Life and in all planed activities and is easy to use terms of supporting the students in- and to handle. world. The group of teachers counted •  llow for sufficient time for activities A both English and Computer Science and consider appropriate scaffolding of teachers. participants •  irtual worlds add an international V •  rganize repeating synchronous O dimension to language teaching. activities / events to bust and maintain •  he AVATAR course proved to be T motivation and participation virtual competence development for •  rovide as much support and material P the participating teachers. as possible in various languages •  nform colleagues (teachers) and your I •  rovide national discussion groups as P didactic manager of the activities that to reduce the language barer you will carry out in-world, they will contribute to motivate students. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 88 eLearningPapersFrom the field References  VATAR project page. Retrieved from http://www.avatarproject.eu/, on 25th of May, 2011; AVATAR “Added Value A of teAching in a virTuAl woRld” is a two year project (December 2009 - November 2011) co-financed by the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Sub-Programme Comenius.  AVATAR estate in SL http://maps.secondlife.com/secondlife/British%20Council%20Isle2/229/3/23  urmster, A., Burmester, F & Reiners, T. (2008). Virtual Environment for Immersive Learning of Container Logistics. In B ., Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and telecommunications 2008, Vienna, Austria, pp. 933 – 935  Calleja, G. (2007) Digital Games as Designed Experience: Reframing the Concept of Immersion. PhD Thesis, Victoria University of Wellington. Retrieved from http://www.gordoncalleja.com/phdthesis.html.  Clark, C. (2004). The principles of game based learning. Paper presented at the NETC/LSC Conference, Crystal City, VA. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper and Row.  (2008): How are digital games used in schools?. Retrieved from http://games.eun.org EUN  Heureka-Klett (2002), HEUREKA-Klett Softwareverlag GmbH. Retrieved March, 2007 from http://www.mobygames.com/company/heureka-klett-softwareverlag-gmbh  Kearney, P & Pivec, M. (2007). Immersed and how? That is the question. Games in Action. Gothenburg, Sweden. .  Mayer, I. & Bekebreda, G. (2006). Serious games and simulation based e-learning for infrastructure management. In M. Pivec (Ed.), Affective and emotional aspects of human-computer interaction: Emphasis on game-based and innovative learning approaches. Amsterdam: IOS Press BV.  Mingoville (2009). Language Learning Development Company. Retrieved 15 April 2009 from http://www.mingoville.com  Pivec, M., Koubek, A., & Dondi, C. (2004). Guidelines on game-based learning. Godina: Pabst Science Publishers.  Pivec, M. (2008). Keynote Speech at eMapps final conference. “What we know about game based learning” Prague, 12 . Feb, 2008. http://emapps.info/eng/Events/Prague-Final-Conference/Presentations/What-we-know-about-Game-Based-Learning  Reese, D. (2007). First Steps and Beyond: Serious Games as Preparation for Future Learning. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia (2007) 16(3), 283-300  orensen, B. & Meyer, B. (2007). Serious Games in language and learning – a theoretical perspective. Digital Games S Research Association 2007 Conference: Situated Play, Tokyo, 559 – 566.  Ubisoft (2007). Ubisoft Corporation. Retrieved 1 October 2007 from http://www.ubi.com eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 89 eLearningPapers Creating Invitational Online LearningFrom the field Environments Using Art-Based Learning Interventions [ ] Effective online learning environments are inviting; infused with respect, Arts-Based Learning trust, intentionality, and optimism (Purkey, 2007). Arts-based learning Interventions interventions like Reflective Poetry, Minute at the Movies Analysis, “Our The arts-based learning interventions Community” Soap Scenes, and Theme Songs facilitate invitational online described include elements of literature, classes. These inexpensive, adaptable interventions enhance learning drama, and music. environments by encouraging human connections and creativity. Reflective Poetry. Online learners are invited to create poems that distill a Online learning environments should (Calman, 2005), dialogue (Calman), complex or abstract course concept into be inviting. Arts-based learning and engagement of affect (Mareno, a few carefully chosen words. Poems interventions enhance human 2006). Perry, Edwards, Menzies, and provide unique avenues of expression connections in online classrooms, and Janzen (2011) found APTs increased of emotion, feeling, and attitude. van help create an invitational atmosphere quality of interactions, enhanced sense Manan (1990) noted that poems do infused with respect, trust, intentionality, of community, furthered application not require a summary as they are the and optimism (Purkey, 2007). Artistic of course content, and helped learners summary. In this way poems allow, pedagogical technologies (APTs), establish group identity in online even force, writers to be concise and learning strategies founded in the courses. precise. Creating a poem requires the arts, (Perry & Edwards. 2010) include poet to engage in reflection regarding literary, visual, musical, or drama This report describes APTs that we developed and used in online graduate the topic of the poem. Students elements. The worth of the arts as share their poems with the class in a teaching tools has been recognized in courses to create invitational learning environments. Reflective Poetry, virtual poetry reading, and instructors face-to-face education (Kleiman, 2008). invite comments furthering reflective Paintings, photography, literature, poetry, Minute at the Movies Analysis, “Our Community” Soap Scenes, and Course thinking. music, and drama have contributed positively to the in-person classroom Theme Songs are described. Analysis, We have trialled different types of educational experience. Outcomes based on invitational theory, concludes poems; parallel, reflective, and Haiku. include reflection, (Darbyshire, the article. With parallel poems instructors provide 1994) , safe learning environments, learners with a poem (written by the Tags invitational online learning environment, artistic pedagogical technology, arts-based teaching, reflective poetry Authors Beth Perry, Faculty of Health Disciplines. Athabasca University. bethp@athabascau.ca [ +] Katherine J. Janzen, Faculty of Health and Community Studies. Mount Royal University. kjjanzen@mtroyal.ca [ +] Margaret Edwards, Faculty of Health Disciplines. Athabasca University. marge@athabascau.ca [ +] Languages cz da de bg et el es fr it lv lt hu nl pl pt ro sk sl fi sv eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 90 eLearningPapersFrom the field instructor or selected from published poetry) on a course theme. Students are challenged to write a poem that parallels the instructors’ poem in topic, rhythm, form, and cadence. With reflective poems instructors provide students with a course theme and ask them to create a poem of any style related to their experience with this theme. Another poetic intervention, “Haiku it!,” invites students to condense a course discussion or reading into a Haiku—a poem of seventeen syllables—in three lines of five, seven, and five. One student response to the “Haiku it!” challenge condensed a discussion of Figure 1 organizational change: In change fear lives large No one knows what comes for them Tomorrow quivers and style.YouTube offers instructors a individuals who are members of the searchable library of movie trailers. imagined community. For example, Minute at the Movies Analysis. if the graduate course was targeted at This activity uses a video trailer from Movie clips introduce stories that grade school teachers learning about a movie related to a course topic. may help students understand related collaboration, the community of Students view the trailer and are theory. A movie story may teach characters created might include grade provided questions that aid them in principles and theories, helping students school teachers, parents, students, and their reflection regarding the actions gain both knowledge and attitudinal school administrators. Each community of a movie character that illustrate shifts. Actors’ actions also provide member has a Facebook-like profile. the topic. For example, in a course role-modelling. Using movie trailers (see Figure 1) The profiles are part of on effective leadership students might provides manageable sized content for the course materials. Throughout the be encouraged to review movie clips downloading, and the short highlights course, various community members from Twelve Angry Men—a movie help to focus discussion around specific are featured in scenarios that illustrate demonstrating influence as one man’s stories/theories. course concepts or create a storyline “leadership” causes the opinion of a to stimulate class discussion. The often whole room of people to change, or “Our Community” Soap Scenes. melodramatic nature of scenarios Dead Poet’s Society where one teacher- This learning intervention combines reflects the title of the learning activity leader demonstrates various leadership the drama of soap opera scenarios “soap scenes.” strategies with a group at a boys’ school. with Facebook-like profiles of These clips provide starting points created characters. The instructor As the course proceeds and community for discussion of leadership approach creates profiles of approximately 10 members are integrated into class eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 91 eLearningPapersFrom the field discussions, students begin to regard Conclusions class colleagues, the sense of trust and the fictitious community members respect is heightened. Learning environments affect student as part of the course and refer to learning (Haigh, 2008). Arts-based 2. Group optimism gives rise to a sense their actions and attributes in other learning interventions may help create that anything is possible. This optimism course discussions. Students may invitational learning environments, is fueled by success. With APTs students create additional member profiles, and infused with trust, respect, optimism, are told there are no right or wrong blank profile templates are provided and intentionality (Purkey, 2007). Trust answers; all participation is embraced to facilitate this. Some students create recognizes humans as interdependent. as valuable. Diversity and creativity self-profiles adding themselves to the Respect recognizes people are able, are encouraged. The class community community. valuable, and responsible. Optimism gradually develops optimism Course Theme Song. Using course focuses on the limitlessness of human (evidenced as confidence) that furthers theme songs adds music to online potential; intentionality recognizes that participation and individual and courses. Music evokes emotion, and a deliberate actions are required to create collective learning. theme song (used strategically during invitational environments (2007). the course) may provide learners with 3. Utilizing APTs, online course Why do the APTs of Reflective designers/instructors can easily, a community-building commonality. A Poetry, Minute at the Movies Analysis, inexpensively, and intentionally link to the theme song can be offered “Our Community” Soap Scenes, and take action to enhance learning at the beginning or end of course units Theme Songs positively influence the environments. APTs do not require and/or at challenging junctures as a invitational nature of the classroom? We additional software or programming. means of motivation and focus. propose the following: APTs can be adapted for multiple Choosing an appropriate theme course topics, cultures, and teaching and 1. Before trust and respect can be song is difficult as people appreciate learning styles. established participants must become different genres of music. Avoiding acquainted. Sharing self-authored potentially distracting or offensive lyrics poems, and movie choices and insights is important. Up-tempo, instrumental reveals personal qualities, values, songs are safer choices. Online open biases, and priorities. APTs provide an source (royalty free) databases of acceptable avenue for self-disclosure music such as www.jamendo.com are that allows familiarity to be enhanced. available. Alternatively, students may People get to know one another. choose the theme song which can be As students take risks, participate a team-building activity. A theme song in challenging activities, expose used in an online graduate course is vulnerabilities and emotions, and find “Destiny” available at http://www. sharing received non-judgementally by jamendo.com/en/track/702401. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 92 eLearningPapersFrom the field References  Calman, K.C. (2005). The arts and humanities in health and medicine. Public Health, 119, 958-9.  Darbyshire, P (1994). Understanding caring through arts and humanities: A medical/nursing humanities approach to . promoting alternative experiences of thinking and learning. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 19, 856-863.  Kind, P Destiny. The Fallen Angel, retrieved October 14, 2011 from . http://www.jamendo.com/en/track/702401  Haigh, M. (2008). Coloring in the emotional language of place. Journal of Invitational Theory and Practice, 14, 25-40.  Kleiman, P (2008). Towards transformation: conceptions of creativity in higher education. Innovations in Education and . Teaching International, 45(3), 209-217.  Mareno, N. A. (2006). A nursing course with the great masters. Nursing Education Perspectives, 27(4), 182-183.  Perry, B., & Edwards, M. (2010). Creating a culture of community in the online classroom using artistic pedagogical technologies. Using Emerging Technologies in Distance Education. G. Veletsianos (Ed.). Edmonton, AB: AU Press.  Perry, B., & Edwards, M., Menzies, C., & Janzen, K. (2011). Using Invitational Theory to Understand the Effectiveness of Artistic Pedagogical Technologies in Creating an Invitational Classroom in the Online Educational Milieu. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on e-Learning (ICEL), Kelowna, BC, June 27-28.  Purkey, W. W. (2007). An introduction to invitational theory, retrieved October 15, 2011 from www.invitationaleducation.net/ie/ie_intro2.htm  an Manen, M. (1990). Researching lived experience: Human science for an action sensitive pedagogy. London, ON: v Althouse. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 93 eLearningPapers Serious Games and FormalFrom the field and Informal Learning [ ] learning. Adding fun into the learning The experience garnered from the eVITA project is used to explore the process makes learning not only more relation between Serious Games (SGs) and formal and informal learning. enjoyable and compelling, but more The eVITA project promotes and investigates pedagogy-driven innovation effective as well (Prensky, 2002, p. by defining and evaluating four different pedagogical approaches. In 4). One of the main characteristics addition, it aims to facilitate knowledge-transfer mechanisms that integrate of a serious game is the fact that the Game Based Learning with intergenerational learning concepts. Within instructional content is presented the project framework, a set of games have been developed which aim together with fun elements. A game that to increase European cultural awareness by conveying the cross-border is motivating makes learners to become experiences of older Europeans, and the first part of the expert evaluation personally involved with playing it in of the outcomes is presented here. an emotional and cognitive way. By engaging in a dual level, their attention and motivation is increased and that 1. Introduction The fact that people learn from assists their learning. digital games is no longer in dispute. The use of traditional games in Research (de Freitas, 2006; de Freitas education has a long standing tradition. There is credible research that suggests & Neumann, 2009; Egenfeldt-Nielsen, Games always used to be part of the that today’s students have a different 2005; Prensky, 2006; Squire, 2004; human learning experience either learning style, enabled by gaming. Squire & Jenkins, 2003) has shown that in formal or in informal settings. Beck and Wade (2004) in their work serious games can be a very effective Nowadays, Serious Games (SGs) have examined a large number of young as an instructional tool and it can assist become both a growing market in professionals and found that their learning by providing an alternative the video games industry (Alvarez & approach to learning was deliberately way of presenting instructions and Michaud, 2008; Susi, Johanesson & overlooking the structure and format of content. Game based learning and Backlund, 2007) and a field of academic formal education. They were extensively serious games can promote student research (Ritterfeld, Cody & Vorderer, used trial and error, they were motivation and interest in subject 2009) receiving attention from many welcoming contribution and instruction matter, enhancing thus the effectiveness diverse fields such as psychology, from peers, and they were emphasising of learning. Learning through games cultural studies, computer science, on ‘just in time’ learning to fulfil their offers increased motivation and interest business studies, sociology and pedagogy needs and complete their tasks. All of to learners through the role of “fun” in (Breuer & Bente, 2010). Tags serious games, case studies, informal learning, evaluation Authors Aristidis Protopsaltis. Serious Games Institute (UK). aprotopsaltis@cad.coventry.ac.uk [ +] Lucia Pannese. Imaginary srl – Innovation Network Politecnico di Milano (It). lucia.pannese@i-maginary.it [ +] Dimitra Pappa. National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos” (Gr). dimitra@dat.demokritos.gr [ +] Sonia Hetzner. Senior researcher, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (De). sonia.hetzner@fim.uni-erlangen.de [ +] Languages cz da de bg et el es fr it lv lt hu nl pl pt ro sk sl fi sv eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 94 eLearningPapersFrom the field these skills are considered essential in engagement, turn mistakes into learning performance and just-in-time feedback, the modern world and serious games elements avoiding the message that to guide learning in ways that are can assist towards developing and an error is something that cannot neither wholly open-ended nor wholly practicing them. be recovered, allow problem based directed but a hybrid of the two learning, situated learning and make something Squire (2006, p. 53) have users feel more comfortable with the called “designed experiences”. 2. Serious Games in exercise etc. SGs offer the ability to Education participants to assume an active role To assess this kind of “fluency,” Squire in a situated and experiential learning (2006) suggests the use of assessments Serious Games are perceived as games process. For example, Squire (2007) that judge how well or not students that engage users in activities other referring to his personal experience identify problems within a domain; than pure entertainment. They involve describes fifth-grade kids interacting how well they can assess solutions; what goal orientated tasks based either in as equals with computer programmers kinds of conceptual understandings they real world or non-real world scenarios from the Netherlands, improving their develop; and how they communicate and aim to improve the player’s motor spelling through this interaction, and either verbally, written, visually, and and cognitive skills. Most often they are before long they were scripting their “computationally” (Squire, 2006). used for corporate training, education, own sections of the game-participating Furthermore, serious games can provide problem solving, military training, in the design of a new world. feedback in multiple formats the such health care, government management, Furthermore, it is common practice as charts, graphs, written, multimedia, disaster management. Serious games nowadays for millions of children to synchronous and asynchronous peer are slowly becoming a powerful tool learning history first informally through feedback and assessments, and so on, in education (Torrente, Moreno-Ger, games and then formally through books that might be leveraged to support Fernández-Manjón & del Blanco, and educational material. learning in diverse settings. As such, 2009). games themselves may be much better Whilst Serious Games (SGs) are It is also widely accepted that forms of assessment than traditional increasingly becoming accepted as a educational games can increase the methods in both formal and informal learning tool, the debate continues attractiveness of learning, giving a settings (Squire, 2006). about what makes a game effective powerful tool in the effort against de- motivation and dropouts, two issues Serious Games offer learning and how it should be used. Making largely affecting academic performance experiences that engage users and, “intellectually appropriate, challenging and formal and informal learning in through the use of novel pedagogic and enriching” games is considered a general. Moreover, Serious Games can approaches assists in developing higher key research challenge together with help to connect specific contents and levels of cognitive thinking. Serious the integration of SGs into the learning skills with a friendly environment, Games can also incorporate data process (de Freitas, 2006). where the student is able to play, probe, tracking to support assessment to high Serious Games offer a range of benefits make mistakes, and learn (Gee, 2003; levels of detail and provide tools for such as making users feel responsible Van Eck, 2006, 2007). More precisely, self-assessment and analysis. Playing for success according to their actions, games employ strategies, such as Serious Games, information and match high-quality content and high differentiated roles, visualization of sensations experienced remain strongly impress and let the player improve eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 95 eLearningPapersFrom the field perception, attention and memory, support the learning design process. The their behavioural patterns and directly promoting behavior changes through eVITA approach was based on the four influence their reflection, etc. (Pivec & “learning by doing”. Serious Games dimensional framework and it produced Kearney, 2007). allow situated learning and make four different serious games, based on users feel more comfortable with the four different pedagogical approaches. Squire (Squire, 2006, 2007) is arguing exercise. In fact, internalize something that instructional theory approaches you actively did is more simple than Most of what happens with need to seek to explain how particular learning during traditional frontal technology outside the classroom game-based approaches work within lessons, a so called “passive learning”. was and still is according to Squire particular contexts. This is what eVITA Serious Games are useful in the (Squire, 2007) ignored. He (Squire, is ambitious of doing. By developing learning because they represent a new 2007) advocates that there is a need four different versions based on four way to learn exploiting the synergy for mixed approaches that combine different pedagogies, eVITA evaluates between emotions and learning (Pappa instruction with well-designed how these four different approaches et al., In Press). feedback and scaffolding activities. work within particular context More precisely, there is a need for and in this case in the context of Despite the widespread use of incorporating formative assessment intergenerational learning and in formal commercial games and the increased practices into formal and maybe and informal learning. attention that the domain of games- into informal learning. For doing so, based learning has received, strategies it is necessary to change classroom for supporting the more efficacious traditional activities and interactions 3. Formal and non-formal methods of learning with games were among students and teachers (Bell & learning uncertain until very recently. In a study Cowie, 2001), to change the traditional In the past diverse attempts were made undertaken by de Freitas and Oliver communication, and to give students to define formal, non-formal and (2006), tutors were unsure which more independence, activity and informal learning as well as to provide games to use, which context to use intentionality in their learning that main indicators for their occurrence. games and how they could be evaluated go beyond traditional intrinsic and The CEDEFOP glossary (Tissot, P., and validated. This work led to the extrinsic motivation (Bereiter & 2000; Tissot, P., 2004) after intensive development of conceptual frameworks Scardamalia, 1989; Scardamalia, 2002). literature review in Europe defines that were subsequently used for testing as follows: formal learning consists of game-based learning. In particular the Serious games can be used as additional learning that occurs within an organised four dimensional framework proposed option to classroom lecturing. The and structured context (formal by de Freitas and Oliver, (2005) with intention of serious games is to address education, in-company training), and its four dimensions of the learner, new ways of ICT based instructional that is designed as learning, formal pedagogies used, the representation design and at the same time to provide learning may lead to formal recognition of the game itself and the context, learners the possibility to acquire (certification). Non-formal learning allowed researchers to evaluate serious skills and competencies. By means of consists of learning embedded in games and to interrogate what metrics serious games learners/players should planned activities that are not explicitly and measures could be used both to be able to apply factual knowledge, designated as learning, but which validate game-based learning, and to learn on demand, gain experiences in contain an important learning element. the virtual world that can later shape eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 96 eLearningPapersFrom the field Intention to learn Structure of the context Learning is intentional Learning is non-intentional Planned learning activities Formal learning Non-formal learning Planned activities (or contextual learning) No planning Informal learning Table 1:  efiniting formal, non-formal and informal learning according to learning intention and structure of the context. D Source: Colardyn and Bjornavold (2005). Informal learning is defined as learning dimensional framework: 1. Structure of (in the classroom) or non-planned resulting from daily life activities related the context 2. Intention to learn. (everywhere) as merely leisure activity. to work, family, or leisure. It is often Then we can define Serious Games referred to as experiential learning Depending on the adopted perspective, as suitable elements in every type of and can, to a degree, be understood as Serious Games can be framed in learning. And this is one particular accidental learning. different areas of the above table: If gain of Serious Games in education. defined as an independently running Education is heading to a big change. According to these definitions we could learning environment with integrate The lines between formal and informal, place Serious Games learning activities pedagogical elements such as didactical planned or unplanned learning are as non-formal learning activities. design, help, phases, assessment and more and more blurred, and mostly a Although they are explicitly designed feedback, social interaction applications, shift to less formal education occurs. for learning, if well designed learning etc. Serious Games are aimed at Sefton-Green (2004) mentions that occurs as a side effect of gaming. intentional learning and usually the use of computer in and outside the The approach can be different, if we embedded in planned learning activities. classroom allow children and young approach Serious Games as learning In this case we talk about formal people a wide variety of activities and elements that can be integrated in learning. If we switch the perspective experiences that can support learning, multiple learning environments. In this and observe Serious Games as one yet many of these transactions do not way Serious Games can be a part of possible didactical element of a more take place in traditional educational formal, non-formal or informal learning complex learning environment, which settings, often synonymous for formal settings. According to Colardyn and can be intentional (in the educational learning. In this contextual change Bjørnåvold (2005) the different learning context) but also non-intentional Serious Games contain a great potential forms have to be approach in a two (purely gaming) and it can be planned to a) set clear pedagogical aims but eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 97 eLearningPapersFrom the field at the same time b) provide an open learning environment, supporting each individual learning choice and learning- motivation. Serious Games does not restrain when, where and why learning occurs. The American National Educational Technology Plan 2010 (short NETP) presents a model of 21st century learning powered by technology, with goals and recommendations in five areas: learning, assessment, teaching, infrastructure, and productivity. The plan calls for engaging and empowering learning experiences for all learners. It wants to bring state-of-the art technology into learning to enable, motivate, and inspire all students, 
 regardless of background, languages, Source: “Model of Learning” NETP (2010, p. 27) or disabilities, to achieve. It leverages the power of technology to provide personalized learning instead of a Serious Games are definitely excellent regular everyday exchanges with older one-size-fits-all curriculum, pace of knowledge buildings tools in every relatives and friends, but can also be teaching, and instructional practices. learning situation. promoted through organised or planned Serious Games would fit perfectly in activities (e.g. elderly people making this educational plan. lectures in schools, school children Serious Games support students 4. The e-VITA experience visiting nursing homes, reminiscence mobility, can be developed by students The e-VITA project (“European Life projects, etc). and shared with others, allows students Experiences”) proposes an innovative and creative methodology for e-VITA, in addition to demonstrating to participate in social networks to intergenerational knowledge sharing the learning potential of SGs for the collaborate and learn new things. and transfer (intergenerational learning), purposes of intergenerational learning, Quoting the Executive summary of which combines storytelling and SGs. is also set to highlight and investigate NETP (2010, p. 4): “Outside school, Intergenerational learning, which refers important aspects of games design. students are free to pursue their passions to the sharing of information, thoughts, In particular, the project explores in their own way and at their own feelings and experiences between the pedagogic dimension of SGs pace. The opportunities are limitless, different generations. Typically this through the adoption of four differing borderless, and instantaneous.” In process is informal, taking place during approaches, implemented and analysed this interpretation of future learning eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 98 eLearningPapersFrom the field in the form of four distinct SGs. Each has the same learner, context, 3,5 and representational medium, yet the 3 pedagogic underpinnings are varied so as to provide a basis for comparative 2,5 study. The four approaches include: 2 20- 1. A narrative-based game which uses 1,5 20+ storytelling to achieve engagement and flow; in this respect it can be seen to 1 draw on oral history pedagogy (King & 0,5 Stahl, 1990); 0 If it was a free feeling at ease 2. An experiential game, where the remember the game content game design is practice on an new things I while playing argument of easier to is clear attractive player is transferred into the state of affairs faced by the narrator, and as such influenced by situative pedagogy; 3. A puzzle-based game, wherein the player has to solve puzzles and Figure 1: Deviation on preference between under 20 and over 20 overcome challenges in order to proceed, and finally; 4. An exploratory game focused on increasing the learner’s zone of proximal development by directing them to web and other external material and resources in order to overcome the challenges or problems presented by the game. Overall, games represent a complex electronic medium, designed to allow users to experience an artefact, a situation etc. Setting up effective SGs is a complex task that requires meticulous planning following a holistic examination of a number of parameters. 
 Often game design either focuses solely on the learning goal (e.g. on teaching a Figure 2: Differences on preference between males and females eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 99 eLearningPapersFrom the field specific skill or procedure) thus giving Games and (c) Learning Instruments, Overall the evaluation results were player entertainment a lesser role, or effective SGs need to be (a) technically satisfactory. Some aspects of the game accentuates the fun elements of game sound and easy-to-use IT products, were criticised, yet all attributes have playing at the cost of learning. The (b) fun and engaging games and (c) received a positive rating. For example purpose however should be to balance effective learning instruments that lead this was the case with the game’s the two, in order to create an optimal to the desired learning outcome. “graphical design” and “navigation”. experience and achieve a completely Among the critics some questioned the focused player motivation in line The preliminary validation of use of two-dimensional design which with the theory of flow proposed by the e-VITA prototype game (an they characterised as “Old”, others the Csikszentmihalyi (1996). Successful experiential game evolving around use of photographs, the design of the games are those that can bring players the adventures of a journalist who characters, the use of colour, the lack of in a mental state of operation, in which has to write an article about the “East movement etc. Most users responded they find themselves fully immersed in and West block” and the times before that they had no problem concentrating the game environment and compelled the fall of the Berlin wall) involved while enjoying the contents of the to explore and experiment further. a broad target group from several game.Yet the majority disagrees that According to Csikszentmihalyi (1996) European countries (Spain, Portugal, “the activities proposed in the game the eight components that contribute Poland, Italy, Greece, UK), namely were engaging and “kept interest alive”. to an optimal experience are: young people (school children and young adults) interested in acquiring Some differences between age groups • Clearly defined goals intergenerational and intercultural (i.e. under and over 20 years old users) knowledge by means of game playing. and also between female and male • Concentration on task at hand It featured a questionnaire-based respondents were evident, while there evaluation that was complimented by were no significant variations with • Merging of action and awareness informal interviews, during which respect to the country. • An altered sense of time users were asked to elaborate on their feedback/rating. The three analysis Figure 1 illustrates the major points • Clear and responsive feedback dimensions included: technical solidity of deviation between 20+ and 20- & usability, cognitive & affective aspects users. Overall, it would seem that the • Balanced level of challenge and prototype game appeals more to 20+ and pedagogical aspects (achievement difficulty players, who feel more in command of learning outcome), yet particular attention was placed on usability issues while using the game, understand • A sense of control over the task at and cognitive and affective aspects, better the content of the game and hand namely on the game’s graphical design, appreciate more the way the different • A challenging task requiring skill to navigation, story line etc, as well as on life situations are presented. Older users execute its ability to achieve player involvement would be more interested in repeating and motivation, or to induce enjoyment the experience and they believe the In this light, three critical dimensions and emotions (e.g. gratification). The gaming experience improves the emerge in educational games transferring of factual knowledge was retention of new knowledge gained. development. In line with the threefold also investigated. nature of SGs as: (a) IT products, (b) eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 100 eLearningPapersFrom the field Similarly, varying points of view were information about past decades, but interfering with the narrative and the recorded among male and female rather to immerse players in this era game play respondents. Based on the evaluation and allow them to experience the life • how to give meaningful feedback results it would seem that the prototype of older generations. In this light it game appeals more to female users. would be difficult for many users to put • how to make it a meaningful More specifically, female gamers into words what they have learning by experience appreciate more look of the game and playing this game. • how to involve the emotional side of also have a more clear view of the the learner game’s objectives, appreciate more the instructions and feedback provided 5. Conclusions • how to consider gender-dependent during and at the end of the game, Challenges in design and development aspects would be more motivated to seek of games for formal-informal learning • being close to context (no bias in the additional information after having content to introduce narrative aspects) played the game and also would be The Games are normally by their more willing to repeat the experience intrinsic nature a means for informal • graphical appeal compared to male users. Figure 2 learning, although they can be used in formal settings as well as for self- We will not enter in technological illustrates the major points of deviation regulated learning. Independently on details here, but we will reflect about recorded. how they might be used, there are and investigate some of the challenges These gender and age differences that several challenges that designers and that emerged already from the 2 are often evident in leisure gaming developers of serious games must face, focus groups held during the e-VITA clearly stress the need to take gender some pertaining more to the learning project, when some groups of the and age into consideration during aspect, some more to the gaming aspect young target group were interviewed game design. This clearly demonstrates and some others to technological and both in Italy and in Germany. Overall that it is difficult to create a game that implementation details. around 90 students were interviewed appeals equally to all. The patterns of (Hetzner & Pannese, 2009), both game-play of the intended target group To sum up the most frequent challenges teen-agers in the 14-18 years age should be taken into consideration the following can be listed: group and university students (Pannese, during SGs design, in order to achieve Hallmeier, Hetzner & Confalonieri, • matching users’ expectations an optimal mix between education and 2009). This participatory approach entertainment. • matching trainers’ expectations already underlined several aspects, like the difference in expectations which While SGs have a clear value for • finding balance between learning & vary quite substantially between the transmitting explicit, factual knowledge, fun/engagement teen-ager groups and the university perhaps their greater strength relates • finding a form suited for self-learning students, although again this difference to the transferring of tacit knowledge, but also for introduction in a training is reduced, once teen-agers are able to skills, behaviours that can be embedded programme at the same time to focus on serious games as alternative in games. The purpose of SGs used guarantee freedom of use learning means to some more “classical” in the context of intergenerational or “formal” approach, which they • giving enough guidance without learning, is not only to engage/ consider boring and definitely non- taking the challenge away and without entertain younger generations of entertaining. Making them imagine that players, or convey practical or historical informal approaches like gaming could eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 101 eLearningPapersFrom the field be introduced in their formal curricula that defines it as serious, not the playing more with meaningful feedback as well: and lessons, makes them much more activity itself. in order to be meaningful, feedback flexible and able to accept compromise should again probably be adaptive as well as it reduces their expectations. Interestingly enough, most of the to the specific user/player and his This was definitely the case when expectation to have fun and be active or her specific competences or level discussing the gaming interface in must be used and enhanced by teachers: of expertise (Bente & Breuer, 2009). the above mentioned focus groups. it is the way to introduce the informal On the one hand feedback must be While to them a game interface must factors in the formal setting that given within the game play (without definitely be a high sophisticated 3D, makes every feedback and the whole disturbing or interrupting this) and especially for males, when considering experience meaningful and that allows as part of the game, which means an informal learning approach, they to maximize context-bound reflection that careful attention must be given would “surrender” accepting 2D, and thus situated learning.Very much by learners to details of dialogues or simple interface. University students of the learning outcome depends on happenings that should unveil what on the other hand tend to have the overall experience set up around other characters think, how they expectations that are more similar to and with the game, turning game play perceive the player’s actions or how the teachers’ ones: they concentrate into a social activity. This is true within the dynamics of the action change. much more on the contents and on a group or in a classroom but also in On the other hand a final, explicit the engagement that is induced by self-regulated learning with online feedback must be given, which allows interesting and sometimes surprising, group dynamics and social online analyzing every decision, behaviour and new information. Teachers definitely interaction around the game. This social consequence during the game play. concentrate on contents that must phenomenon can be observed even be in line with topics that they teach with simple examples (not even serious To conclude, there is no unambiguous in formal lessons and need some games) in Facebook, like FarmVille for answer to the challenges while certainty that no bias was introduced example. confronting with the creative for narrative or engagement reasons. experience of conceiving a serious At the same time, the core role of game: everything must carefully de They envisage some games that can the teacher is determining if a good designed and developed according to guarantee a flexible use for them, a balance between fun and learning the specific use that will be done of the meaningful experience for the learners, can be reached. Obviously the serious serious game, of the target group, their some cross-discipline content to work game itself must already contain some skills, preferences, experience with these on students skills and enable them to valid learning elements as well as tools, the experience of the teacher and bridge gaps between one subject and some engaging aspects but the whole the role that informal methods will take another. These gaps are sometimes even experience can be changed or even up in formal learning settings. Probably provoked by formal lessons, when each reversed according to the specific use the reason for this is, as Watt (2009) puts teacher considers their subjects and no of the game and its context of use. This it, that serious games research nowadays exercise allows some critical thinking again brings us to another challenge: is facing the same challenges that HCI about connections between different how much guidance must be given (Human-Computer-Interaction) was topics and subjects. The point in this inside the game and how much can facing 15 years ago. context is definitely reflection that or should be given around it by the can be triggered through the gaming teacher? Or again: how much can be experience. As Watt (2009) puts it, it is delegated to peer-to-peer supporting the intended result of playing the game and teaching? This has to do once eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 102 eLearningPapersFrom the field References  Alvarez, J., & Michaud, L. (2008). Serious games: Advergaming, edugaming, training and more. Montpellier, France: IDATE.  eck, J. C., & Wade, M. (2004). Got game: How the gamer generation is reshaping business forever: Harvard business B school press. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.  B., & Cowie, B. (2001). Formative assessment and science education. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Bell, Publishers.  ente, G., & Breuer, J. (2009). Making the implicit explicit: Embedded measurement in serious games. In U. Ritterfeld, M. B Cody & P Vorderer (Eds.), Serious games mechanisms and effects. New York/London: Routledge. .  Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1989). Intentional learning as a goal of instruction. In B. L. Resnick (Ed.), Knowing, learning, and instruction: Essays in honor of robert glaser (pp. 361-392). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.  Breuer, J., & Bente, G. (2010). Why so serious? On the relation of serious games and learning. Eludamos. Journal for Computer Game Culture, 4(1), 7-24.  Colardyn, D., & Bjørnåvold, J. (2005). The learning continuity: European inventory on validating non-formal and informal learning. National policies and practices in validating non-formal and informal learning. Luxembourg: CEDEFOP Panorama.  Csíkszentmihályi, M. (1996). Creativity: Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. New York: Harper Perennial.  Freitas, S. (2006). Using games and simulations for supporting learning. Learning, Media and Technology Special Issue de on Gaming, 31(4), 343-358.  Freitas, S., & Neumann, T. (2009). The use of ‘exploratory learning’ for supporting immersive learning in virtual de environments. Computers and Education, 52(2), 343-352.  Freitas, S., & Oliver, M. (2005). A four dimensional framework for the evaluation and assessment of educational de games, Computer Assisted Learning Conference.  Freitas, S., & Oliver, M. (2006). How can exploratory learning with games and simulations within the curriculum be de most effectively evaluated? Computers and Education, 46(3), 249-264.  Egenfeldt-Nielsen, S. (2005). Beyond edutainment: Exploring the educational potential of computer games. University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen.  J. P (2003). What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Gee, .  etzner, S., & Pannese, L. (2009). E-vita, life simulations in an intergenerational setting. Journal of eLearning and H Knowledge Society (JELKS), 5(2 Focus on Simulations).  King, J., & Stahl, N. (1990). Oral history as a critical pedagogy: Some cautionary issues, Annual Meeting of the American Reading Forum. Florida, USA.  National_Educational_Technology_Plan. (2010). Transforming american education: Learning powered by technology: U.S. Department of Education: Office of Educational Technology.  Pannese, L., Hallmeier, R., Hetzner, S., & Confalonieri, L. (2009, 12-13 October). Storytelling and serious games for creative learning in an intergenerational setting. Paper presented at the 3rd European Conference on Games Based Learning (ECGBL), Graz, Austria, 303-311.  Pappa, D., Dunwell, I., Protopsaltis, A., Pannese, L., et al. (In Press). Game-based learning for knowledge sharing and transfer: The e-vita approach for intergenerational learning. In P Felicia (Ed.), Handbook of research on improving learning . and motivation through educational games: Multidisciplinary approaches: IGI Global. http://www.igi-global.com/chapter/game-based-learning-knowledge-sharing/52531 eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 103 eLearningPapers  ivec, M., & Kearney, P (2007). Games for learning and learning from games. Informatica, 31(2007), 419-423. P .From the field  rensky, M. (2002). The motivation of gameplay. On the Horizon, 10(1). P  rensky, M. (2006). Don’t bother me mom, i’m learning. St. Paul, MN: Paragon House. P  itterfeld, U., Cody, M., & Vorderer, P (2009). Serious games: Mechanisms and effects. New York/London: Routledge. R .  cardamalia, M. (2002). Collective cognitive responsibility for the advancement of knowledge. In B. Smith (Ed.), Liberal S education in a knowledge society (pp. 67-98). Chicago: Open Court.  efton-Green, J. (2004). Literature review in informal learning with technology outside school (No. Report 7). Bristol: S Future Lab.  Squire, K. (2004). Replaying history: Learning world history through playing civilization iii. Indiana University, Indiana, USA.  Squire, K. (2006). From content to context: Video games as designed experiences. Educational Researcher, 35(8), 19-29.  Squire, K. (2007). Games, learning, and society: Building a field. Educational Technology, 4(5), 51-54.  quire, K., & Jenkins, H. (2003). Harnessing the power of games in education. Insight, 3, 5-33. S  T., Johanesson, M., & Backlund, P (2007). Serious games - an overview (technical report). Skövde, Sweden: Susi, . University of Skövde.  issot, P (2000). Glossary on identification, assessment and recognition of qualifications and competences and T . transparency and transferability of qualifications. In J. Bjornavold (Ed.), Making learning visible: Identification, assessment and recognition of non-formal learning in europe. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.  Tissot, P (2004). Terminology of vocational training policy: A multilingual glossary for an enlarged europe. Luxembourg: . Cedefop: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.  Torrente, J., Moreno-Ger, P Fernández-Manjón, B., & del Blanco, A. (2009). Game-like simulations for online adaptive ., learning: A case study, Edutainment 2009 Fourth International Conference on ELearning and Games. Banff, Canada.  Eck, R. (2006). Digital game-based learning: It’s not just the digital natives who are restless. 41(2), 16–30. Van  an Eck, R. (2007). Building artificially intelligent learning games. In V. Sugumaran (Ed.), Intelligent information V technologies: Concepts, methodologies, tools and applications: IGI Global.  Watt, H. J. (2009). Improving methodology in serious games research with elaborated theory. In U. Ritterfeld, M. Cody & P. Vorderer (Eds.), Serious games mechanisms and effects. New York/London: Routledge. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 104 eLearningPapers Ready, Get Set and GO!From the field ELT Blogathon 2011 [ ] In 2011, The British Council ELT team invited English teachers in Turkey to participate in a very challenging race, the ELT Blogathon 2011. This was a blogging marathon designed for English teachers who work on the TeachingEnglish website. The ELT Blogathon encouraged teachers to move into the technological age with confidence, through blogging and networking. 1. Background 2. Preparation The two runners who kept the best For the first time in Turkey, February A lot of work was put into the structure blogs and won the gold medal earned 2011 marked the start of a challenging of the competition by the British the privilege to participate in the marathon for English language teachers. Council, the application process, setting IATEFL Conference organized in the ELT Teachers from all around Turkey up the platform, explaining the rules, UK on 15-19 April, on behalf of the were invited by the British Council the marking criteria and the start sign. British Council. to take part in the ELT Blogathon on We arranged for ELT professionals to The teachers blogged about their the TeachingEnglish website for one be our guest bloggers to inspire the experiences in the classroom and shared whole month between 1 February participants. Teachers were provided teaching ideas. Not only were the and 1 March 2011. ELT Blogathon, as with related links about blogging and teachers able to network with English suggested by its name, was a blogging tips on how to write a good blog post. teachers from around the world but marathon. Finally, a list of independent judges they also had the chance to update their from the world of learning technologies professional and digital skills. The inspiration for the ELT Blogathon and blogging was assembled. was the Asia - Europe marathon that Considering all the rises and falls on the runs every year between the two 3. Results road and the wind speed, what made it continents in Istanbul. It was an online At first, a total of 135 ELT teachers harder for our ELT Blogathon runners event to help English teachers share from 80 provinces in Turkey applied for to win the race was the challenge of their best practices, ideas and classroom the race. During the activity, 30 teachers keeping a regular and proper blog in activities in the area of English language actively kept a blog and posted over 450 line with the rules of the marathon. teaching with the whole world. blog entries for a one-month period. At various stages of the run, the ELT Tags Blogging, ELT, teacher training, networking Author Sirin Soyöz ELT E-Learning Projects Coordinator,British Council. sirin.soyoz@britishcouncil.org.tr [ +] Languages cz da de bg et el es fr it lv lt hu nl pl pt ro sk sl fi sv eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 105 eLearningPapersFrom the field teachers were accompanied by guest bloggers made it to the finish line. It tournament was launched on a bloggers and readers from the ELT was difficult for the jury members to larger scale in January 2012 on the field, who gave them some tips and choose the most outstanding bloggers. TeachingEnglish website, so as to motivation on blog-keeping. Although In line with the evaluation criteria enable ELT teachers to break their the runners did not physically have to shared with participants at the start of own records for online learning, self- spend thousands of calories during the the Marathon, the jury finally chose the development and social networking. marathon, the quality of the posted Gold, Silver and Bronze winners. This time, over 200 teachers of English blogs was so high that all the contestants from Armenia, Croatia, Israel, Turkey It is important to have a user-friendly said the run was mentally tiring though and Russia participated in the first platform for people to start blogging. equally fun. international Blogathon and run for the It is important to provide animated ultimate challenge through the streets of 4. Lessons Learnt tutorials and blogging tips for novice the TeachingEnglish website. Since the competition was spread over a bloggers. Participants expect transparent long track, reading all those interesting assessment guidelines throughout the The international race provided blog posts for a month was also very duration of the race. Keeping word teachers with an opportunity to live enjoyable. The most surprising part of limit to 250 words is a good solution through an intercultural experience the event was the participation of many to help monitor posted items and give with the expertise and sharing from ELT teachers from various provinces reader a taste of everything. More different teaching contexts. The level of Turkey who had no previous importantly, it is important to keep the of interest and teacher-to-teacher experience on writing a blog. After marathon spirit alive by helping users interaction was incredibly inspirational the event, many of the participating interact, support, network and learn and was a great way of fostering team teachers set up their own teaching blogs from each other. spirit for teachers- even at a distance. and wanted to continue blogging with The winning teachers will have the their own students. Conclusion Marathon, the oldest sports in the privilege to participate at the IATEFL Another benefit of the event was that it world, is one of the most challenging Conference in Glasgow, which is gave ELT teachers an opportunity for and most important sports events one of the biggest international career-development and networking of today. Blogathon, on the other ELT Conferences in the world. The with colleagues. ELT teachers who had hand, is “an online event in which bloggers, as Roving Reporter, will difficulties about blog keeping were bloggers (people who write for blogs) report on the major debates, news and supported online by their colleagues. contribute to a particular blog more ‘coffee bar gossip’ at IATEFL Glasgow There were so many comments posted frequently and for an extended period (http://iatefl.britishcouncil.org/2012) and so much motivation given by ELT of time”, according to Macmillan Open as it happens. Their quick-fire teachers to each other that the online Dictionary. reports, mini-interviews and personal social exchange was merely fascinating. impressions will be published on the ELT Blogathon was a first-time online global Glasgow Online website for The most exhausting moment of the blogging marathon in Turkey. In more than 50,000 remote participants marathon was when our successful the following year, an international from around the globe. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 106 eLearningPapersFrom the field The following poem shows the fostering team spirit of this activity and it is dedicated to the Blogathon: A poem dedicated to the Blogathon Bringing ideas all together Leading the discussions and helping others Organizing new posts every day Getting replies and comments, ready to share and care A door to be entered into another world waiting over there The taste of each post makes me feel great about all that jazz Hearty welcomes and warm good byes On air all the time, running to the end ready to rise Negotiating and interacting, broadening our minds http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/blogs/merveoflaz/a-poem-dedicated-blogathon “This is my first experience for having a blog. I am very a caterpillar’s life from egg to a beautiful butterfly. excited for this. I have always loved searching and sharing Blogathon runner” new ideas on sites, so it will be enjoyable. I wish everyone good luck. Blogathon runner” “There are a lot of endings. Happy endings, sad endings, twist endings, ruined endings, surprised endings and so on. “I cannot tell you how delighted I am to have won Blogathon has been a marathon start for me. I learnt many the Gold Award! It’s hard to believe that I will actually things from all of you, shared my ideas, asked and gave get to travel to Brighton and experience the IATEFL advices. I felt the joy in my heart and the spirit of shared conference. Blogathon runner” knowledge surrounded my mind. Blogathon runner” “Enjoy the Blogathon...the process is more important “Dear Future Bloggers, than the end. This Blogathon brought dedicated teachers together like nothing else. Wonderful people I have met I wish you good luck in advance. Keep here. They kept and motivated me to write more than in your mind that this is an enjoyable the prizes. I’ll remember fellow Blogathon runners who, activity although we call it marathon. along with my students, were a great source of inspiration First of all; do not worry for that fact that for me. Before this contest I didn’t know there are a lot it is your first time in blogging. It was of good teachers. Now I know them and their successful 
 my first experience, too. Start reading lessons. Blogathon runner” and writing from the very first day. As you read you will learn how to write implicitly and the things you read will “I would like to thank British Council for this great give you inspiration and in turn you will raise interesting competition idea and I hope to see many more ELT issues in the Blogathon. There is no reason to hesitate to bloggers from Turkey. … There are great people in the express your ideas and share your experiences. Everyone ELT blogosphere. Becoming a blogger is like becoming has similar problems and you will see that you can find neighbours with them. You will be amazed to see how solution to some of these. warm and friendly they are.” Enjoy blogging Blogathon runner” “As to Blogathon, I’m a hungry caterpillar! I bet you know this lovely child story by Eric Carle. It is about eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • ear sning eL er learn ing pape rs.eu Papal edition .e www eci SpeLearning Papers is an online journal highlighting the latesttrends in the area, published five times a year, offering anexecutive summary of each article, translated in21 languages. eLearning Papers is free of charge, availableat its own domain: www.elearningpapers.euwww.elearningeuropa.info portal is an initiative of theEuropean Commission’s Directorate-General for Education andCulture, aiming to promote the use of ICT for lifelong learning.The site offers the latest information, tools and resourcesdeveloped around three main services: Directory, Newsletterand the online journal eLearning Papers.www.elearningeuropa.info is an open platform where theplayers and communities using it can obtain information, shareexperiences, present their projects and discuss ideas.elearningeuropa.info eLearning Papers Special Edition edited by An initiative of the European Commission