New Perspectives on Integrating Social Networking and Internet Communications in the Curriculum


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Author: José Gómez Galán
In this paper, several issues in Educational Technology are examined, including those related to the current concern about ICT integration in educational and social contexts, the basis for a reform in education and redirection of the instructional processes.

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New Perspectives on Integrating Social Networking and Internet Communications in the Curriculum

  1. 1. In-depth New Perspectives on Integrating Social Networking and Internet Communications in the CurriculumAuthor This paper considers several issues in Educational Technology, including the current concern regarding ICT integration in educational and social contexts, the basis for aJosé Gómez Galán reform in education and the redirection of the instructional processes. Current educa-PhD Professor ofEducational Technology, tional curricula do not fully cover children and young people’s formative necessities inDepartment of Educational the present technological society. Although in the western world an important effortSciences, University of is being made at the institutional level to strengthen the presence of ICT in schools,Extremadura, Spain they are usually integrated for use as didactic recourses and supporting tools, optimise the teaching-learning process. However, today it is necessary that they are, themselves, an object of study. StudentsTags of different educational levels should be trained to use them and their products cor- rectly and critically, especially regarding social networking and all the possibilities pro-Educational technologies, vided by Internet communications (Web 2.0 and beyond), which follow the educationalICT Integration, Social constructivist paradigm. Only then will an authentic and efficient integration of educa-Networking, CurricularDevelopment, Instructional tional technologies be possible.Processes 1. Introduction The dawn of the 21st century sees our society in vertiginous movement, socially, politically, economically etc., and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has an undoubted leading role. Education, as the dynamo of human development, must not be remote from this relevant fact. Currently all educational specialists, and this is clearly reflected in recent guidelines from UNESCO (1998), recommend the curricular integration of these powerful tools and media into the school context. Their didactic possibilities in the classroom, both for the develop- ment of teaching-learning processes and educational planning and programming are un- questionable. There are naturally some inconveniences and for this reason the majority of researchers are at present working to strengthen the advantages of ICT and to reduce, as far as possible, the action of potential problems, as its integration into the school labours is necessary to improve the quality of the teaching. However, and precisely due to the circumstance of dealing with leading elements of our society, reducing the presence of the ICT in the classroom to a didactic recourse, however powerful and useful, is presented as an error which may become irreparable in a relatively short space of time. It should not be forgotten, above all, that these are not instruments and media created specifically for education, but for different ends, basically, of an economic and social nature. The search for economic growth impelled the development of the ICT (Castells, Fernández & Linchaun, 2006). This conditions, on many occasions, the nature of the prod- ucts. Thus, for example, the communication media are at present are among the principal ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • www.elearningpapers.eueL ers 26 u ers.e gpap www .elea rnin n.º 26 • October 2011Pap 1
  2. 2. In-depthclients of the ICT, which is thus placed at the service of their and critically analysed at the formative stages of infancy, ado-commercial interests and ideologies. All use of these efficient lescence, and youth. On the other hand, they can be contem-tools in the classroom must be accompanied by a critical analy- plated as didactic tools to perfect or culminate different teach-sis on the part of the students, directed by the teacher, of their ing-learning processes, whether or not related to the previouspresence and use in society. Otherwise, we shall be completing objective. The ideal would be to use both perspectives jointly,an integral educational process that helps to shape the citizens that is to say, to use them as instructive recourses of great possi-of the 21st century. bilities to propitiate, with their presence and use, the student’s knowledge of them (Gómez Galán 1999; 2003; 2007).2. Current Limitations in the Use of the The answers to these important challenges are, of course, not ICT in Education easy. The ICT are complex, and their leading role in society isWere it only for the purpose of education in a world dominated explained from different and distinct points of view, which itby the ICT, their use in school dynamics would be fully justified. is necessary to know and interpret. New interdisciplinary ap-All didactic development is, of course, principally a process of proaches are necessary, for example, Development of Informa-communication and these technologies are ideal to improve tion Technology and Teacher Training (Mandic, Lalic & Bandjur,and strengthen this process. However, we cannot consider that 2010), ICT and Globalization in Education (Beyers, 2009), Tech-by the mere fact of introducing the ICT, especially Internet, into nology and Teacher’s Personality (Paraskeva, Bouta & Papagi-the different educative and instructive contexts, we can reach anni, 2008) or the analysis of Mass Media and Society, and theirthe predetermined didactic objectives. relationship with new technologies of information and commu- nication (Gómez Galán, 2003). In order to be used to advantageThese technologies must be contemplated from a curricu- and efficiently in the world of education an ample training oflar perspective, and at all levels, as an inseparable part of our the teacher, who will be in charge of their application and devel-present day society, which is configured and defined by them. opment within strictly pedagogical and didactic limits, is essen-Technology, education and society are elements in complex dia- tial. And, when we speak of an ample training, we do not onlylog, with multiple connections (Pavlova, 2005; Bielaczyc, 2006). refer to a practical and technical mastery, which are, of course,The problems that we currently face are both of methodology fundamental for their management, but a profound, detailed,(the correct use of the ICT) and curricula (fomenting their peda- and sure knowledge of the functions, aims, origins and reper-gogic presence in the school), both of which are closely related. cussions that they have in our world.Nevertheless, although the institutions are making an impor- Thus, the first aim is teacher training. It is a difficult process andtant effort to equip the schools sufficiently to encourage the use requires many efforts (Angeli, 2005) but it is necessary. Cur-of the new technologies by the teacher, the educational cur- rently it is evident that there is a demand for an initial and con-ricula are not prepared for the formative necessities of the chil- tinual training of teachers in ICT (Oliva, Lozano, Del Pozo, Bal-dren and young people of the information society. This, which lesteros, Franco, & Martin, 2009), as this has not traditionallyis the most important problem that we can consider at present been offered in university studies. Moreover, even if it has beenfor the integration of the ICT into the educational processes, is received, a revision and continual updating is necessary, whichaccompanied by others (such as teacher training, the problem allows us to follow the untiring advance and progress of theof recourses, or the complicity of the parents in the formative technological evolution (Gómez Galán, 2003; Solvberg, Rismarkprocesses) which, without doubt, condition the integral educa- & Haaland, 2009; Lauri, Borg, Gunnel & Gillum, 2010).tion of children and young people at present. It is true that this is a constant preoccupation for the administra- tive authorities and there are multiple initiatives to deal with it.3. Challenges to be Overcome in a Short However, on occasions and in practice, strategies that we may space of Time consider erroneous are being used. For example, such is the car-The presence of the ICT in the school must therefore be given rying to effect of the teacher training process, starting from thefrom two ample sources. On the one hand, as elements present most advanced ICT (given of course the knowledge of the mostin today’s society, which, as such, must be known, studied, basic and elemental, which is a great mistake). In addition, proc- ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • eL ers 26 u ers.e gpap www .elea rnin n.º 26 • October 2011 Pap 2
  3. 3. In-depthesses trying to convert the teachers into potential users, but not students’), more than of budgets. It must not be forgotten, whatinto educators who really analyze and study, from a pedagogical is important is not the means, but how they are used.viewpoint, the presence and influence of these tools in today’s On the other hand, and once again related to the social im-world. portance of the ICT, it must not be forgotten that children andWe can put the case of training in social networking and Inter- young people are being continually bombarded by an enormousnet communications in Web 2.0 as an example. Besides starting quantity of audiovisual and multimedia information (of greatfrom an access to its use going deeper into the knowledge of richness) faced with which they show themselves incapable ofthe ICT bases (which permits us to determine, of course that it categorizing and selecting. Naturally, they have access to it, inreally is Internet), the training will have to offer important no- greater measure, outside school, in their homes, by means oftions of the didactic use of this tool. Internet was of course, not instruments such as the television, Internet, videogames, etc. Increated as an educational instrument (Gómez Galán & Mateos, this direction, the educational importance of the parents is deci-2004), and it is essential to submit it to a critical-formative work, sive. Once again, the problem is, as with the teachers, that they,which may effectively lead to its pedagogical use. Otherwise, the parents have not been educated to help in the critical selec-it would be encouraging a child or young person to sit in front tion of technological products. However, the ICT are offering aof a television without teaching him to select quality programs. curriculum parallel to that offered by the family and school: aThe teacher must, thus, be able to use the ICT adequately, and non-formal education of great influence.always from a pedagogical perspective. The change in method- In the face of this panorama, we can understand immediatelyology, likewise, resides in teacher training. that for an adequate integration of the ICT a direct relation- ship must be established between the families and the school.4. ICT as Society’s Engine of In the integral formation of whatever child or young person, Transformation: Importance of Teacher which without any doubt must include education in ICT there, Training must be collaboration in which the educators (teachers, fathers,The continual updating of ICT recourses in the school is also a mothers, social agents, etc.) must unify their labour in pursuitchallenge, but we can consider it as a secondary problem (al- of those objectives that are beneficial for the individual and forthough it has a great relevance notwithstanding). Although, as society.we have pointed out, the Administrative section is making an Finally, it is necessary to keep in mind that ICT are society’seffort in this direction, a continuing problem exists, which it is engine of transformation. Digital and cable television, newnecessary to confront; the rapid technological evolution which cinematographic formats, digital radio, smartphones, tablets,makes many of our instruments obsolete in a short space of e-books, Web 2.0 and beyond, cyberspace and cyber culture,time (above all in the field of computer science, Moore’s law file-sharing and P2P networks, virtual communities, wikis, so-holds true). cial networking, blogs and blogging, virtual reality, digital con-This is an important barrier to the integration of the ICT in vergence, etc., the ICT acquire more and more importance inschools, which is disconcerting to all those who engage in me- society, from which they cannot be disassociated, and they givedium term educational projects (Sanders 1999), although it may it new form and excused if a principally pedagogical use is made of these Their presence in all socioeconomically situations convert themtools, in the service of curricular objectives. Although it would into elements of the first order in the creation of a new easy to apply for additional budgets, in a world in which so In addition, from an educational standpoint, knowledge of themmany demands and necessities exist, it becomes essential to is not only attained by confronting this question from such atake maximum advantage of the ICT and their applications inde- restricted point of view as that of a simple user. It is essential topendently of their novelty, rather than joining a desperate tech- act as critical agents who carry out a detailed and critical read-nological race, more oriented to economic interests than truly ing of the ICT, as an object of study. This leads us to a new chal-educational. It is important to establish practical and analytical lenge modifying and adapting the school curricula to the newbases, and this is a question, above all, of training (teachers’ and educational needs. ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • eL ers 26 u ers.e gpap www .elea rnin n.º 26 • October 2011 Pap 3
  4. 4. In-depth5. The Impact of Social Networking Though teachers using online tools are empowering students and Internet Communications on take part in their education, they may also expose them to inap- Education propriate material, sexual predators, and bullying and harass- ment by peers. Teachers who are not careful with their use ofToday, millions of children and young people, high school and the sites can fall into inappropriate relationships with studentscollege students, but increasingly adults as well, have pages on or publicize photos and information they believed were keptpopular Web sites such as Facebook and Twitter. These sites are private (Ewbank, Carter & Foulger, 2008). For these reasons,significant examples of social networking: the use of Web sites critics are calling for regulation and for removing social net-and communications and collaboration technology to help peo- working from classrooms, despite the positive affects they haveple find, form, and maintain social relationships (Lenhart and on students and the essential tools they provide for educationMadden, 2007). Reflecting what is happening in society, in a his- in today’s digital climate (Social Networking in Schools, 2011).torical period characterized by information and communication However, social networks dedicated to education, which are de-processes, experiences centered on taking advantage of what signed and set up by prepared professionals, who know how tonew technology can offer us is acquiring a leading role in edu- create pedagogic and instructional virtual communities, can becational science. The school cannot constitute a reality apart or an educational powerful tool. Precisely the students’ formationseparate from the other social systems (Gómez Galán, 2004). turns out to be fundamental to avoid these social dangers.Besides making use of the different technological instrumentsto optimise, as far as possible the teaching learning processes, Teachers and schools should create their own social networks,the educators need to form their students to know more fully through sites like Edmodo or Ning, to help teach students whatthe world in which they live, to reflect critically on their own it means to be part of a professional social network. By under-existence and to contribute towards improvement and progress standing how students may be positively using these networking(Freire, 2007). technologies in their daily lives and where the as-yet-unrecog- nized educational opportunities are, we can help make schoolsAmongst all ICT, Internet appears as a competent tool, as a new even more relevant, connected, and meaningful to childrenparadigm in the treatment of information. Of all the numerous and young people (Greenhow, 2007 and 2009). Through utiliz-and possible applications, in all fields, some are beginning to ing teaching techniques that incorporate social media, teach-materialise in the educational sector, where communication is, ers are able to increase students’ engagement in their educa-without any doubt, an essential element. In this, and given its tion, increase technological proficiency, contribute to a greaterinternal structure, current curricular planning, networking web- sense of collaboration in the classroom, and build better com-sites and Web 2.0 tools are profiled as an instrument with great munication skills (Social Networking in Schools, 2011). The so-educational possibilities (Gómez Galán, 2004). cial networking, built in the educational centre, like instructiveThe teacher will be in the last instance the protagonist who car- tool. There is no better way of knowing and analysing the newries out the integration of Internet under this modality in the technologies, as we indicate, than creating products with themteaching learning processes. It will depend on him to assure that Naturally, the principal problem facing the teacher in his wishthe development of a networking site (as collaborative learning to introduce the social networking and Web 2.0 into the class-media) is an adequate didactic tool. However, this integration room, and use this instrument to create didactic products, isprocess, especially complex in the educational field due to the his own formation. It is undeniable that the present teacherspeculiarities inherent to teaching, is going to need a series of ef- of Primary and Secondary Education present important forma-forts by the teacher, in addition to his more traditional activities. tive lacunae in their capacity to create and use this curricularOnly by overcoming the problems, which must be faced in the material. This is not only a technical deficit, but also methodo-development of this challenge, will it be possible to convert In- logical and pedagogical (Gómez Galán, 2003, 2004 and 2007;ternet into an authentic medium at the service of the academic Chen, 2010). It is therefore necessary to replan the essence offormation and instruction of the student. It must not be forgot- educative action in the new concrete contexts of the classroom,ten that this tool was not initially conceived for educational use with the principal aim of optimising the didactic processes, as(Gómez Galán, 2004 and 2011). far as possible, by taking advantage of all the possibilities of- fered to us at each moment in time. In this way, today, many of ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • eL ers 26 u ers.e gpap www .elea rnin n.º 26 • October 2011 Pap 4
  5. 5. In-depththe instructional processer with new technologies are inscribed gressively more complex explicative schemes, because of thewithin the basic guidelines of the classical behavioural theo- interpretation reinterpretation of information in this new dy-ries. These have conditioned, and still do condition the design, namic and interactive environment. The constructivist-learninguse, and application of didactic recourses, even when, due to paradigm, both from the dimensions of individual constructiv-determined circumstances, it is not possible to consider them ism and social can be adequately supported taking advantagefor a correct learning (Gómez Galán, 2003; Angeli & Valanides, of hypermedia and hypertextual possibilities of current ICT con-2009; Gómez Galán 2011). It becomes necessary to overcome texts, which permit distinct levels of interactivity, and a deter-the models of the behaviourist paradigm of learning to search mined sequencing by the student, not by the system (Gómezfor the creation of interactive surroundings, which although it Galán, 2004).has been one of the great challenges pursued by pedagogy, the Evolving beyond technology-mediated interactions betweendevelopment of computer science now makes it possible to face students and phenomena shifts the focus of constructivism:this challenge in a new way. A deep transformation is needed in from peripherally enhancing how a student interprets a typicaleducational technology, a change to constructivism in teaching- interaction with the external world to shaping the fundamen-learning processes. tal nature of how learners experience their physical and socialThis new professional knowledge domain, in constructivism context (Fosnot, 1992; Dede, 1995). Papert (1993 y 1996) oftenconceptions based, include tutor actions that support students’ makes a distinction between instructivism or the imparting ofpractices through the following: developing a clear notion of information to students, and constructivism, or a student learn-better teaching (from the constructivist paradigm); practicing, ing by doing. On the other hand, the crucial role of keen interestmodeling, analyzing such teaching; and recognizing and pro- in the object of study, as well as his reliance on relevant person-viding scaffolds for moving towards the ability of students’ au- al prior knowledge on which to construct and create new knowl-tonomy learning (Wang & Paine, 2001). Favouring interaction, edge, is a precondition for significant learning (Fosnot, 1992).of course, has been one of the principal objects of the study At present, in fact, Web 2.0 has these requirements. Equally,of educational technologies, although it has mainly been pro- the current multimedia peculiarities of the networking websitesduced within behaviourist margins. Today, with the new tools of make it possible to support ourselves on the advances, devel-Web 2.0, we have the appropriate instruments to develop the oped in the last decades, in the field of educational technologyconstructivist processes. on the interactive multimedia learning environment that deter- mine the general characteristics they must have and that we can6. New Educational Paradigm for the apply to the educational sites. The use of the networking sites Integration of Web 2.0 in education must be conceived as active didactic tools that par-The research of processes of knowledge utilization in Web 2.0 ticipate, strengthen or permit us to reach distinct curricular ob-can contribute to educational improvement of a distinct educa- jectives (Gómez Galán, 2004 and 2007). In this way, they can betional paradigm. In the current dense panorama of Internet a converted into powerful instruments, highly suitable for learn-great number of instructive experiences, have something of the ing purposes, which follow the most recent currents in cognitivebehaviourist models of learning. Nevertheless, the new cogni- theories and knowledge.tive and evolutive theories, as in the case of Williams, Blythe, Following these developments, from distinct viewpointsLi, Sternberg & Gardner (1996) and Gardner (1993 and 2007), (Thompson, Simonson and Hargrave, 1996; Gómez Galán, 2004)alert us to their limitations in different learning contexts, clearly we can outline the three minimum and essential basic param-impeding the student from constructing his own knowledge in a eters which must constitute every educational networking web-significant and pedagogical way. site, related to what we have previously explained: (a) acces-The answer to these problems evidently rests on teacher train- sibility (simple design which leads to a logical and easy accessing and on impulsing practical educational activities from con- to the contents); (b) plurality of sources and languages (text,structivist learning theories, searching, above all, for significant image, sound, audiovisual products, etc., which favour attentionlearning. The principal goal, which must be pursued, is that the and motivation); and (c) interactivity (not only with reference tostudent can reach the construction of new meanings, new, pro- the contents, but also to interpersonal communication, which ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • eL ers 26 u ers.e gpap www .elea rnin n.º 26 • October 2011 Pap 5
  6. 6. In-depthfrom an educational viewpoint, is particularly enriching). Thepractical results of these experiences are very positive (López ReferencesMeneses y Gómez Galán, 2010). Angeli, C. & Valanides, N. (2009). Epistemological and Methodological Issues for the Conceptualization, Development,Today it is completely necessary that Web 2.0 are, themselves, and Assessment of ICT–TPCK: Advances in Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK). Computers and Education,an object of study, in such a way that students of different edu- 52 (1), 154-168.cational levels can be trained to use them and their productscorrectly and critically. Only by a critical and analytical usage Angeli, C. (2005). Transforming a Teacher Education Method Course Through Technology: Effects on Preservice Teachers’of the new technologies, will it be possible to develop an inte- Technology Competency. Computers & Education, 45, 383-398.gral education in answer to the new social reality. The schoolcommunity must construct social networking sites. The teacher Beyers, R. N. (2009). A Five Dimensional Model for Educating the Net Generation. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 12must insist on the use of ICT tools in the teaching learning proc- (4), 218-227.esses, within the active didactic strategies, which lead to the Bielaczyc, K. (2006). Designing Social Infrastructure: Criticalconstruction and use of educational sites attempting to attain Issues in Creating Learning Environments with Technology. Journaldetermined didactic objectives (Gómez Galán, 2003, 2004 and of the Learning Sciences, 15, 301-329.2011). Paulo Freire argues that meaningful learning can occur Castells, M., Fernández, M., Linchaun, J. & Sey, A. (2006).only when learners possess epistemic power, with which to Comunicación Móvil y Sociedad: Una Perspectiva Global. Barcelona:wrestle with ideas and texts and write the world (Freire, 2007). Ariel.Therefore, the crucial role of educational empowerment proc- Chen, R. J. (2010). Investigating Models for Preservice Teachers’esses in developing critical literacy, and this theory is today very Use of Technology to Support Student-Centered Learning.important to promote the relevance of ICT digital literacy. They Computers & Education, 55, 32-42.are decisive in the future of our society. Dede, C. (1995). The Evolution of Constructivist Learning Environments: Immersion in Distributed,Virtual Worlds.7. Conclusions Educational Technology 35, 5, 46-52. Ewbank, A. D., Carter, H. L., & Foulger, T. S. (2008).It is therefore obvious that at present the ICT should not be MySpace Dilemmas: Ethical Choices for Teachers using Socialused in a school context only as didactic recourses. It would es- Networking. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology andsentially be the same as using literature to learn how to spell Teacher Education International Conference 2008, 2580-2584.words. Advantage should be taken of them to reach a better Fosnot, C. (1992). Constructing Constructivism. In T.M. Duffy &knowledge of reality, of the present day society, of the charac- D.H. Jonassen (Eds.), Constructivism and the Technology of Instruction:teristics and elements which they configure. But it is also highly A Conversation (pp. 167-176). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.important to teach the student to determine what is the true Freire, P. (2007). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: they have in today’s world; to interpret their new commu- Gardner, H. (1993). Frames of Mind.The Theory of Multiplenicative languages, from a mature and critical viewpoint. Only Intelligences. New York: Basic Books.thus can the inconveniences and dangers be avoided and theundoubted benefits and advantages be strengthened. It is thus Gardner, H. (2007). Five Minds for the Future. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.necessary to face diverse challenges adapted to the formativenecessities of this century: teacher training, revision of method- Gómez Galán, J. (1999). Tecnologías de la Información y laology, sufficient endowment of recourses and the implication of Comunicación en el Aula. Madrid: Seamer.families in the educational processes. In addition, especially we Gómez Galán, J. (2003). Educar en Nuevas Tecnologías y Medios deconsider prioritary of those explained: adapting the educational Comunicación. Sevilla: F.E.P. Caja Rural de Extremadura.curricula to present needs. Only in this way will an integration Gómez Galán, J. (2007). Los Medios de Comunicación en laof the ICT be possible in school dynamics and in the constant Convergencia Tecnológica: Perspectiva Educativa. Comunicación ysearch for quality and innovation. Pedagogía, 221, 44-50. Gómez Galán, J. (2011). Impacto de la Sociedad Tecno- Mediática en la Educación: Estrategias Transformadoras en la Formación del Profesorado. En J. Cabero, J. I. Aguaded & López ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • eL ers 26 u ers.e gpap www .elea rnin n.º 26 • October 2011 Pap 6
  7. 7. In-depthMeneses, E. (coords.). Experiencias Innovadoras Hispano-Colombianas Papert, S. (1996). The Connected Family: Bridging the Digitalcon Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación. (pp. 235-258) Generation Gap. Marietta: Longstreet Press.Sevilla: Editorial Mergablum. Paraskeva, F., Bouta, H., & Papagianni, A. (2008). IndividualGómez Galán, J. & Mateos, S. (2004) Design of Educational Characteristics and Computer Self-Efficacy in SecondaryWeb Pages, European Journal of Teacher Education, 17 (1), 99-107. Education Teachers to Integrate Technology in Educational Practice. Computers & Education, 50, 1084-1091.Greenhow, C. (2007). Supporting Teachers’ Development ofExtended Social Networks for Teaching and Learning. Sidebar Pavlova, M. (2005). Social Change: How should Technologyin G. Solomon & L. Schrum, New Tools, New Schools:Web 2.0 in Education Respond? International Journal of Technology and DesignEducation (pp. 107-110). Eugene: ISTE. Education, 15, 199-215.Greenhow, C. (2009). Educational Benefits of Social Network Sanders, R. (1999). What do we Really Need to Know aboutSites: Applications to Human Services Education. In Hawkins, L. & Technology? Information Management Journal, 33 (3), 62-64.Martin, J. (Eds.). Information Communication Technologies for HumanServices Education and Delivery: Concepts and Cases. Minneapolis: IGI Social Networking in Schools: Educators Debate the MeritsGlobal Publishing of Technology in Classrooms (2011, March 27). Huffpost Education. The Internet Newpaper.Lauri, M. A., Borg, J., Gunnel, T., & Gillum, R. (2010).Attitudes of a Sample of English, Maltese and German Teachers Solvberg, A. M., Rismark, M., & Haaland, E. (2009). TeachersTowards Media Education. European Journal of Teacher Education, 33, and Technology in the Making: Developing Didactic Competence.79-98. World Conference on Educational Sciences - New Trends and Issues in Educational Sciences, 1, 2791-2794.Lenhart, A. & Madden, M. (2007). Social Networking Websitesand Teens: An Overview. Pew Internet & American Life Project, Stoll, L. (2010). Connecting Learning Communities: CapacityJanuary 7, 2007. Retrieved from: Building for Systemic Change. En A. Hargreaves et al. (eds.),Reports/2007/Social-Networking-Websites-and-Teens.aspx Second International Handbook of Educational Change (pp. 469-484). New York: SpringerLópez Meneses, E. & Gómez Galán, J. (2010). PrácticasUniversitarias Constructivistas e Investigadoras con Software Social. Thompson, A. D., Simonson, M. R. & Hargrave, P. (1996).Praxis, 5, 23-45. Educational Technology: A Review of the Research. Washington: Association for Educational Communications and Technology).Mandic, D., Lalic, N., & Bandjur, V (2010). Managing .Innovations in Education. Proceedings of the 9Th WSEAS UNESCO (1998). Rapport Mondial sur l’Information. Les EnseignantsInternational Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Knowledge Engineering et l’Enseignement dans un Monde en Mutation. Paris: UNESCO.and Data Bases, (pp. 231-236). New Jersey: WSEAS. Wang, J., & Paine, W. L. (2001). Mentoring as AssistedOliva, A. D., Lozano, P. F., del Pozo, R. M., Ballesteros, M. Performance: A Pair of Chinese Teachers Working Together. TheG., Franco, E. P., & Martin, E. S. (2009). Comparative Study Elementary School Journal, 102(2), 157–181.of the Evaluation of Professional Competencies by experienced Williams, W. M., Blythe, T., White, N., Li, J., Sternberg, R.and Trainee Spanish Primary Teachers. European Journal of Teacher J., & Gardner, H. (1996). Practical Intelligence for school. New York:Education, 32, 437-454. Harper Collins.Papert, S. (1993). The Children’s Machine: Rethinking School in theAge of the Computer. New York: Basic Books. Edition and production Name of the publication: eLearning Papers Copyrights ISSN: 1887-1542 The texts published in this journal, unless otherwise indicated, are subject Publisher: to a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-NoDerivativeWorks Edited by: P.A.U. Education, S.L. 3.0 Unported licence. They may be copied, distributed and broadcast pro- Postal address: c/Muntaner 262, 3r, 08021 Barcelona (Spain) vided that the author and the e-journal that publishes them, eLearning Phone: +34 933 670 400 Papers, are cited. Commercial use and derivative works are not permitted. Email: The full licence can be consulted on Internet: es/by-nc-nd/3.0/ ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • www.elearningpapers.eueL ers 26 u ers.e gpap www .elea rnin n.º 26 • October 2011Pap 7