Lessons Learned from the Safer Internet Program in Estonia
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Lessons Learned from the Safer Internet Program in Estonia

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Authors: Birgy Lorenz, Kaido Kikkas...

Authors: Birgy Lorenz, Kaido Kikkas

Estonian children are a demographic that appear in the Top 5, in the EU, as Internet users who both take advantage of new ICT solutions as well as become susceptible to their downsides (various online threats). In this country, coordinated efforts in raising e-safety awareness are relatively recent. Earlier activities were poorly coordinated, lacked continuity and relied mostly on volunteers. During the last few years, the Safer Internet Program in Estonia has added a much-needed coordinating approach.

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    Lessons Learned from the Safer Internet Program in Estonia Lessons Learned from the Safer Internet Program in Estonia Document Transcript

    • From the field Lessons Learned from the Safer Internet Program in EstoniaAuthors Estonian children are a demographic that appear in the Top 5, in the EU, as Internet users who both take advantage of new ICT solutions as well as become susceptible toBirgy LorenzInstitute of Informatics, their downsides (various online threats).Tallinn University, Estonia In this country, coordinated efforts in raising e-safety awareness are relatively recent.birgy.lorenz@gmail.com Earlier activities were poorly coordinated, lacked continuity and relied mostly on vol-Kaido Kikkas unteers. During the last few years, the Safer Internet Program in Estonia has added aEstonian Information much-needed coordinating approach.Technology College, Estoniakaido.kikkas@tlu.ee Our goal is to define the topics that have and have not been covered by the program, identify the program’s weaknesses and strengths, analyse its effect, and recommendTags focuses for future stages. We have analysed the content (study materials and an e- course) created by the project, the experiences of the trainers, and course feedback.awareness, training, Based on these data we have formulated recommendations (from the viewpoints ofbest practices, policy the project, school management, parents and government) for the next stage of therecommendations, youth initiative. 1. Introduction According to the EU rankings, Estonian children hold 2.-4. place in their Internet usage. For children aged 10-14, being connected is often more valuable than getting good grades at school or sometimes even eating. According to various sources, over 45% of students claim to have some kind of learning problems, 57,7% of Estonian children have had some kind of internet security issues (EU average being 30,8%) and only 45,4% of children profess the knowledge about how to properly act in these situations (EU average 66%). Understanding what e-safety is and how to deal with it is a common problem among parents and students in virtually all the countries involved. Mobile phones, Internet and high-speed digital transmission systems have led the informa- tion revolution at home, at school and at work. One of the consequent issues is the emer- gence of children who, having very good access to the internet, are more computer literate than their parents (especially in using social networking, Web 2.0, etc), use mobile phones frequently – and most likely without any parental supervision. Children can be seen having developed their own life strategies and survival techniques and they don’t share their problems with parents and teachers. So in a pedagogical sense, we have a major problem - not only due to the emerging generations ethical/behavioural norms being increasingly unknown to their predecessors, but also because children’s judgment val- ues are increasingly based on their own knowledge and understandings rather than those of their parents. ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • www.elearningpapers.eueL ers 28 u ers.e gpap .elea rnin n.º 28 • April 2012Pap www 1
    • From the fieldThe solutions should involve (from both teachers’ and parents’ The Estonian studies on the topic have covered the following is-side) understanding of risky behaviour, knowing and paying at- sues: cyber bullying, technological competence, identity issuestention what children do on the internet and open discussions (mostly based on rate.ee, an Estonian social networking site)of internet security issues. Only then can one hope that children and parental awareness. Due to the field changing rapidly, someare safer and can make their own decisions that they can live of the results are already outdated (see more from http://goo.with (Kalmus, 2007). Also, there is a problem with the absence gl/18elp Table 1).of the proper ontology of security-related risks. Parents arerather more concerned about purely environmental risks (e.g. 2.1. Different solutionsthe room being too cold) or technological problems (e.g. thecomputer infected with malware) than maintaining the psycho- The EU-imposed behavioural standards and solutions do notlogical and emotional stability of their child. necessarily work in Estonia due to the nation’s multi-layered historical legacy. On the one hand, as in Finland (BBC, 2010) In-Our aim is to analyse and explore the best practices in the pro- ternet is considered a human right – and in Estonia more so,gram Safer Internet in Estonia (EE SIC) as well as to as the Soviet censorship memories are still fresh. On the other • define topics that have and have not been covered by the hand, the EU/US-imposed suggestions and restrictions on nu- program; dity could conflict with Estonian national traditions (e.g going • identify the weaknesses and strengths of the program; to sauna; see also Millar, 2009). Also there is a credibility issue • analyse the effects of the program and recommend foci for regarding the solutions recommended by EU that may be at next stages. odds with the liberality of Estonian internet policy (Saar, 2001; Infoühiskonna edendamise poliitika, 2007; Schilthuis, 2010).2. Background Some countries have developed different solutions for prob-Today’s Internet has brought along increasing levels of com- lems related to internet risks:munication, cognitive development, academic achievement • filter inappropriate content for children (differs betweenand world globalisation. As a downside, we have to deal with countries by age limit, content etc) at service providersinternet safety issues and fears like cyber bullying, harassment, (EFA, 2002; European Framework for Safer Mobile Use bysurveillance, inappropriate content etc (see also Byron, 2007, p. Younger Teenagers and Children: One Year After, 2008);4). This field is important due to the need to understand how • development of legislative measures against harassing, bul-today’s children and adolescents live in a new, massive, and lying, gossip or other “bad behaviour” (Cyberethics, 2002);complex virtual universe, even as they carry on with their lives • technical surveillance and other intrusive trust models –in the real world (Greenfield, 2006). like children’s obligation to share the passwords with parent or limiting internet access (Smith, 2007);References and studies assessing children’s security on the In- • teaching and talking in public about internet security issuesternet could be divided into five larger groups: using helplines or dedicated web sites (Shoniregun, 2003). • cyber bullying among children (Berson, 2002); A crucial challenge for schools considering the adoption of crea- • morality-related - pedophilia, sharing inappropriate con- tive media (Web 2.0) and social network technologies is how to tent and other abnormal behaviours (Akdeniz, 1997; Carr, support children’s engagement in productive and creative social 2004; Mitchell, 2004; Peters, 2009; Koppel, 2010); learning while protecting them from undue risks (Graber, 2009). • programs and ideas for parents and schools (Livingstone, 2001; Wishart, 2004); In addition, we have found useful information from the resourc- • other research including normal internet behaviour (Bullen, es and studies about psychology of adolescence (Kroger, 2004), 2000; Enocchon, 2005; Wolak, 2008; Dworschak, 2010); ethnography (Bortree, 2005), gender (Brandtzæg, 2005), inter- • usage analysis of computers and mobile phones in Estonia, net strategies (Dunkels, 2007), harmful content on the Internet EU or World level (EU Kids Online, 2006; Safer internet for (EU, 2004; Hargrave, 2006), communities in cyberspace (Kolloc, children qualitative study in 29 European countries, 2007; Towards a safer use of the Internet for children in the EU – a 1999) and youth culture (Sefton, 1998; Willard, 2000; Bondeb- parents’ perspective, 2008). jerg, 2004). ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • www.elearningpapers.eu eL ers 28 u ers.e gpap .elea rnin n.º 28 • April 2012 Pap www 2
    • From the field2.2. The Estonian experience before 2010 information was sent to the Police and Border Protection who initiated criminal proceedings. Other 170 reports were forward-In recent years, some Internet security related campaigns, pro- ed via the InHope network to other countries’ hotlines or police.jects and studies in Estonia have looked promising at first but Earlier there were more reports related to child exploitation,then stalled due to lack of consistency. The chronology below nowadays people are reporting mostly ‘ordinary’ pornographyreveals that while the number of activities may seem satisfacto- related pages that are too easy to access for children.ry, a majority of them could be traced back to a relatively smallgroup of people who have organized it all and sometimes even The helpline statistics shows it providing advice for children,as a hobby-like, leisure-time project – citing the lack of funding parents and other involved groups on internet safety issues,as a reason (see more from http://goo.gl/18elp Table 2). including how to recognize computer addiction, how to limit a child’s computer use, how to behave in case of a computer ad-There are also some changes in the National Curriculum, e.g. diction (4%); identity theft of internet social network accountsusing internet should be safer, schools are obliged to discuss po- (11%); competence imbalance on internet issues among par-tential risks with children and teachers should include topics like ents and children or recommended rules for children using In-privacy, copyright, online self-protection and safe socialisation ternet (10%); sex-related proposals received on internet (9%);in their lessons (National Curriculum, 2010). However, due to sexual harassment (6%); advice in case of cyber bullying (18%);the fact that computer lessons are mostly complementary (with excessive internet/mobile broadband bills (7%); unwanted con-voluntary participation), the focus is blurred and no particular nections (14%); potential harmful content (20%) etc (Targalt In-teacher could be held responsible for these tasks. ternetis aastaraamat, 2011:18). The Estonian e-police initiative started in June 2011 and has2.3. The EE SIC program and the Estonian since answered to 3341 requests, averaging to 508 in a month. e-police initiative The findings suggest that people have the most problems withThe mission of the Safer internet program is to promote safe traffic law (23%), theft and fraud (10%), slandering (8%), publicInternet use by children and their parents as well as the pre- disturbance by minors (6%) as well family problems, 4% relatevention of online distribution of material containing illegal con- to identity issues. However, the initiative allowed the police totent (About the project, 2010). A prior study from 2010 shows acquire information and artefacts referring to actual crimes re-a very high internet usage (99%) among the participants, but lated to e.g. pedophilia, illegal drugs, missing persons, violenceat the same time, 34% of them deny needing any help in e- against minors and hacking.safety (especially male and younger people) and 9% have not The Estonian e-police initiative (with a focus on children andever thought about the matter (seniors). Usually the help (when awareness) has proved somewhat successful – but it seems thatneeded) is provided by friends (42%) or ICT specialists (35%) adults may in fact need a similar service even more urgently,(Turu-uuring, 2010). They prefer to receive more information their field of questions being even larger. As it has brought po-from traditional media (52%) and school (47%). 14% have seen lice closer to ordinary citizens, it should continue, but needschild pornography online, but 75% do not know where to report remarkably more attention. While Finland has a similar serviceit and 14% did not even think there is an option or obligation to available 24/7, Estonia currently has only a sole officer with noreport. Only 12% would act by informing the police, helpline or replacement in case of vacation or illness.child welfare. We can conclude that the project has been implemented ad-After the implementation of the Estonian e-safety hotline, the equately. Different organizations are working together and sup-number of e-safety related notifications has risen from 205 to porting the project goals, people are starting to understand that609, but it has also become a place where people tend to re- there is somebody supporting Estonian parents, teachers andport just ‘ordinary’ adult content than actual child pornography. children in the area of e-safety. Yet the knowledge should beFrom the July to December 2011 it received 986 first-time visits spread further, especially on the government level.from 27 countries. During the last year (Feb 2011-Feb 2012) ithas received 861 reports, of which 171 have been related tosexual abuse of children, one of them concerning Estonia. The ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • www.elearningpapers.eu eL ers 28 u ers.e gpap .elea rnin n.º 28 • April 2012 Pap www 3
    • From the field3. Methods least 20 visits. Of the categories, the materials for students have proved to be the most popular.At Stage I, we analysed the use of EE SIC materials and codedwhat was available in the page on topics, target audiences and Viewing the statistics of trainings there has been done in 75nature. We also investigated the web page usage patterns. schools, kindergarten, youth centre or libraries (see pic 1). Over 5000 students, 700 teachers, 500 parents have counted to par-During the Stage II we asked e-safety trainers to take an e- ticipate in the program. See in Picture 1.survey - how effective do they consider the training; what in-teresting ideas and data have they gathered and what kind ofinformation they themselves have facilitated from the lessonsand what they think will the future bring in this area. We alsogathered some background information. We used 30 questionswith rankings 5-10, yes/no/don’t know or open answers. All 10trainers did participate in the survey.At Stage III we analysed the awareness training activities from2010-2012 by the location and number of participants.At Stage IV we studied the results from four e-safety e-coursesfrom 2010-2011 by the location number of participants andfeedback to the course.4. Results Picture 1: The awareness training locations in 2010-20124.1. Materials and training 4.2. Feedback from the e-safety trainersThe project materials are divided into five main categories onits website: teachers, parents, students and younger children, The EE SIC program currently has 10 trainers. All of them areplus an extra category for online tests. Most of the material are able to train in Estonian, two also in Russian and two in English.targeted towards children or students (44 items), followed by Most of them have experience of at least 11 e-safety trainingthe ones for teachers or specialist working with children (so- events; four of them have at least 21. According to their feed-cial workers, psychologists, youth workers). Only 7 items are back, they consider the interactive games on privacy, Internetdirected towards parents. The materials do have some overlap myths and case studies as the most valuable outcome of thethough, e.g. some parents are able to use the materials target- project. Presentations, videos and animations also receiveded towards teachers. good feedback.The main target group is defined as students aged 10-16, but The trainers also point out that:the website also contains three videos and two worksheets • students’ questions focused cyber bullying, social networks,meant for primary school and kindergarten. Most of the materi- secure computer use, legislation, privacy and lost devicesals meant for students are entertainment-oriented and interac- (e.g. what to do when a mobile phone gets lost; how legal is sharing videos over the Net);tive, while the ones for adults tend to be static and textual. The • teachers are worried about being less knowledgeable thantopics covered the most were passwords (15%), cyber bullying students and proper ways to act on an incident (e.g. cyber(15%), meeting strangers online (6%), social networks (15%), bullying or -harassment). They also understand that theappropriate online behaviour (11,5%). training should begin earlier and some elements should be already available at kindergarten;The Google Analytics data from the project web site reveals that • parents mostly worry about keeping their child’s computermost of the visitors will return. Most visitors also browse at least use in check (e.g. how long the sessions can be and how5 pages. 10% of the visitors can be considered regulars with at to control the activity), keeping their computers clean from malware and solving possible incidents. They wonder about ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • www.elearningpapers.eu eL ers 28 u ers.e gpap .elea rnin n.º 28 • April 2012 Pap www 4
    • From the field the overall passivity and sometimes say that such a training be aware of cyber bullying and know how to react as well as has no point as no one actually cares (e.g. when someone learn how to teach students about these matters. misbehaves online or engages in license infringement). The statistics shows that largest numbers of participants haveAccording to the trainers, the most useful materials to consider been from Tallinn (28), Harjumaa (9), Lääne-Virumaa (15), Tar-for future training events are safety-related games, online tests, tumaa (6) and Võrumaa(6) and the islands of Saaremaa andshort videos (up to 5 min), crosswords and tests on paper, short Hiiumaa (both 3). We can see on the map (Picture 1) that theanimations and movies (up to 20 min). They found handbooks, biggest gap is in the heartland, as other counties have only 1-2presentations and flyers to be less effective. Of the topics, they teachers participated. By the specialisation, the most interestedfound digital reputation, cyber bullying and using digital gadgets in the topic have been class teachers (17), ICT (11), math andas of top importance, while policy (e.g. ACTA), meeting stran- science (8) and Estonian language teachers (5).gers online or technical setup of computers are thought to beless important. The explanation for such a choice is that most In evaluating the usefulness of the e-course, we may outlineEstonian people are unable to grasp too many technical details, three aspects: technical, personal and awareness. In technicalso the e-safety training should be more behaviour-based. On aspect, the course contributed to better understanding of toolsthe other hand, the more technically literate minority needs and methods of e-safety (e.g. antiviruses and system updates),also more technically inclined training. a result was also the map of antivirus software in use. In the personal level, overall understanding of privacy, password pro-The trainers have also pointed out that both the initial inter- tection, searching for information and preventing cyber bullyingest-sparking and follow-up should be stronger, not to make the went up. In overall awareness, the course contributed towardstraining an isolated event. Actual work should go on between seeing the ‘big picture’ by introducing various materials andteachers and students in every subsequent lesson. Some teach- studies for teachers, students and parents.ers tend to take an overtly active role during the training (at-tempting to teach others), some are passive (doing their own Some recommendations issued by the participants were: thework or leaving altogether). Teachers tend to be afraid of e- teacher should try to play games and use other ICT solutionssafety issues (fearing their inability to answer their students’ that are used by students, the same tools that are used to teachquestions) and hope that they will not have to really faces such students should be used by teachers themselves as well. Nativesituations. The main problem is that a great deal of the fears language training videos were asked for to also include technicalis actually justified – the teachers tend to know less than their aspects – the problem being that if the teacher feels awkwardstudents. with some task, he/she will not take risks with activities actively involving students. At the same time, those activities that teach-Concerning the problems that arose from the trainers them- ers felt confident with (e.g. watching videos, discussing or do-selves, the main one is lack of time. As their number was limited ing simpler practical tasks) did not have problems with inclu-and they hold their real job elsewhere, finding a suitable time sion. While teachers favoured surveys as a way to learn whatfor training was a serious issue. students think, implementing them was considered a problem (both methodological and technical). The participants confessed4.3. The e-course on e-safety that if not for the course, they would not think about e-safety at all (and realising this, were happy that they took part in it),In total, the e-learning course has had 85 teachers participating learning about the national hotline and helpline was appreci-and 57 of them graduating. The course duration is 6 weeks (20 ated as well. Still, the format of the course (six weeks) provedhours) and it has been run four times by 2011. The course was to be too short, not allowing the graduates to start independentcreated by the Tiger Leap Foundation’s ICT trainers with the aim work (e.g. creating e-safety games, writing related reports orof giving a broader overview of the topic to common teachers. doing online surveys) – only some people with more extensiveThere were 7 main objectives: learn to protect one’s computer previous knowledge felt ready to do it.from viruses, become familiar with various Internet sites thatreflect e-safety, be smarter on the net, be familiar with various During the course, the participants were able to compile a col-social networking sites, and learn to choose secure passwords, lection of web links and create some simpler materials for stu- dents or parents. Due to constant overloading, teachers possess ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • www.elearningpapers.eu eL ers 28 u ers.e gpap .elea rnin n.º 28 • April 2012 Pap www 5
    • From the fieldlittle spare time to read or study. This led often to loss of motiva- (both online and on paper). Filming and disseminating talkstion due to not understanding tasks or goals). The language bar- of good trainers might be preferred to producing printedrier still exists and should be addressed (e.g. with subtitles on handbooks and flyers;foreign-language videos). On the other hand, some participants • main topic to be addressed could be new technologies (mo- bile phones, tablets), identity and privacy management,would have preferred more technical knowledge to be included. choosing good passwords and fighting cyber bullying;While the course attempted to implement community feedback • ordinary users do need (non-complicated) technical materi-(e.g. commenting on others’ work), this was only marginally als. A preferred way would be simulations and games (al-used (as a number of participants actively disliked it). lowing hands-on experience with suitable guidance on e.g. how to remove malware from a computer).5. Discussion Second, about training delivery:When analysing recent processes in e-safety in Estonia, we • the best covered regions are Tallinn with surrounding Har-could draw a line at the EE SIC program. Before 2010, e-safety jumaa County. While Tallinn is important, Internet covers allactivities were unsystematic and mostly led by volunteers. The the country, thus there exists a strong need for training out-workgroup at the Ministry of Social Affairs united a number of side large cities, especially in the Estonian heartland. During the final stages of the projects, trainings were held in publicpeople but there was no central coordination – rather, the ac- libraries – the practice is worth continuing;tivists shared information about their activities without fitting • e-safety training for ordinary users should be kept deliveredthem into the ‘big picture’. both in face-to-face and e-course form. Different counties should be addressed with local educational authoritiesAfter the beginning of the program in 2010, the same people coordinating the participation (e.g. 5 persons from everywere included in the project council or engaged as supporters, school);but this time, the Children’s Welfare Union was elected as the • as the number of trainers is still low and most of them holdgoverning organisation. In addition, other organisations (ISP-s, their primary jobs elsewhere, every county should have atParents’ Union, and Tiger Leap Foundation) were also brought least 1-2 specialists who are also qualified as e-safety train-in. Most importantly, a youth panel was assembled in order to ers. The trainer network of the Tiger Leap Foundation couldkeep the activities acceptable and understandable for the main be used for this;target group. • parents tend to be the most neglected group – they are un- able to help their children and keep asking for support inThe following trends and recommendations can be outlined handling e-safety problems. There is also some resentment,when analysing the EE SIC project activities from the last 1.5 seeing no point in reporting the problem as there is no vis- ible mechanism for dealing with incidents. The knowledgeyears. and practical e-safety skills vary greatly among parents, butFirst, about creating the necessary materials: are very weak on average; • follow-up is especially needed when training teachers, as • the initially proposed target group (age 10-16) does not re- they are unable to grasp the matter in just one training pro- flect the reality anymore, a more suitable age group to tar- gram. Even if the national curriculum prescribes e-safety get should be from 4 to 14. E-safety issues will be faced by measures, ordinary teachers are unqualified to carry them children already in their early years. While Estonian parents out; consider computers good companions, they are sometimes misused as babysitters; • the e-courses have been successful, allowing participation also for teachers from the regions where the program has • more supportive rather than warning/prohibiting materials not reached to yet. But the graduation requirements should are needed as the actual skill level of people facing e-dan- be brought more in line with the skills taught, as currently gers is lower than expected. Especially needed is guidance some graduation tasks are in fact not covered by the pro- on appropriate behaviour (netiquette) as well as pointers gram; where to turn in case of a safety incident; • while the core of the materials should be kept not too tech- • while most initial materials had a double approach (enter- nical, a small group of ‘elites’ willing to learn ‘the deeper tainment and practical guidelines for children, more theory secrets’ has emerged. Their need should be addressed by for adults), the entertainment should be more prominent in an advanced-level e-course carried out by e-safety profes- the materials meant for adults as well. Trainers have called sionals; for relevant computer games, short films and various tests ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • www.elearningpapers.eu eL ers 28 u ers.e gpap .elea rnin n.º 28 • April 2012 Pap www 6
    • From the field • due to lack of trainers, it is also advised to include second- ten. There is serious lack of new teachers who are aware of the ary school students as auxiliary trainers and tutors. issue – but neither the training programmes at universities norBased on the above said, we have formulated some recommen- complementary training activities seem to take notice. Nearlydations to the Ministry of Education: the only initiative is the joint training programme for education- al technologists by Tallinn University and BCS Training – of the • school principals should receive more ICT training to al- total of 80 hours, e-safety is given 1,5. It is better than nothing low them to comply with the new National Curriculum. A big problem is that they are often facing hard choices like though. whether to repair the roof, buy textbooks, train teachers or invest into ICT – rather frequently, the last option is seen as Recommendations for schools: of secondary importance compared to others. Sometimes • the principals must familiarise themselves with the new the direct lack of knowledge of state-of-the-art ICT by prin- National Curriculum requirements on ICT infrastructure, cipals is seriously hampering its progress at school; environment and methodology, to allow them to properly • just as ICT solutions should be accessible to all teachers and support teachers; students, materials and training on e-safety should be, too. • every school should have an educational technologist who Mere banning of certain technologies at school may initially should support and advise students and teachers as well as prevent some modern problems, but this will result in an coordinate the development of the local ICT infrastructure; even greater isolation for students, as parents are unable • principals should also favour teachers taking part in meth- and teachers not willing or too busy to help them; odological training in ICT, as every teacher should obtain ICT • both teachers and students need professional ICT support skills on a certifiable level; by educational technologists. As teachers are often unable • the currently elective courses of Informatics I and Informat- to keep pace with new technologies, they need support by ics II in the National Curriculum for Basic School should be not generic ICT specialists but rather by someone who can made compulsory – at the moment, most teachers of other advise him/her on both technology/e-safety and the cur- subjects are unable to reach the necessary level of ICT skills riculum being taught; in their subject. • ensure the dissemination of best practices among schools. It is a shame that in many cases, good ideas get stuck at Recommendations for parents: school and cannot move on to others. • keep track on how much is the computer used for educa- tional purposes at home – sufficient ICT skills are an increas-Recommendations for tertiary education facilities training ingly important component in the child’s studies;teachers: • the computer is not a babysitter – parents have to discuss e- • revise the programmes according to the real needs at safety issues with children to avoid misunderstanding and, school and actual usage of technology. Every graduate go- more importantly, leaving the child alone with an e-safety ing to the job market as a teacher should be able to pass problem; at least entry-level ICT certification exams or prove his/her • purely recreational use of computers, smartphones and skills in some other manner; gaming consoles should be under control – and not just • steady yearly preparation of a sufficient number of specifi- by keeping time of ‘sitting at the computer’ but striving to cally education-oriented ICT specialists (ICT managers, edu- reach mutual understanding how to balance studies and cational technologists, ICT teachers) is necessary; entertainment; • some problems with the effectiveness of the program in Es- • parents should be familiar with the BETA standard. tonia seem also to stem from the fact that the problem is governed by the Ministry of Social Affairs – the Ministry of E-safety is therefore a process where all the involved parties Education is busy with regulating teachers’ salaries, imple- should contribute. Even if children do not turn to adults at once, menting the new National Curriculum and carrying out the they eventually will – and at that point, teachers and parents education reform, making them in fact unable to have a say must know what to do. At the moment, the knowledge of adults on e-safety. At the same time, a generation is emerging who is often even less than that of children. Yet their larger expe- has learned to cope on their own, realising that adults are just too uneducated to ask help from. rience of life could make them valuable counsellors – but this means that the e-safety knowledge layer must be built up asThe National Curriculum has set e-safety as an inter-curricular well.topic, meaning that the responsibility for that is shared – or ac-tually diluted, as the whole topic is more than often just forgot- ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • www.elearningpapers.eu eL ers 28 u ers.e gpap .elea rnin n.º 28 • April 2012 Pap www 7
    • From the field6. Conclusions and mark the responsibilities of different parties. School princi- pals, teachers and parents could also contribute more to makeThe strong point of the program has been the cooperation be- the online world safer for students.tween various educational facilities and research groups. Thereis a volume of materials created by ICT teachers and special-ists, psychologists and students, but larger inclusion of parents,teachers of other subjects, officials of local governments and Referencesbusiness partners is needed – by now, their role has been most- Targalt internetis (2010), About the project, retrieved 10.12.2010ly advisory. http://www.targaltinternetis.ee/projektist/?lang=enThe further programmes in Estonia should focus on the younger Akdeniz, Y. (1997). The Regulation of Pornography and Child Pornog-age group, as the user base of the Internet and various gadgets raphy on the Internet, The Journal of Information, Law and Technol-is getting constantly younger. More trainers are needed, as are ogy (JILT).educational technologists who could advise teachers at schools.Parents should get a much better contact point at school – cur- BBC (2010) Finland makes broadband a “legal right”, BBC Newsrently they mostly interact with the school via a class principal, Technology, retrieved 12.08.2010 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/but these teachers are typically also undereducated in ICT. This news/10461048can effectively block the communication between parents and Berson, I., Berson, M., Ferron, J., (2002). Emerging Risks ofschool regarding e-safety. In turn, this leads to the ‘Ping-Pong’ violence in the digital age: Lessons for educators from an online study ofbetween the parties where each one expects the other side to adolescent girls in the United States, Meridian: A Middle School Com-react on the problems. puter Technologies Journal vol 5 issue 2A solution could be a compulsory e-safety course held in every Bondebjerg, I., Golding, P. (2004). European culture and thecounty with every school sending at least 2-5 teachers who then media, Intellect Books, Bristolcan spread the knowledge at their school. More study aids andmaterials (presentations, videos, demos and games) are needed Bortree, D., (2005). Presentation of Self on the Web: an ethnographicin the working language of schools (Estonian or Russian). The study of teenage girls’ weblogs. Education, Communication & Infor-most urgent topics are cyber bullying, use of new ICT solution mation, 5(smartphones, tablets), identity management, social networks, Brandtzæg, P., (2005). Gender Differences and the Digital Dividenetwork privacy and using passwords. There is also a small in Norway – Is there really a Gendered Divide?, retrieved 12.08.2010group of enthusiasts who could be given a more thorough tech- from http://sintef.academia.edu/PetterBaeBrandtzæg/Pa-nical training. pers/814026/Gender_differences_and_the_digital_divide_in_Nor-We conclude that despite the problems outlined above, the way-is_there_really_a_gendered_divideprogram has launched successfully in Estonia and could provide Bullen, P. (2000). The Interet: Its effects on safety and behavioursome ideas for other countries as well. At the same time, we implications for adolescents, Department of Psychology University ofnote that teachers and most parents are seriously underedu- Aucklandcated in terms of e-safety, needing continuous support. Whilechildren seem to cope better (they will adapt more quickly and Byron, T. (2007). Safer Children in a Digital World:The Report ofinvent new solutions for themselves), many adults are still in the Byron Review. London: Department for Children, Schools andshock due to the ‘sudden emergence’ of the problems. Besides Department for Culture, Media and Sport, retrieved 8.08.2010the training component, the helpline and hotline of the project from http://media.education.gov.uk/assets/files/pdf/s/safer%20have both proved to be needed and should also continue their children%20in%20a%20digital%20world%20the%202008%20activities, but more efforts should be made to inform the wider byron%20review.pdfpublic of their presence. Carr, J. (2004). Child abuse, child pornography and the internet, ISBNThe Ministry of Education should understand the vital impor- 0900984805, NCH, Londontance of the topic, include it to the teacher training programmes ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • www.elearningpapers.eu eL ers 28 u ers.e gpap .elea rnin n.º 28 • April 2012 Pap www 8
    • From the fieldCyberethics (2002), retrieved 12.08.2010 from http://www. Estonian Govrenment (2010), Infoühiskonna edendamise poliitika:justice.gov/criminal/cybercrime/cyberethics.htm väljavõte valitsusliidu programmist aastateks 2007-2011, retrieved 12.08.2010 from http://www.valitsus.ee/?id=8125Dunkels, E. (2007). Bridging the Distance - Children’s Strategies onthe Internet, University of Umeå Kalmus, V (2007). Estonian Adolescents’ Expertise in the Internet in ., Comparative Perspective. Cyberpsychology: Journal of PsychosocialDworschak, M. (2010). The Internet Generation Prefers the Real Research on Cyberspace (1 (Online)). ISSN 1802-7962World, Spiegel Online International, retrieved 12.08.2010 http://www.spiegel.de/international/zeitgeist/0,1518,710139,00.html Kollock, P. (1999). Communities in Cyberspace,The Economies of Online Cooperation. London: RoutledgeEFA (2002). Internet Censorship: Law & policy around the world,retrieved 30.07.2010 http://www.efa.org.au/Issues/Censor/cens3. Koppel, K. (2010). Kasvatusteadlane: laste seas levivad pornograafilisedhtml mängud, retrieved 13.08.2010 from http://uudised.err.ee/index. php?06212092Enochsson, A. (2005). A gender perspective on Internet use: conse-quences for information seeking, Information Research, vol 10 no 4, pp Kroger, J. (2004). Identity in adolescence: the balance between self and. 95-112 other, London: RoutledgeEU (2004). Illegal and harmful content on the Internet: European Livingstone, S. (2001). Online freedom and safety for children, Lon-Opinion Research Group, European Commission, retrieved don: LSE Research Online12.01.2011 from http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/ac- Millar, H. (2009). HAYLEY MILLAR: Eestlased – alasti vaoshoitus,tivities/sip/docs/eurobarometer/eurobarometer_2004_10_new_ retrieved 13.08.2010 from http://www.epl.ee/artikkel/458401ms.pdf Mitchell, K., Finkelhor, D., Wolak, J. (2004). Victimization ofEU Kids Online (2006), retrieved 12.08.2010 from http:// Youths on the Internet;Victimization of Children: Emerging Issueswww2.lse.ac.uk/media@lse/research/EUKidsOnline/Home.aspx (pp 1-39) New York: The Haworth Maltreatment and Trauma PressEU Kids Online ll (2009), retrieved 12.10.2011 http://www2. National Curriculum (2010), retrieved 11.01.2012 from http://lse.ac.uk/media@lse/research/EUKidsOnline/EUKidsII%20 www.riigiteataja.ee/ert/act.jsp?id=174787(2009-11)/home.aspx Peters, R., (2009). How Adult Pornography Contributes To SexualEuropean Commission (2008), European Framework for Safer Mo- Exploitation of Children, retrieved 12.08.2010 from http://www.bile Use by Younger Teenagers and Children: One Year After, Implementa- pornharms.com/press/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/HOW-tion Report, retrieved 8.08.2010 from http://www.gsmeurope.org/ ADULT-PORNOGRAPHY-HARMS-CHILDREN-RP-article-documents/gsma_implementation_report.pdf with-appendices.pdfGraber, M., Harrison, R., C. & Logan, K. (2009). E-Safety Saar, J. (2010). Kurjad konstandid ja Eesti, Akadeemia nr. 7:1155-and Web2.0 for children aged 11-16. Journal of Computer-Assisted 1182Learning, 25 European Comission (2007), Safer internet for children qualitativeGreenfield P., Yan, Z. (2006). Children, Adolescents, and the In- study in 29 european countries, summery report, retrieved 8.08.2010ternet: A New Field of Inquiry in Developmental Psychology, retrieved from http://www.internetsafety.ie/website/ois/oisweb.nsf/0/F7658.08.2010 from http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/dev- 0C73182B83B6802574D5004A932B/$File/Safer%20Internet%20423391.pdf for%20Children-%20Summary%20Report-march-may07.pdfHargrave, A., Livingstone, S., (2006). Harm and Offence in Media Schilthuis, L. (2010). Online child victimization: A perspective, re-Content. A review of the evidence. Bristol: Intellect trieved 13.08.2010 from http://www.slideshare.net/microsofteesti/ online-child-victimization-a-perspective ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • www.elearningpapers.eueL ers 28 u ers.e gpap .elea rnin n.º 28 • April 2012Pap www 9
    • From the fieldSefton-Green, J. (1998). Digital Diversion: youth culture in the age of Turu-Uuring (2010) Internetiturvalisus 15-75 aastase elanikonnamultimedia. London: Routledge küsitlus, November 2010, retrieved 13.12.2011 from: http://www. targaltinternetis.ee/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Küsitlus-inter-Shoniregun, C., Andersonis, A. (2003). Internet Access a Ques- netiturvalisusest1.pdftionable Risk? Ubiquity retrieved 8.08.2010 from http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=964692.964688 Vihjeliini (2012), Statistika, retrieved 11.02.2012 from http://vi- hjeliin.targaltinternetis.ee/statistika/Simson P. , Proos I. (2010). Riskilapsi on koolis 45 protsenti, re-trieved 30.06.2010 from http://www.epl.ee/artikkel/579342 Willard, N. (2000). Choosing Not To Go Down the Not-so-good Cy- berstreets, retrieved 12.08.2010 from http://www.csriu.org/online-Smith, G. (2007). How to protect your children on the Internet: a road- docs/documents/nwnas.htmlmap for parents and teachers ISBN 978-0-275-99472-3 Wishart, J. (2004). Internet safety in emerging educational contexts,Targalt Internetis (2011), Targalt Internetis Aastaraamat, retrieved Computers and Education 43 (1-2) pp. 193-20425.02.2012 from http://www.targaltinternetis.ee/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Projekti-aastaaruanne-september-2010-au- Wolak, J., Finkelhor, D., Mitchell, K., & Ybarra, M. (2008).gust-2011.pdf Online predators and their victims: Realities and Implications for Preven- tion and Treatment, American Psychologist, 63 Copyright APAThe Gallup Organization (2008), Towards a safer use of theInternet for children in the EU – a parents’ perspective Analytical report,retrieved 8.08.2010 from http://www.internetsafety.ie/Website/OIS/OISWeb.nsf/page/DPCY-7MELY61694917-en/$File/Euro-barometer%20Survey%202008.pdf Edition and production Name of the publication: eLearning Papers Copyrights ISSN: 1887-1542 The texts published in this journal, unless otherwise indicated, are subject Publisher: elearningeuropa.info to a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-NoDerivativeWorks Edited by: P.A.U. Education, S.L. 3.0 Unported licence. They may be copied, distributed and broadcast pro- Postal address: c/Muntaner 262, 3r, 08021 Barcelona (Spain) vided that the author and the e-journal that publishes them, eLearning Phone: +34 933 670 400 Papers, are cited. Commercial use and derivative works are not permitted. Email: editorial@elearningeuropa.info The full licence can be consulted on http://creativecommons.org/licens- Internet: www.elearningpapers.eu es/by-nc-nd/3.0/ ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • www.elearningpapers.eueL ers 28 u ers.e gpap .elea rnin n.º 28 • April 2012Pap www 10