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E learning papers special edition 2011

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Taken together the articles in this...

Taken together the articles in this
special issue provide an up to date
and authoritative overview of the
field of learning design research and
demonstrate the diversity of research
that is going on in this area.

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    E learning papers   special edition 2011 E learning papers special edition 2011 Document Transcript

    • n in g a e s L r re e arn ingp ape rs.eu pl edition w.ele acia wwPpe S Designing for learning  Typologies of Learning Design and the introduction of a “LD-Type 2” case example  sing patterns to design technology-enhanced U  learning scenarios    Students as learning designers: Using social media to scaffold the experience  Blended Collaborative Constructive Participation  (BCCP): A model for teaching in higher education    Knowledge-building: Designing for learning using social and participatory media  Creating Invitational Online Learning Environments Using  Art-Based Learning Interventions
    • CreditseLearningPapers www.elearningpapers.euSpecial edition Mission Statement eLearning Papers aims to make innovative ideas and practices in the field of learning more visible by highlighting different perspectives involving the use of technology.eLearning PaperseLearning Papers is a digital publication created as part of the elearningeuropa.info portal.The portal is an initiative of the European Commission to promote the use of multimediatechnologies and Internet at the service of education and training.The articles provide views regarding the current situation and e-learning trends in differentcontexts: schools, universities, companies, civil society and institutions. As such, the journaladds a new dimension to the exchange of information on e-learning in Europe and stimulatesresearch. eLearning Papers provides authors with an opportunity to have their texts publishedthroughout Europe. Through these articles, the journal promotes the use of ICT for lifelonglearning in Europe.eLearning Papers Special Edition 2011 edited by:ISBN: 84-8294-664-1Muntaner 262, 3º, 08021 Barcelona (Spain)http://www.paueducation.comDesign: Mar NietoPhone: +34 933 670 406editorial@elearningeuropa.infohttp://www.elearningpapers.euLegal notice and copyrightBy elearningeuropa.info and eLearning Papers.The views expressed are purely those of the authors and may not in any circumstances be regarded as stating an official position of the EuropeanCommission. Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on its behalf is responsible for the use which might be made of the informationcontained in the present publication. The European Commission is not responsible for the external web sites referred to in the present publication.The texts published in this journal, unless otherwise indicated, are subject to a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-NoDerivativeWorks 3.0Unported licence. They may be copied, distributed and broadcast provided that the author and the e-journal that publishes them, eLearning Papers, arecited. Commercial use and derivative works are not permitted. The full licence can be consulted on http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/eLearningPapers www.elearningpapers.euSpecial edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • Contents eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Designing for learning Contents Editorial....................................................................................................................6 In-depth....................................................................................................................7 Typologies of Learning Design and the introduction of a “LD-Type 2” case example......................................................................................................................... 8 Using patterns to design technology-enhanced learning scenarios............................... 24 Students as learning designers: Using social media to scaffold the experience........... 34 Blended Collaborative Constructive Participation (BCCP): A model for teaching in higher education......................................................................... 41 From the field.........................................................................................................52 Knowledge-building: Designing for learning using social and participatory media...................................................................................................... 53 Creating Invitational Online Learning Environments Using Art-Based Learning Interventions............................................................................ 61eLearningPapers www.elearningpapers.euSpecial edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • Editorial Board [ +] Tapio Koskinen, Head of New Solutions, Jean Underwood, Professor of Psychology Aalto University Professional Development Nottingham Trent University, UK (Aalto PRO). Aalto. Finland [ +] United Kingdom [ +] Lieve Van den Brande, Senior Jos Beishuizen, Professor of educational Policy Officer, European Commission. science and Director of the Centre for Belgium [ +] Educational Training, Assessment and Research VU University Amsterdam.Netherlands [ +] 
 Pierre-Antoine Ullmo, Founder and Director. Matty Smith, Programme Director P.A.U. Education. European Learning Industry Group (ELIG) Spain [ +] United Kingdom [ +] Lluís Tarín, Strategic and Leadership Advisor Nicolas Balacheff, Kaleidoscope Scientifi c Jesuites Education Manager; Senior Scientist at CNRS (National Spain [ +] Scientifi c Research Center), France [ +] Antonio Bartolomé, Audiovisual Communication Ulf-Daniel Ehlers, Director of the European Professor. University of Barcelona Foundation for Quality in E-Learning Spain [ +] University of Duisburg-Essen Germany [ +] Claire Bélisle, CNRS Research Engineer, France Wojciech Zielinski, Chairman of the Board LIRE (University Lyon 2 & CNRS) of MakoLab Ltd; Member of the Board of [ +] Association of Academic E-learning, Poland [ +]Peer-reviewers [ +]Anabela Mesquita. Higher Education. ISCAP Portugal . Giuliano Vivanet. Higher Education. Università degli Studi diAvgoustos Tsinakos. Higher Education. TEI KAVALAS. Greece Cagliari. ItalyAxel Schwarz. Administrative. Germany Guillaume Durin. Higher Education. Jean Moulin Lyon 3 University (France). FranceBulent Cavas. Higher Education. Dokuz Eylul University. Turkey Lucilla Crosta. eLearning specialist. Kelidon AssociationCarlos Morales. Executive or managerial. Sistema UniversitarioAna G. Méndez. Outside Europe Nuno Garcia. Higher Education. Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias. PortugalChris Douce. Higher Education. Open University. UnitedKingdom Pedro Maya Álvarez. Executive or managerial. Divulgación Dinámica S.L.SpainClaudia Panico. Higher Education. Università GabrieleD’ nnunzio Chieti. Italy A Santiago Palacios. Higher Education. Universidad del País Vasco. SpainEvangelos Marinos. Higher Education. Athens Medical School.Greece Paula Peres. Higher Education. PAOL. PortugalEmmanuel Bellengier. Executive or managerial. U&I Learning. Alfredo Soeiro. PortugalFranceChief Editor Jimena Márquez, P.A.U. Education [ +]eLearningPapers www.elearningpapers.euSpecial edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • Guidelinesfor submissionsIn-depth From the field In-Depth articles are full-length texts that discuss current From the field articles are synopses of current practices findings from research or long-term studies. They should or studies taking place within Europe or beyond. They have the following characteristics: should have the following characteristics: −  cademic focus: Articles must be original, scientifically A − Brief communications: These articles should summarise accurate and informative, reporting on new experiencies and practices in education, innovation and developments and recently concluded projects. technology with a focus on the applied methodologies and impact evaluation. −  n good form editorially: Successful articles are clear and I precise. They should develop their argument coherently −  n good form editorially: Successful articles are clear and I and present a unity of thought. precise, they should concisely communicate the key points of the practice being discussed. −  ength: Articles should range from 4,000 to 6,000 L words. − Length: Should not exceed 1,200 words. All article submissions should be in DOC format and must include the following: −  anguage: Both articles and L In-Depth summaries should not captions for each image and indicate summaries must be in English. exceed 200 words. From the field where they should be placed in the Authors are responsible for ensuring summaries should not exceed 50 text. the correct use of English in their words. texts, and translations should be −  eferences: References must R revised before submission. Please −  ey words: Authors should include K be accurately cited following note that the journal gives strong up to 5 relevant key words. international standards, please preference to articles that are consult the online guidelines for −  onclusions: Special importance C more details: www.elearningpapers. correctly translated in a legible is given to the representation of manner. eu/index.php?page=collab_guide the conclusions. Articles must go −  itle: Must effectively and creatively T beyond telling about a research −  uthor profile: Author name, A communicate the content of the process and its methodology and institution, position and email article and may include a subtitle. provide an analysis of the findings. address must accompany each Conclusions should be clearly stated submission. For multiple authors, −  ummary: This is not an executive S both in the summary and at the end please specify the relationship of summary but rather should of the article. authors (ie, if a work is co-authored, communicate the key points and if there is a principal author, etc.) conclusions of the article to a large − Images: Please send high-resolution audience. It should be written in JPEG files of all images you wish to an attractive and accessible manner. include in the article. Please includeAuthors are encouraged to consult the website for the most recent call for papers:www.elearningpapers.eueLearningPapers www.elearningpapers.euSpecial edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • EditorialDesigning for learningNew open, social and participatory effective learning activities, it offers a In From the Field, two classroommedia clearly have significant potential potential solution to address some of models are shared. Each report offersto transform learning and teaching. the challenges above. This 27th edition an example of teachers who have takenThey offer learners and teachers a of eLearning Papers focuses on learning personalised approaches to integratingplethora of ways to communicate design, with the aim of clarifying and learning design strategies into theirand collaborate; to connect with a disseminating different perspectives and every day practices.distributed network of peers, and to practices in the field.find and manipulate information. In Taken together the articles in thisaddition there are now a significant The articles in this issue’s In-depth special issue provide an up to daterange of free educational resources and section address how to best understand and authoritative overview of thetools. and use learning design, both in field of learning design research and terms of tools and methodologies. demonstrate the diversity of researchWhile there is great interest in using The first pair of articles look at that is going on in this area. “Designingthese new technologies to the benefit of practical conceptualisations of learning for learning is the key challenge facinglearning and teaching, there seems to be design, supported by case examples. education today – practitioners needa gap between the promise and reality Dobozy’s paper offers a three-tiered guidance and support to ensure thatof the use of technology in education. categorisation of learning design, while their design is pedagogically informedThere is also a lack of evidence that Buendía-García and Benlloch-Dualde’s and effective, making innovative use ofeducation has changed fundamentally study attempts to track patterns in the affordances that new technologiesin light of the introduction of new different learning scenarios and applies offer” (Conole, G. Designing fortechnologies into the classroom. This them to new learning design contexts. learning in an open world, New York:paradox, the gap between the potential The second pair of articles reviews Springer)and actual use of technology, lies at blended teaching or the increasedthe heart of the growth of a new area participation of students in designingof research that has emerged in recent learning. Cameron and Tanti look at the Gráinne Conoleyears. usefulness of social media in authorising University of Leicester, UK. students to actively design their [ +]Learning design research aims to learning processes and Beatrice reviewsbetter understand this mismatch. By six years of experimentation with afocussing on the development of tools, Tapio Koskinen Blended Collaborative Constructive www.elearningpapers.eudesign methods and approaches to Participation (BCCP) model at the Director of the Editorial Boardhelp teachers design pedagogically university level. [ +]eLearningPapers www.elearningpapers.euSpecial edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • In-depthFostering analysis and discussion on Learning trends in Europe g T  ypologies of Learning Design and the in introduction of a “LD-Type 2” case example n U  sing patterns to design r technology-enhanced learning scenarios a e s S  tudents as learning designers: Using social media to scaffold the experience L re e B  lended Collaborative Constructive rs.eu Participation (BCCP): A model for teaching in higher education p ape rning p lea ww.e a wP eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 8 eLearningPapers Typologies of Learning DesignIn-depth and the introduction of a “LD-Type 2” case example [ ] Authors Eva Dobozy School of Education Edith Cowan University [ +] Introduction This paper explores the need for greater clarity in the Summary Technology-mediated life experiences conceptualisation of Learning Design (LD). Building on Cameron’s (2010) work, a three-tiered LD architecture is are on the increase. This ‘ICT- introduced. It is argued that this conceptualisation is needed isation’ (Rush, 2008) or ‘digital turn’ in order to advance the emerging field of LD as applied to (Buchanan, 2011) of all aspects of our education research. lives, through the increased importance that is placed on technology- This classification differentiates between LD as a concept (LD mediated (inter)action, is, so it could Type 1), LD as a process (LD Type 2), and LD as a product be expected, also greatly affecting (LD Type 3). The usefulness of the three types is illustrated by a all levels of education. However, case example of a virtual history fieldtrip module constructed in a recent study found that many LAMS as Type 2 LD. This case shows the workflow from LD Type Australian and Canadian secondary 1 to LD Type 2, followed by LD Type 3 research and development and primary History classrooms still data. History as a learning area was chosen in this paper for its operate in traditional ways, showing ability to illustrate LD concepts and the interrelationship of LD the same war movies to various year types. groups, using outdated textbooks and The case serves to illustrate the foundations, scope and ambitions taking children to the local museum of this learning design project, which was underpinned by an (Clarke 2008). As one student in educational psychology framework and firmly linked to the goals Clarke’s (2008) study observed: “The of the new Australian curriculum. The purpose of LD as process videos are shocking and some of the is to inform other teachers of the affordance of LD, providing textbooks, too, are like from 1988, contextualised data and to invite critique of particular TEL and that’s how old we are’ (p. 7). This practices. research finding echoes others and is illustrative of two problems in teacher and school education in Australia and elsewhere: (a) the persistent disconnect between students’ ‘life world’ and classroom experiences, and (b) the ineffectiveness of ‘ad-hock’ and ‘add-on Tags professional development solutions’ to learning design, LAMS, Australian the traditional teacher-centric, whole- curriculum, history teaching class pedagogical strategies that have been successfully applied over the last few decades in schools and teacher education in Australia. Languages cz da de bg et el es fr it lv lt hu nl pl pt ro sk sl fi sv eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 9 eLearningPapersIn-depth The teaching and learning of effective & Littlejohn, 2009). There is still in the educational psychology literature technology-enhanced and/or mediated reluctance in the education community referred to as ‘technological pedagogical learning design that is student-centric to embrace TEL as possibly providing content knowledge (TPCK) (Juang, Liu, and highly personalised and teachers’ more effective learning opportunities & Chan, 2008). Despite the variety of general understanding of the value- than traditional, whole-class face- terms used, the phrase ‘learning design’ added nature of new developments to-face teaching, because it is highly seems to gain prominence in Australia in pedagogy is urgently needed (see interactive, flexible, personalised and and the United Kingdom. Nevertheless, Dobozy, forthcoming). The ‘digital relevant to today’s students (Conole, the increased use of the term ‘learning literacies’ component of the curriculum Brasher, Cross, et al. 2008; Ertmer, 2005). design’, without a specific definition will need to be introduced to teacher of its meaning, makes it problematic education students, not only in an to further this emerging field of study. isolated ICT workshop or spcialised Learning Design 101 For example, in their recent Open professional development course, but This paper utilises History teaching Education Resource impact study, Liz rather will need reinforcement and and learning in the new Australian Masterman and Joanne Wild (2011) modeling through the embedding of curriculum as a learning area case used the term ‘learning design’ close TEL as part of their ‘normal’ learning example. Nevertheless, what is under to thirty times, mixing and matching experience and situated in context. review here is not so much the learning it with other common educational The inclusion of technology-enhanced content, but rather the pedagogical terms to construct phrases such as curriculum design and the expansion approaches taken that support the ‘learning design tools’, ‘learning design of traditional modes of learning and learning of the required content. environments’, ‘open learning designs’, teaching have to be documented in In the case of pre-service teachers’ and even refer to ‘the learning design a way that is accessible to teachers, learning about History and historical approach’ without defining the concept. providing a nexus between theory literacy, the content of the compulsory Conducting research into Learning and applied practice. This will allow social studies units inevitably includes Design demands an understanding of pre-service and in-service teachers to pedagogical content knowledge (Fisher, the concept and the development of become cognisant of the range of new Higgings & Loveless, 2006). In the shared understanding among researchers pedagogical strategies and enable them recent educational literature, this area and participants. The lack of conceptual to develop an informed view about of study, which increasingly involves clarity leads to confusion as Berggren the effectiveness (or otherwise) of technology to enhance learning, is and colleagues (2005) powerfully current teaching and learning practices. referred to as ‘learning design’ (Dalziel, illustrate: Increasingly the educational literature 2009); ‘instructional design’ (Chu & is critical of formal education’s ability Kennedy, 2011); ‘curriculum design’ The initial immersion into Learning to provide learners with opportunities (Ferrell, 2011); ‘educational design’ Design gave us an experience of that enable them to develop knowledge (Goodyear & Ellis, 201), ‘design for confusion over terms,concepts and and skills needed in a globalised and learning’ (Beetham & Sharpe, 2007), tools. Our group constantly mixed networked world (Beetham, McGill ‘design-based learning’(Wijen, 2000) or discussions amongst conceptual points, eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 10 eLearningPapersIn-depth codified specifications and multiple more insight into the learning design (see Dobozy, Campbell, & Cameron, tools which are in various stages of construct. 2011); LD makes the teaching and development. learning process explicit to teachers Echoing Cameron’s (2010) views that and learners, therewith contributing to Teachers will need to grasp these the emerging field of LD holds great teacher and/or learner accountability differences before a meaningful promises, it is contended that the and reflection. The potential for quality discussion can take place. (p. 4) consistent structure for experimenting, improvement of learning and/or documenting, reflecting and sharing teaching is possible precisely because it The following table is taking Cameron’s teaching and learning strategies allows is a cycle of innovation, dissemination (2010) classification work as a starting for the development of generic models translation and transformation, which point. Synthesising and adapting her as templates to be used in a variety can be conceptualised as a new, conceptualisation of learning design of contexts and with diverse students. community-based, ecological paradigm (LD), the purpose here is to make Following specific design norms, of teacher learning (Berggren, Burgos, meaning of this elusive concept and underpinned by social constructivist Fontana et. al., 2005). The underpinning contribute another tentative construct and/or connectivist learning theories notion of LD, as expressed in Table1, that can be advanced further as we gain Type Description Goal LD – Type 1: LD as a concept, underpinned by social A documentation of the establishment, LD as a concept constructivist/connectivist learning theory, is benchmarking and testing of and adherence to a standardised (re)presentation of technology- design-based principles and practices with the enhanced learning sequences and prescribed aim of providing a theoretical foundation to assure design-based procedures that are content consistency and contribute to the testability of the independent. effectiveness of this new theoretical construct. LD – Type 2: LD as a process is an illustration of the Providing a documentation of process in a particular LD as a process interpretation of the generic LD principles and an context, with the aim of informing other teachers of attempt of the implementation of LD into practice the affordance of LD (benefits, obstacles and risks) by outlining learning intent, planning and enacting through a detailed explanation of experiences of of a particular learning sequence in context, which various stakeholders. includes subject-specific content. LD – Type 3: LD as a product is a documentation of teacher and Providing a documentation of process with the aim LD as a product student roles and resources needed (similar to to construct a model, template or pre-engineered documenting and sharing paper lesson plans) in the learning construct to share with other teachers to be enactment of a particular LD sequence. adopted, adapted and enhanced. Table 1: Typologies of Learning Design eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 11 eLearningPapersIn-depth Work flow LD concept LD processes in context LD model or template Figure 1: Conceptual structure of LD type integration is that learning design can be classified LD (Type 1) is a conceptual construct way these online learning systems are according to type (Type 1: LD as making explicit epistemological and conceptualised and used by lecturing concept; Type 2: LD as process, and Type technological integration attempts by staff and students. Whereas LMS are 3: LD as product). It is argued here the designer of a particular learning used mainly as resource repositories and that unless there is greater clarity about sequence or series of learning for management purposes, LAMS seems the LD classification, the advancement sequences. The design process to have a pedagogical focus (see also of learning design knowledge may be is generally informed by social Dalziel, 2005). inhibited. constructivist and/or connectivist learning theories and aims to share How these various types of LD the LD theory/praxis nexus in an Traditional history teaching seamlessly integrate is illustrated in attempt to open the LD sequence/s and the new Australian Figure 1 up for adaption, adoption and/or curriculum enhancement. LD as a process is an illustration of the History as a learning area has gained learning intent, planning and enacting Based on this conceptualisation of LD prominence in the new Australian of a particular learning sequence in – Type 1, the Type 2 LD was built as an curriculum, which is currently being context, which includes subject-specific online module constructed in LAMS developed. Although it is not the content. What the above discussion and seamlessly embedded through a first time a national curriculum is alerts to and Figure 1 illustrates is that it plug-in in the Blackboard LMS. It was on the agenda, it is the first time it is imperative to make explicit the way designed to introduce undergraduate is being actualised. The reason given LD is conceptualised (Type 1), prior to and/or graduate diploma teacher by the current Federal Government engaging with LD as a process (Type 2), education students enrolled in the concerning the need for a national applying LD – Type 1 principles. Hence, compulsory Society and Environment curriculum, which is “one of the in what follows, I offer an alternative, units (SSE2105/SSE4215) to the first in the world to be delivered more precise description of LD to principles and practices of virtual online”, is “to ensure Australians are the one outlined in Table 1, prior to history teaching, through the illustration armed with the knowledge and skills providing an example of LD as a process of the nature and purpose of virtual to meet the demands of the 21st (Type 2 LD), illustrating the learning History fieldtrips. LAMS is an ideal tool Century” (Australian Labor, 2011). The intent, planning and enacting of one for the actualisation of LD, described inclusion of History in the first phase learning design sequence in LAMS. by Dalziel (2005) as a ‘learning design of the development of the Australian The definition of LD (Type 1) offered system’ (p. 1), which is remarkably Curriculum is based on the realisation below is somewhat different from the different from conventional LMS, such that today’s young are generally adopted work of Cameron (2010) and as Blackboard, Moodle or Desire2Learn disinterested in and ill-informed about is reflecting my current understanding (Dobozy, Reynolds, & Schonwetter, Australia’s system of government, its of LD (Type 1) in an attempt to provide 2011). The major difference described current role in a globalised world and a system of classification: by Dobozy et. al. (2011) is in the its recent history. An example of the eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 12 eLearningPapersIn-depth lack of historical literacy is provided students can be attributed to learning the curriculum material. History in a report prepared by the Ministerial design issues. Teachers note that there education includes the goal to commit Council on Education, Employment, are often insufficient resources available students, at all levels of education, to Training and Youth Affairs (2006), and students generally find the subject become active and informed citizens, which explains that the vast majority area ‘boring’: able and willing to express their own of Year 10 students (77%) in a national views and to be creative in the pursuit Civics and Citizenship proficiency Students are sick of repeating topics and of knowledge. Hence, it is important assessment did not know that the boring material; they want engaging to engage students of History with Australia Day celebrations are attributed teachers who love what they do and questions of values, beliefs and to the arrival of the first fleet of 11 can bring imagination to their lessons. attitudes that relate to the teaching ships from the British motherland in For their part, teachers and curriculum and learning of historical facts and 1788. A more recent study conducted officials also want the subject to come concepts. Therewith students develop by Clarke (2008) into the ways alive in the classroom and to be as their historical literacy as outlined by students and teachers think about relevant and interesting as they feel it the Australian Curriculum Assessment Australia’s history found that there is an can and should be. (Clarke, 2008, p. 11) and Reporting Agency (ACARA) acknowledgement of the importance of in the new Australian curriculum Given Clarke’s findings, which support the learning area, but the disconnection (ACARA, 2011), rather than simply the evidence provided by MEETYA of students with History as a subject learning to remember disjointed facts. (2006) concerning students’ lack matter is attributed to the way it is This holistic conception of History of interest in and understanding of taught. Clarke (2008) observes: teaching includes the development History, it was seen as imperative that of affective processes and cognitive While … students overwhelmingly teacher education needed to take some information processing (O’Donnell, acknowledge the importance of learning responsibility and review its history Dobozy, Bartlett et. al., forthcoming). about the national history in school, teaching curriculum. As a result, The virtual history fieldtrip module many of them criticise the subject for novel pedagogical approaches were that was constructed in LAMS and is being boring and repetitive. …[T] introduced in the compulsory unit used here as a case example, illustrates eachers frequently felt disappointed they Society & Environment (SSE2105/ the balancing of different learning couldn’t do more for the classes. And SSE4215) at our university. The design goals as set out by ACARA (2011). It is even in those schools with better access of the curriculum was based on underpinned by a social constructivist to resources there remains the question inquiry-based and interactive learning and/or connectivist epistemology. The of how teachers use the material principles and informed by latest aim of the LAMS learning module available to them. (p. 5) research (Hill & Fetherston, 2010). was to provide experiential learning The learning design had to make opportunities for teacher education Clarke’s (2008) research found that the the learning area relevant to teacher students and introduce them to a new main reason of frustration with the education students and provide ways way of history learning and teaching learning area reported by teachers and to engage them with each other and that is cost-effective, interactive and eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 13 eLearningPapersIn-depth responds to school students’ interest in and knowledge of Web 2.0 applications (Chu, & Kennedy, 2011). LD – Type 2 case example: The virtual history module in LAMS The virtual history module commenced with a general introduction about online history teaching, alerting to the extensive resources and various mediascapes developed recently by Australian and international educational authorities (see Figure 2 for an author’s view of the complete module). One of the many attractive features of LAMS, as a learning design platform, is the possibility of seamless integration of external resources into the learning Figure 2: Author’s view of virtual History learning module activity, making access easy and convenient for learners (see Figure 3). Students can choose to explore as many sense of agency in students. The new range of materialities of texts and of the outside resources provided as mode of communication, referred who then highlight the materiality; they see practicable or useful for their to by Anne Wysocki (2004) as ‘new such composers design texts that help learning, or simply engage with the set media texts’, provides a platform for readers/consumers/viewers stay alert activity. various forms of engagement with the to how any text-like its composers and multitude of resources that are ‘pulled readers- doesn’t function independently The deliberate composition of into’ the particular learning activity. of how it is made and in what contexts. multimedia texts, taking advantage of Wysocki (2004) explained the value of Such composers design texts that make the possibility of multimodality (Kress, this form of LD as follows: as overtly visible as possible the values 2010) of technology-enhanced learning they embody. (p. 15) design, incorporating YouTube videos, I think we should call ‘new media digital archive documents, webpages, texts’ those that have been made by The composition described here is blog entries etc, aims to encourage a composers who are aware of the the learning design process (Type 2), eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 14 eLearningPapersIn-depth Figure 3 Seamless integration of external resources into LAMS activities which, naturally, is underpinned by LD and secondary school excursions and context. Hence, it will continue to principles (Type 1) and the definition fieldtrip memories (see Figure 4). outline the design steps of this learning of LD provided above. It offers module in some detail. The personal opportunities for personal exchange The particular design sparked interest experience sharing activity is followed in conjunction with the acquisition and encouraged students to participate by the dissemination of technical and of new information provided through actively in the discussions, sharing pedagogical information concerning multiple media resources and activities. personal experiences. Following the the organisation of History Excursions The deliberate design provides an goal of LD – Type 2, this section of the (see Figure 5). avenue for student agency and freedom paper is concerned with documenting (see Dobozy, 1999). the design process in a particular Following on from the general introduction to the module, the learning sequence commenced with a statement about the common occurrence of fieldtrips in social studies classes and their relevance in the new Australian curriculum. It made reference to and built on students’ previous curriculum topics in educational psychology units Figure 4 concerning ‘cooperative learning’, Interactive forum activity exploring personal experiences ‘student motivation’ and ‘personal values developments’. This introduction segment, which was linking to various current national policy documents and information from previous units was then followed by an interactive learning activity developed using the LAMS Forum tool. The task was purposely designed to ground the policy document review and past unit reference information by way of connecting them with personal experiences during students’ primary Figure 5 Fieldtrip preparation – linking personal experiences with pedagogical knowledge eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 15 eLearningPapersIn-depth As depicted in Figure 6, a case scenario was constructed that requires students’ input and deep engagement with the subject matter. The real-world case scenario was inviting learners to analyse their prior knowledge, and synthesise the theoretical and practical information to arrive at a conceptual framework that can be discussed and debated with peers. Following on from requesting students to provide their ideas and considerations to a number of questions, a list of possible locations for the History Figure 6 – parts (a) and (b) Scenario-based collaborative learning Excursion is provided. The activity then invited students to review possible excursion sites that do not include the typical local museum trips, but instead provide attractive alternatives, complete with links to websites and other multimedia resources. Students are required to explain their top three preferred history excursion places and calculating the financial cost and time investment for one of their choices. Completing the segment on the customary physical history fieldtrip, students were then introduced to the concept of virtual history fieldtrips and their organisations, again complete with external links and plenty of resources (see Figure 7). Only after exploring traditional physical fieldtrip preparations and reflecting on personal past experiences did the module progress to outline the nature and purpose of virtual history Figure 7 Experiential, problem-based learning example fieldtrips. Many practising and trainee eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 16 eLearningPapersIn-depth Figure 8 Collaborative reflection about pedagogical reality in primary classrooms teachers have limited knowledge The final discussion activity intended the LD classification, learning design and understanding of virtual history to draw learners’ attention to the vast research and development activities fieldtrips, their purpose, organisation time investments required of teachers may not advance at the rate possible and benefits for teachers and learners and financial costs associated with otherwise. History as a learning area (Brush, Saye, Kale, et. al., 2009). Hence, traditional History fieldtrips. This was chosen to illustrate LD concepts it was important to provide teacher LAMS module was designed to engage and the interrelationship of LD types. education students with sufficient teacher education students, many of The introduction of the nature and information and interaction possibilities whom were, similar to the school purpose of virtual history fieldtrips to to experience the preparation and students they will be teaching in the pre-service teachers as a particular case enactment of various forms of history not so distant future, not particularly example of LD – Type 2 illustrated the excursion. interested in or excited about pedagogical strength of LAMS as a LD History as a learning area. Providing system, enabling the documentation The virtual history fieldtrip activity more opportunity to (a) connect and critiquing of all types of LD. The (see Figure 7) was designed to be the personal experiences with theoretical virtual history fieldtrip case example highlight of the module, providing information (such as illustrated in this makes explicit the pedagogical a clear example and experience of a LD-Type 2 example), and (b) enlist decision-making of teachers and virtual history fieldtrip based around a Web 2.0 technologies in teaching and operationalisation of the decisions taken. problem to be solved in collaboration learning, for example, through virtual The LD – Type 2 is, as noted above, with peers. Teacher education students history fieldtrips, may help students gain illustrating LD process in a particular were able to experience the benefits interest in and connect with the new context, with the aim of informing of accessing multimedia resources that Australian curriculum. Although this other teachers of the affordance of have been carefully chosen and linked module did not form part of students’ LD and also to invite critique of in with the activity. Using LD – Type 1 assessment requirements of the unit, particular, contextualised learning and principles, the module was constructed it was encouraging to see the general teaching processes. Hence, it is a case in a way that permitted students to interest in and engagement with the illustration, not of a ‘perfect’ case, but spend as much or as little time with curriculum content provided. rather, in the sense of ‘perpetual beta’ the additional resource material of a ‘case in the state of becoming’. For provided, dipping into the movie this conceptualisation to be feasible, or watching the complete segment, Discussion it is vital that pedagogical, conceptual depending on interest and motivation. The underpinning notion of LD, and epistemological considerations Self-regulation and the mobilisation as exemplified in this paper, is that are documented and shared with the of intrinsic motivation are both vital learning design can be classified wider professional community. In this 21st century learning skills and are according to type (Type 1: LD as sense, the current paper outlined how increasingly demanded as key attributes concept; Type 2: LD as process, and the module was purposely designed of knowledge workers (see Beetham, Type 3: LD as product). It was argued to commence with learners’ personal McGill, & Littlejohn, 2009). that unless there is greater clarity about experiences as students, providing a eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 17 eLearningPapersIn-depth connection to students’ life world, – Type 1) in particular contexts and evidence-based practices. Slavin (2008), enabling them to link into the topic through model development for further who has a long history of criticising the and curriculum theory. This activity adaptation. It was further argued that lack of clarity and unity in educational was then linked with considerations by making the teaching and learning research and practice, explained that and preparation activities of teachers process explicit, the emerging field of “education today is at much the same which need to be observed for physical LD is potentially able to contribute pre-scientific point as medicine was fieldtrip activities, such as the need to substantially to teacher and/or learner a hundred years ago”. To advance describe learning goals, contacting the accountability, in an environment that LD as a field of applied education institution to be visited, booking the requires a departure from traditional research, it will need to mature and venue, education officer, parent helpers teacher-centric and content-driven agreement will need to be reached and transportation, writing parent low-level knowledge production upon some core shared values and letters, gaining consent from the school and testing of the past, in favour of explicitly stated foundational thinking administration and parents/guardians of more complex knowledge and skills that will underpin future empirical students, prepare a budget and organise development, vital for success in 21st work. To this end, a three-tiered LD the collection of funds and so on, prior century knowledge societies of the architecture was outlined, which was to focusing on the vital element of present and future. based on Cameron’s (2010) initial ideas preparing the children for the fieldtrip. and further developed. Moreover, LD – Type 2 (LD as process) was introduced LD and the introduction of virtual Conclusion as a case example to illustrate the way fieldtrips in LAMS provides teaches In an effort to change teaching cultures in which the three-tier model can be with a framework to enhance the to enable greater value to be placed utilised. The current conceptualisation engagement of students with history on teachers’ and students’ ‘literacies of and typologies of LD was intended to learning that can be adopted, adapted the digital’ (Beetham, et. al., 2009) in serve as a starting point for discussion or expanded. Enhancing the provision higher, further, teacher and/or school and debate. It is hope that future of TEL is not only a requirement of the education, educational researchers theoretical and empirical researcher will new Australian curriculum, but is also working in the field of learning design advance the model and therewith work potentially improving the quality of will need to work towards unity of towards greater clarity of LD principles history learning and teaching through conceptualisation and agree on a and practices in the future. the application of LD principles (LD tentative classification system to advance eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 18 eLearningPapers ReferencesIn-depth  Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (2011). The F-10 Curriculum – A position paper on the whole curriculum, achievement standards and support for students with disabilities. Retrieved from: http://www.acara.edu.au/verve/_resources/The+F-10+Australian+Curriculum+(post+July+MC).pdf  ustralian Labor (2011). The National Curriculum – Let’s move Australia forward. Retrieved from: A http://www.alp.org.au/agenda/education---training/national-curriculum/  Beetham, H., McGill, L., & Littlejohn, A. (2009). Thriving in the 21st Century: Learning literacies for a Digital Age (LLiDA). Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) UK, Final Report. Retrieved from: http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/projects/llidareportjune2009.pdf  Berggren, A., Burgos, D., Fontana, J., Hinkelman, D., Hung, V., Hursh, A., & Tielemans, G. (2005). Practical and pedagogical issues for teacher adoption of IMS Learning Design standards in Moodle LMS. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 02, Special Issue: Advances in Learning Design. Retrieved from: http://jime.open.ac.uk/2005/2  rush, T., Saye, J., Kale, U., Hur, J., Kohlmeier, J., Yerasimon, T., Guo, L., & Symonette, S. (2009). Evaluation of the B persistent issue in history laboratory for virtual field experiences (PIH-LVFE). Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 8(1), 1-22. Retrieved from: http://www.ncolr.org/jiol/issues/pdf/8.1.3.pdf  Buchanan, R. (2011). Paradox, promise and public pedagogy: Implications of the federal government’s digital education revolution. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 36(2), Article 6. Retrieved from: http://ro.ecu.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1524&context=ajte  Cameron, L. (2010). How learning design can illuminate teaching practice. The Future of Learning Design Conference. http://ro.uow.edu.au/fld/09/Program/3  S., & Kennedy, D. (2011). Using online collaborative tools for groups to co-construct knowledge. Online Information Chu, Review, 35(4), 581-597.  Clarke, A. (2008). A comparative study of history teaching in Australia and Canada. Final Report. Retrieved from: http://www.historyteacher.org.au/files/200804_HistoryTeachingReport.pdf  Conole, C., Brasher, A., Cross, S., Weller, M., Clark, P & Culver, J. (2008). Visualising learning design to foster and ., support good practice and creativity. Educational Media International, 1469-5790, 45(3), 177-194.  Dalziel, J. (2009). Prospects for Learning Design research and LAMS. Teaching English with Technology, Special edition on LAMS and Learning Design, 9(2). Retrieved from http://www.tewtjournal.org/VOL 9/ISSUE 2/Foreword.pdf  Dalziel, J. (2005). From reusable e-learning content to reusable learning designs: Lessons from LAMS. Retrieved May 7, 2005 from http://www.lamsfoundation.org/CD0506/html/resource/whitepapers/Dalziel.LAMS.doc  Dobozy, E. (forthcoming). Resisting student consumers and assisting student producers. In: Claus Nygaard, Clive Holtham & Nigel Courtney (eds.). Beyond Transmission: Innovations in University Teaching. Copenhagen, Denmark: Copenhagen Business School Press, pp. xxx  Dobozy, E. (1999). Constructivist and Montessorian perspectives on student autonomy and freedom. Proceedings of the 14th Annual Forum of the Western Australian Institute for Educational Research (WAIER). Fremantle, WA: Notre Dame University, 27-28 August. Retrieved from: http://www.waier.org.au/forums/1999/dobozy.html  Dobozy, E., Reynolds, P & Schonwetter, D. (2011). Metaphoric reasoning and the tri-nation classification of eTeaching ., and eLearning platforms. Refereed proceedings of the 23rd World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunication. Lisbon, Portugal: AACE. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 19 eLearningPapers  Dobozy, E., Campbell, C., & Cameron, L. (2011). ‘Connectivism’: Who is the new kid on the learning theory block? ECULTURE 2011. Retrieved from:In-depth http://ro.ecu.edu.au/eculture/2011/  Ertmer, P (2005). Teacher pedagogical beliefs: The final frontier in our quest for technology integration? Educational . Technology Research and Development, 53(4), 25–39.  Ferrell, G. (2011). Transforming curriculum design – transforming institutions. Briefing paper. Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC). Retrieved from: http://www.jisc.ac.uk/publications/briefingpapers/2011/bpcurriculumdesign.aspx  Fisher, T., Higgins, C. & Loveless, A. (2006). Teachers learning with digital technologies: A review of research and projects. FutureLab Series Report 14, FutureLab press. Retrieved from http://archive.futurelab.org.uk/resources/documents/lit_reviews/Teachers_Review.pdf  Goodyear, P & Ellis, R. (2010). Expanding conceptions of study, context and educational design. In: R. Sharpe, H. ., Beetham, & S. de Freitas (eds.). Rethinking learning for the digital age: how learners shape their own experiences. New York, NY: Routledge, pp. 100-113.  S., & Fetherston, T. (2010). Research-informed teaching at ECU: A discussion paper. Perth, WA: Edith Cowan University. Hill,  Juang, Y., Liu, T., & Chan, T. (2008). Computer-supported teacher development of pedagogical content knowledge through developing school-based curriculum. Educational Technology & Society, 11(2), 149-170.  Kress, G. (2010). Multimodality: A social semiotic approach to contemporary communication. London, UK: Routledge.  Masterman, L. & Wild, J. (2011). OER Impact Study: Research Report. JISC Open Educational Resources programme. Retrieved from: http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/programmes/elearning/oer/JISCOERImpactStudyResearchReportv1-0.pdf  Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs. (2006). Civics and citizenship Years 6 and 10 report 2004. Melbourne, VIC: Curriculum Corporation.  O’Donnell, A., Dobozy, E., Bryer, F Bartlett, B., Reeve, J., & Smith, J. (2012, in press). Educational psychology. Milton, ., QLD: John Wiley & Sons, Australia.  Slavin, R. E. (2008). Evidence-based Reform in Education: what will it take?, European Educational Research Journal, 7(1), 124-128. http://dx.doi.org/10.2304/eerj.2008.7.1.124 ijen, W. (2000). Towards design-based learning. OGO brochure, No 2. Educational Service Centre. Eindhoven, NL: W Technische Universiteit. Retrieved from: http://w3.tue.nl/fileadmin/stu/stu_oo/doc/OGO_brochure_1_EN.pdf Wysocki, A. (2004). Opening new media to writing: Openings and justifications. In: A. Wysocki, J. Johnson-Eilola, C. Selfe, & G. Sirc (eds.). Writing new media: Theory and applications for expanding the teaching of compositions (pp. 1-41). Utah, UT: Utah State Press. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 20 eLearningPapers Using patterns to designIn-depth technology-enhanced learning scenarios [ ] Authors Félix Buendía-García [ +] José Vte. Benlloch-Dualde Universitat Politècnica de Valencia [ +] Introduction Research on designing for learning is a field that has concentrated Summary The research on designing for learning a lot of efforts in the context of technology-enhanced settings. is a field that has concentrated a lot This fact has demonstrated the need to represent learning of efforts, particularly, in a context of scenarios using a more formal perspective. ongoing innovations in technology- This paper reviews some representation mechanisms which enable enhanced settings. Such fact has the systematic design of learning issues in technological settings, pushed the need to represent learning and proposes an approach that applies pattern notations in an design issues in a more formal view effort to better understand and prepare for different learning in order to face this changing context. context. The current work describes some representation mechanisms which A case study is also described to show the application of these enable the design of different learning scenarios in a specific technology-enhanced setting for teaching issues in a systematic way and take into computing curricula. This application is based on the use of account the restrictions imposed by digital ink technologies and demonstrates how patterns may be specific technological environments and able to mediate between pedagogical and technical issues. products. The interest to formalize or interpret different learning issues in a more methodical way comes from disciplines such as the Instructional Design (ID) or Instructional Systems Design (ISD) that provide systematic strategies and techniques in the design of teaching processes. Designing instruction has been addressed in technology-based settings (Rogers, 2002) and ID models have been used to produce tools which automate their application (Kasowitz, 2002). However, some Tags limitations have been detected when automating instructional design because technology-enhanced setting, learning scenario, the complexity of learning scenarios design patterns, digital-ink technologies (Spector & Ohrazda, 2003), especially, in such technical settings. In a parallel way, Learning Design (LD) deals with Languages cz da de bg et el es fr it lv lt hu nl pl pt ro sk sl fi sv eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 21 eLearningPapersIn-depth the need to guide and support teachers practitioners to make informed some conclusions and further works are in the preparation of effective learning decisions and choices to undertake remarked. scenarios and specific tools called specific teaching and learning activities” “pedagogical planners” have been (Conole, 2008). Moreover, these developed to assist teachers in this goal mechanisms should help to mediate Review of learning design (Masterman, 2008). Besides, LD adds or connect pedagogical questions with notations an interesting feature that concerns the technological-based solutions. There are multiple kinds of mechanisms representation of teaching and learning and notations which have been issues, for example, to document them This work proposes the use of design proposed to design different issues in in some visual format (Agostinho, patterns as “mediating artifacts” to pedagogical or instructional topics. This 2006). This feature allows instructors to represent technology-based learning review does not intend to cover all share and reuse good learning practices scenarios. Patterns are a well-known the potential mechanisms to represent but it also helps them to model and notation to design different kinds of or model these issues but it tries to organize their tasks in a systematic way. information items whose application is highlight those which have contributed The representation of teaching and widely spread in Software Engineering to mediate between pedagogical and learning issues is not only related to LD disciplines. Patterns have been also technological aspects. For instance, areas and there are multiple initiatives used in other disciplines, including Nervig (1990) explored some of in the last years which have contributed pedagogical and e-learning areas. these mechanisms in the ID context to the modeling and documentation Therefore, they seem a right mechanism and initiatives such as IDT (Merrill, of these learning information items. to represent learning design issues in 1996) or MISA (Paquette et al, 2001) Computer science and software specific technology-enhanced settings proposed elements and languages for engineering disciplines have promoted enabling the connection between both specifying instructional applications. different notations and mechanisms sides. Nevertheless, the formal specification of in this context. Hypermedia models, these applications and their components The remainder of the work is structured ontology proposals, modeling languages, was usually disregarded (Wiest&Zell, as follows. The next section provides standard specifications or conceptual 2001). a general overview about several maps are some examples which are mechanisms and notations which have reviewed in the next section. These Educational hypermedia was one of the been formulated to represent different mechanisms provide several ways to first mechanisms used to formalize the LD issues. The third section presents an represent learning issues in text or design and development of instructional approach to use patterns for designing graphic format, using natural language applications in a systematic and learning in technology-enhanced or through a restricted vocabulary and widespread way. They were based on settings. The fourth section describes differing in their formalization level or specific software engineering models the application of the introduced abstraction degree. Anyway, the crucial such OOHDM (Schwabe & Rossi, approach in a specific context based aspect is considering such mechanisms 1995) or AHAM (De Bra et al, 1999) on digital ink technologies. Finally, as “mediating artifacts which help to produce educational products using eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 22 eLearningPapersIn-depth UML diagrams (Papasalouros & Retalis, some references about using ontology “translate” their pedagogical view into 2002) or other kind of graphical notations in learning design (Knight this kind of specification. However, it notations (Diaz et al, 2001). Buendía et al, 2005), (Koper, 2006) but, in is important to recognize the relevance & Díaz (2003) proposed a hypermedia general, most of their application have of IMS-LD to build and share learning framework to manage educational been focused on modeling domain designs from the XML notation used contents conjugating instructional and concepts or developing specific to express such specification and there technical issues. Hypermedia models products such as ITS (Intelligent Tutor are multiple tools and platforms which and tools were adequate for designing Systems). Nevertheless, the research on support their processing. Moreover, specific educational applications. ontology notations has derived towards UML diagrams have been provided However, the fact they were based on other interesting fields such as map to represent these learning design graphical notations made them difficult specifications or educational modeling specifications using a graphical display. to understand by non-computer literate languages as powerful representation This notation was complemented users such as teachers or instructors. mechanisms in the LD context. with text narrative descriptions that contributed to a better understanding Another type of mechanism (or Modeling languages have been of the IMS-LD learning scenarios. artifact), traditionally applied to proposed in different areas and represent pedagogical and instructional education was not an exception. A more tailored way to represent LD issues, is the ontology which can Education modeling languages (also issues in specific learning scenarios can be defined as “a specification of a known as EMLs) were analyzed in consist in using map-based or any kind conceptualization” (Gruber, 1992). the context of the “Workshop on of simple graph notations. For example, Murray (1996) defined special Learning Technologies” project (CEN/ concepts maps can be used to describe ontologies for representing pedagogical ISSS, 2002) as a review of the multiple the ‘best fit’ strategy for designing an knowledge and ontological modeling notations proposed to facilitate the e-learning course (Adorni et al, 2009) has been used for designing educational description of pedagogic aspects under the particular lecturer view. systems (Mizoguchi et al., 1997). involved in educational-learning Perhaps, that situation hampers the Therefore, constructing ontologies in processes (Koper, 2001). The different sharing of learning designs produced by educational design is a well-known EML proposals were considered different lectures but in a further step, area with the advantage that explicit in order to produce a standard this collection of map-based designs relationships between learning specification called IMS-LD (IMS, can be processed in order to get a concepts help to infer or discover new 2003) addressed to “support a wide common design template. Moreover, knowledge from previous. For example, range of pedagogies in online learning”. concept mapping can also be seen as from the Bloom’s objective taxonomy This specification provides a generic a first step in ontology-building, and certain terms can be extracted to be neutral language that can be adapted meanwhile, be used flexibly to represent linked with other learning concepts to many different pedagogies but that specific learning designs adapted to such as instructional needs or a task feature is, perhaps, its main weakness technology-enhanced settings (Buendia, vocabulary (Conole, 2008). There are because it is not trivial for instructors to 2011). Mind-maps provide similar eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 23 eLearningPapers Name Pattern identifierIn-depth Context Description of the learning scenario in which the selected pattern is applied Problem Overview about the learning or instructional requirements to be faced Discussion Explanation to motivate the addressed problem and its justification Solution Description of the way to apply technologies to solve the addressed problem Diagram Sketch to represent the solution in a graphical display including descriptive tags Relationships Links to other patterns which could be useful in the learning scenario design Keywords Collection of terms which reference specific aspects of the learning scenario Table 1: Pattern language for learning design. representation facilities and mapping means of design patterns. The use approach proposed in this work is tools can be deployed to generate LD of patterns can be considered as a based on promoting a “guide rather templates from different case studies structured method of describing good than prescribe” philosophy to apply (Conole & Weller, 2008). A further step design practices in different fields of patterns, focused on small-scale learning is based on the use of topic maps as an expertise. Originally, design patterns experiences and bounded to specific ISO standard whose aim is describing were introduced by Alexander et al technology settings. Next subsections knowledge structures with XML (1977) in architecture disciplines as describe such approach to use design encoding schemes that facilitate their “a careful description of a perennial patterns which is structured into processing. Topic maps have been applied solution to a recurring problem within two main phases: (i) the Preparation in LD contexts (Adorni et al, 2008) a building context”. This pattern notion of the target patterns and (ii) their and there are specific environments has been adopted in other disciplines Deployment in a specific context. for authoring educational topic maps such as Software Engineering or (Dicheva & Dichev, 2006). Interaction designs. Furthermore, pedagogical patterns are recognized Preparation In summary, there have been reviewed as efficient mechanisms to document In a first approach phase, a pattern several mechanisms to represent LD good practices in teaching (PPP, 2005), language has to be chosen. Table 1 issues. They range from highly structured including visual flow representations shows a summary of the language and formal notations like hypermedia (Hernandez et al, 2007) and there proposed to define patterns that models, ontology notations or topic are design patterns which have been fit the learning design philosophy maps to semiformal mechanisms such as proposed in e-learning contexts “as aforementioned. This pattern language educational languages, concept or mind conceptual tools to support educational is mostly based in the original maps. Next section describes design design” (Goodyear, 2005). Rohse, S., Alexandrian definition which is patterns as an alternative representation & Anderson, T. (2006) also justify the mainly narrative with some additional tool which combines the flexibility of use of design patterns recognizing attributes and special features: i) the narrative textual-based representation that learning is a complex process, diagrammatic part is complemented techniques, the visualization capability particularly, when digital technologies with tags that specify particular of sketches or similar graphical displays in continuous change become a key concepts with a potential instructional and the ability to incorporate controlled component in this process. purpose and ii) an extra field called vocabularies or ontology terms into their Keywords that gathers some of the definition. Therefore, patterns seem a powerful previous tags and other terms which mechanism to allow instructors and characterize the learning scenario practitioners designing different through the proposed pattern. Learning design approach learning issues related to items such based on patterns as theoretical contents or laboratory The second step consists in classifying The current work introduces an activities in a certain technology- patterns in several categories in order approach to represent LD issues by based educational context. The to facilitate their further detection, eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 24 eLearningPapersIn-depth definition and processing. Figure 1 shows a map example that displays some basic concepts that can be part of a learning scenario in which a given pattern could be applied such as content resources or learning activities. These map concepts could be extracted from an educational ontology in order to improve their connection with pattern information items. The concepts represented in Figure 1 can be distributed in four main groups: contents, activities, interaction and Figure 1: Instructional concept map in a learning scenario sample. assessment. From this distribution, an initial pattern classification can be set up to organize them into the next • Interaction enablers: contain patterns straightforward way. The current work categories: to support actions, maybe, not directly is focused on producing those potential addressed to teach about a certain topic patterns which can be useful in a •  ontent managers: composed by C or acquire specific competencies. Such specific technology-based educational patterns that help practitioners to actions should encourage the student setting (Buendía & Cano, 2006). There elaborate the didactic materials or participation or enable their interaction are some methods to detect or induce resources by enriching the original with other students. these learning patterns (Brouns et al, contents with multimedia formats 2005) but the selected approach is based or adding annotations or signals to • Assessment producers: associated to on the observation of learning scenarios provide instructional hints that assist patterns that allow teachers to elaborate in close disciplines and the detection their teaching. different kind of mechanisms to assess of successful practices when certain the student performance or their technologies are involved. • Activity facilitators: include patterns behavior (e.g. multimodal assessment or which assist the instructor in the formative vs. summative evaluation). preparation of learning tasks based on “problem solving” techniques, or Deployment To finish the pattern preparation, allow teachers to design seminars that The pattern deployment is based on these can be produced or defined contribute to discuss specific topics and a well-known instructional design considering different possibilities. In improve their learning. method called ADDIE (Molenda, some cases, there is available a catalog of 2003) which stands for Analysis, patterns according to different criteria Design, Development, Implementation (PPP, 2005) which can be applied in a eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 25 eLearningPapers Goal category DescriptionIn-depth Remembering To identify and recognize the computer entities Understanding To interpret or explain a data structure algorithm Applying To apply a procedure to implement a logical circuit Analyzing To decompose or organize the computer components Evaluating To test or check the phases in an data structure management Creating To design or produce a new logical circuit Keywords Collection of terms which reference specific aspects of the learning scenario Table 2: Potential learning requirements. and Evaluation. The Analysis phase Discussion or the Keywords attributes. application has been successful. In this should gather those requirements This process is usually manual but it case, instructional experts could evaluate relevant to the target learning could be supported by a wizard tool this application by checking the scenarios such as instructional goals or assisted by experts in the pattern matching between pattern sketches and or learning objectives. Table 2 shows management. teacher proposed solutions. The next a list of requirements which could be section describes an application case to assigned in the context of a revision An advantage provided by design elucidate this deployment process. of the Bloom’s taxonomy (Anderson& patterns is they are usually represented Krathwohl, 2001) for Computing by sketches or diagrams easy to curricula. These examples of learning interpret by teachers who are non- Approach application requirements contain actions that computer literate. The pattern narrative The aforementioned approach has can be mapped to the components structure also contributes to facilitate its been applied in a specific learning of a learning scenario such as the systematic application and the inclusion context based on the use of digital-ink one represented in Figure 1. For of tags in the graphical display permits technologies. Next subsections describe instance, actions such “recognize the a better understanding of the Solution the context that enabled the proposed computer entities” or “implements a attribute description. The proposed approach and the preparation and logical circuit” can be linked to display approach also encourages explaining deployment of digital-ink patterns in educational contents or perform how specific technologies are applied this context. academic activities in a learning in the context of the target pattern scenario context. and detailed instructions either text or graphic-based should be incorporated Context The matching process between in the Solution description. Then, such Patterns have been applied in a learning requirements and pattern technological details could give support Higher Education context at the UPV information is the critical stage to select to the Development of the required (Universitat Politècnica de València). In the right design pattern that should LD component to elaborate certain particular, they were essayed in several solve the stated need or problem and learning resources from recommended courses of undergraduate Computing using the pattern categories defined multimedia formats or design activities degrees, in an attempt to adapt these in the Preparation phase. In this exploiting the pattern potential. In courses according to the Bologna point, ontology notations can help to a similar way, the Implementation Declaration guidelines. Some studies determine the terms or concepts to phase has to address the particular have been carried out over the last six be searched in the pattern catalogue. conditions provided by the available academic years that reveal instructional The information contained in the learning platforms to accommodate problems such as: low participation pattern Problem attribute should also those patterns which are implemented and student interaction, pupils’ lack facilitate this matching process and in such platforms. Eventually, the of motivation, low class attendance other information items can be taken Evaluation step should check the rates, high course drop-out rates and into account such as the Context, the pattern application in order to test if its eventually, poor students’ performance. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 26 eLearningPapersIn-depth To deal with these problems, the UPV implemented in another pilot group Preparation of digital-ink raised several educational innovation of a core second-year course called projects and one of them was granted Data Structure and Algorithms that patterns by Hewlett Packard in the framework in contrast with the first experience, The experiences aforementioned of the HP Technology for Teaching could be considered a Computer enabled to generate a catalogue Grant Initiative, Transforming Teaching Science subject rather different from of patterns based on digital-ink and Learning through Technology the Computer Engineering course technologies (see Appendix A with (HP, 2008). The central idea of this focused in the first experience. some pattern samples classified by project was to exploit the potential of Nevertheless, the team in charge of categories). The detection of good digital ink technologies to deploy a the HP project realized that the design practices and satisfactory outcomes was more interactive teaching and learning of the learning experiences based on crucial to start such pattern generation environment based on the use of Tablet digital ink technologies in both cases but another factor can be considered PCs and similar devices. were very close and similar outcomes essential in this process. This factor was were obtained (Benlloch et al, 2010). the need to conceptualize the potential Tablet PCs can be considered as During the course 2010-2011, new of digital-ink technologies. traditional laptops including an LCD experiences were implemented in screen on which the user can write Figure 2 shows a concept map that different Computing disciplines and using a special pen. These devices rely displays some of the basic notions and analogous good practices were detected on digital ink technology, where a actions related with the instructional in their implementation. digitizer can capture the movement of the pen and thus, allowing users to put data onto the screen in a natural way. Digital inking enhances the chances for active learning activities allowing actions such as handwriting, highlighting, marking, drawing, sketching or doodling. The project granted by HP equipped a special classroom with twenty Tablet PCs where several learning experiences were developed since the year 2009. The first experience was applied during the spring 2009 semester to a pilot group of Computer Technology, a core first- year Computing Engineering course. In the next semester, a new case was Figure 2: Concept map of digital-ink technologies. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 27 eLearningPapers Name Half-bakedIn-depth Context Half-baked Problem Teaching in a traditional classroom with electronic slides to display contents Discussion Classroom sessions are boring and difficult to follow due to overloaded slides Solution Slide-based teaching is a usual technique but these slides can evolve in a dynamic way allowing students to focus on the teachers discourse Diagram Instructor completes the prepared “half-baked” slide on the fly by means of instructional elements based on digital-ink technologies Relationships See Figure 3 Keywords Light and shade, Augmented reality Electronic slides; classroom contents; understanding goal; adding explanations; framing concepts; drawing diagrams Table 2: Potential learning requirements. use of “digital-ink” technologies. For instance, how “Handwritten inputs” can be used to introduce math special symbols or the ability to “Sketch” diagrams or “Highlight” information items. This conceptualization process was fundamental in the preparation of learning design patterns and it also contributed to select tags which characterize the Keywords attribute in the proposed pattern definition. Such process also enabled the connection   with the learning scenario components mapped in Figure 1 (Buendía, 2011). One sample of digital-ink pattern in the Content category is called “Half- Figure 3: Sketch of the “Half-baked” pattern. baked” and it describes the possibility to provide an initial version of a slide- based presentation whose main points Deployment of digital-ink can be considered an essential tool can be complemented with additional in the Analysis step for the proposed annotations or drawings during the patterns approach. These answers contributed lecture. After their preparation, such digital- to detect the potential digital-ink ink patterns were applied in the patterns that could be useful for a set of Table 3 shows a short description of context of Computing degree courses instructors who taught a wide range of the pattern attributes according to their to validate their use in real learning computing disciplines. Moreover, some previous definition that includes bold scenarios. Appendix B displays part of instructor’s answers were analyzed and terms remarking singular concepts. a questionnaire that was submitted to their interpretation leads to advise these Figure 3 displays the diagrammatic lecturers who wished to participate instructors against the use of digital-ink representation of the pattern which in these evaluation experiences in technologies in their teaching activities. contains red-labeled tags that refer order to gather their instructional In this analysis process, the matching instructional actions associated to the requirements. This questionnaire was between learning requirements and digital-ink technologies in the pattern based on a checklist format to ease the pattern possibilities was manually context. instructor’s answers and its outcomes performed. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 28 eLearningPapersIn-depth After this Analysis stage, selected instructors participated in several experiments on the proposed patterns in their courses. These experiments consisted in the elaboration of a real pattern sample implementation by each instructor in a specific learning scenario using the pattern sketch as a template guide. For instance, Figure 4a shows an example of pattern application in a Computer Technology subject. This example corresponds to a “Half-baked” pattern (see Table 3)   that fits with the “Understanding” goal category referenced in Table 2 and it demonstrated the teacher ability to instantiate such pattern by completing a) “Half-baked” implementation sample its presentation with handwritten annotations. Figure 4b shows a similar application in the case of a “Filling blanks” pattern within a Data Structure subject. In this example, the instructor who implemented the pattern instantiation confirmed the way to design an interactive learning task that allowed him to check a data structure operation. b) “Filling blanks” implementation sample Figure 4: Example of pattern deployment. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 29 eLearningPapersIn-depth Conclusions description and connect them with practitioner support. Moreover, it instructional issues. must be acknowledged that evaluation The current work has described experiences have been developed on an approach to use patterns in the This pattern-based approach has been isolated learning scenarios and other design of learning scenarios supported applied in an educational context experiments are needed to generalize by technology-enhanced settings. corresponding to Computing curricula the pattern application in learning The choice of design patterns was in order to validate such approach. In sequences and flows. performed after the review of different summary, a two-phase process has been mechanisms to represent learning performed i) to prepare a list of design Other further works include, on the issues in a formal or semiformal way. patterns associated to a technology- one hand, the preparation of new The proposed approach has taken enhanced setting based on digital pattern catalogues, the development of advantage of the pattern features which ink technologies and ii) to deploy wizard tools that assist instructors in combine the narrative textual-based these patterns in this kind of settings the pattern application and the research expression power with visual notations demonstrating their effectiveness. in the integration with ontology easy to understand by non-computer The approach application has enabled notations. On the other hand, new cases literate users. These design patterns the generation of digital-ink patterns studies are being planned to complete have been considered flexible enough which have been used by teachers in the approach evaluation, taking into to be adapted to different instructional specific learning scenarios and the account other issues such as the student conditions enabling the representation obtained outcomes have revealed performance or their point of view of multiple types of learning scenarios a general pattern success among about the benefits of a pattern-based and they have been extended with new involved teachers. However, such learning approach. features such as tags that complement experiences have also shown that some the pattern diagrammatic information teachers are still reluctant to apply and keywords which permit to identify these representation mechanisms and fundamental concepts in the pattern their application requires a stronger eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 30 eLearningPapers ReferencesIn-depth  Adorni, G., Coccoli, M., Vercelli, G. & Vivanet, G. (2008). IFIP International Federation for Information Processing, Volume 281; Learning to Live in the Knowledge Society; Michael Kendall and Brian Samways, Boston, Springer, 357–358.  Adorni, G., Brondo, D. &Vivanet, G. (2009). A formal instructional model based on Concept Maps Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, 5(3), 33 - 42.  Agostinho, S. (2006). The use of visual learning design representation to document and communicate teaching ideas. In Proceedings of ASCILITE 2006, Sydney.  Alexander, C., Ishikawa, S. & Silverstein, M. (1977). A pattern language: Towns,buildings, construction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of educational objectives: Complete edition, New York , Longman.  Benlloch-Dualde, J.V, Buendía, F Cano, J.C. (2010). Supporting instructors in designing Tablet PC-based courses. , Proceedings of 10th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies” ICALT 2010, Sousse, Tunisia, 591- , 593.  Brouns, F Koper,R., Manderveld,J., Van Bruggen,J., Sloep, P Van Rosmalen P Tattersall, C. & Vogten, H. (2005). ., ., ., A first exploration of an inductive analysis approach for detecting learning design patterns. Journal of Interactive Media in Education 2005 (03).  Buendía, F & Díaz P (2003). A Framework for the Management of Digital Educational Contents Conjugating Instructional . . and Technical Issues. Educational Technology & Society, 6(4), 48-59.  Buendía, F Cano, J.C. (2006). WebgeneOS: A Generative and Web-Based Learning Architecture to Teach Operating ., Systems in Undergraduate Courses. IEEE Transactions on Education, Education, 49(4), 464-473.  uendia F (2011). Supporting the Generation of Guidelines for Online Courses, Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge B . Society, 7(3), 51-61.  CEN/ISSS, (2002). CEN/ISSS Information Society Standardization System, Learning Technologies Workshop.  Conole G. & Fill K. (2005). A learning design toolkit to create pedagogically effective learning activities” Journal of . Interactive Media in Education, 2005 (08).  Conole, G. (2008). Capturing practice: The role of mediating artefacts in learning design. In L. Lockyer, S. Bennett, S. Agostinho & B Harper (Eds), Handbook of research on learning design and learning objects: Issues, applications and technologies, 187-207 Hersey PA: IGI Global. .  Conole, G. & Weller, M. (2008). Using learning design as a framework for supporting the design and reuse of OER. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 5.  Bra, P Houben, G. & Wu, H. (1999). AHAM: A Dexter-based Reference Model for Adaptive Hypermedia. Proc. of ACM De ., Hypertext ‘99, Darmstadt, Germany, 147-156.  P Aedo I. & Panetsos F (2001). Modeling the dynamic behavior of hypermedia applications. IEEE Transactions on Díaz ., . Software Engineering, 27 (6), 550-572.  Dicheva, D. & Dichev, C. (2006) TM4L: Creating and Browsing Educational Topic Maps, British Journal of Educational Technology – BJET, 37(3), 391-404.  Goodyear, P (2005). Educational design and networked learning: Patterns, pattern language and design practice. . Australasian Journal of Education Technology, 21(1), 82–101.  Gruber, T. R. (1993). A translation approach to portable ontologies. Knowledge Acquisition, 5(2), 199-220. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 31 eLearningPapers  ernández, D. , Asensio, J.I., Dimitriadis, Y. & Villasclaras, E. (2007). Diagrams of learning flow patterns’ solutions as H visual representations of refinable IMS learning design templates. Handbook of Visual Languages for Instructional Design,In-depth IGI Group, 395-413. HP (2008) Higher Education HP Technology for Teaching Grant Initiative Recipients, retrieved September 7 2011 , http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/socialinnovation/us/programs/tech_teaching/hied_global_emea.html?jumpid=reg_ r1002_usen  (2003). IMS Learning Design Specification. Retrieved September 7 2011 IMS , http://www.imsproject.org/learningdesign Kasowitz, A. (1998). Tools for Automating Instructional Design. ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology. Syracuse (USA).  night, C. Gasevic, D. & Richards, G. (2005). Ontologies to integrate learning design and learning content. Journal of K Interactive Media in Education. Special Issue on Advances in Learning Design, 2005 (7).  oper, R. (2001). Modelling units of study from a pedagogical perspective: the pedagogical meta-model behind EML. K Educational Technology Expertise Centre (OTEC), Open University of the Netherlands.  Koper R. (2006). Current Research in Learning Design. Educational Technology & Society, 9 (1), 13-22.  asterman, L. (2008). Activity theory and the design of pedagogic planning tools. In L. Lockyer, S. Bennett, S. Agostinho M & B. Harper (Eds.), Handbook of research on learning design and learning obkects: issues, applications and technologies, Hershey, New York: Information Science Reference,1, 209 - 227 .  Merrill, M.D., & ID2 Research Team (1996). Instructional Transaction Theory: Instructional Design based on Knowledge Objects. Educational Technology, 36 (3),30-37.  izoguchi, R., Ikeda, M. & Sinitsa. K. (1997). Roles of shared ontology in AI-ED research: intelligence, conceptualization, M standardization, and reusability. In B. du Boulay and R. Mizoguchi, editors, Artificial Intelligence in Education, Proceedings of AI-ED 97 537-544. ,  Molenda, M. (2003). In search of the elusive ADDIE model. Performance improvement, 42(5), 34.  Murray, T. (1996). Special purpose ontologies and the representation of pedagogical knowledge. In Proceedings of the 1996 international conference on Learning sciences, D. C. Edelson and E. A. Domeshek (Eds.). International Society of the Learning Sciences, 235-242.  Nervig, N. (1990) Instructional systems development: a reconstructed ISD model. Educational Technology, 40-46.  apasalouros, A. & Retalis, S. (2002). Ob-AHEM: A UML P -enabled model for Adaptive Educational Hypermedia Applications. Interactive educational Multimedia, 4.  Paquette, G., Rosca, I., De la Teja, I., Léonard M. y Lundgren-Cayrol , K.(2001). Webbased Support for the Instructional Engineering of E-learning Systems. WebNet’01 Conference, Orlando (USA).  (2005). Pedagogical Patterns Project, retrieved September 7 2011 PPP , http://www.pedagogicalpatterns.org  Rogers, P (2002). Designing instruction for technology-enhanced learning. Hersey, PA: Idea Group Publishing. .  Rohse, S., & Anderson, T. (2006). Design patterns for complex learning. Journal of Learning Design, 1(3), 82-91.  Schwabe, D. & Rossi, G. (1995). The Object-Oriented Hypermedia Design Model. Communications of the ACM, 38(8), 45-46.  Scott, B., & Johnson, Z. (2005). Using topic maps as part of learning design – some history and a case study. Proceedings III International Conference on Multimedia and Communication Technologies in Education, Cáceres, Spain.  Spector, J.M. & Ohrazda, C. (2003) Automating instructional design: Approaches and limitations. Educational Technology Research and Development, 26, 685-700. iest, S. & Zell A. (2001). Improving Web-Based Training Using an XML Content Base. Proc. Of Educational Multimedia W and Hypermedia. EDMEDIA’01, Tampere (Finland), 2045-2050 eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 32 eLearningPapersIn-depth Appendix A. Digital-ink pattern catalogue Category Name Short description Content manager Light and shade Some content items need to be clarified using an extra explanation or highlighted by means of visual artifacts. Focus of attention There are items that require to be located, by signaling, underlining or framing certain information (e.g. Pointing out a diagram or underling a sentence). Half-baked Some resources such as slide-based presentation can be completed on the fly by using freehand inputs to facilitate presentations or improve the discourse. Augmented reality Some content resources such as images, video sequences or documents are better understood if additional information items are placed on them. Activity facilitator Make connections There are activities that require to link or set up relationships among their component items. Do it freehand Some activities entail the elaboration of a diagram, drawing a sketch or introducing an equation. Sharing efforts Several students need to participate and collaborate to solve a problem, sharing and exchanging information. Organize your ideas A learning activity can require elaborating a concept or mind map. Filling blanks Different activities can demand to introduce information on a previously prepared structure (text, table, diagram, map…) Interaction enabler Raise your question Anonymous contributions can help those students who are reluctant to ask in public (this pattern could be related with “Focus of attention”). Post your opinion Students can contribute with their point of view in a topic discussion. The audience responds A poll mechanism can be used to gather the overall student preferences or the knowledge about a topic. Exchanging messages Students should communicate among them during a collaborative task (this pattern could be related with “Sharing efforts”). Assessment The right option A rapid answer to a closed set of questions (objective test) is required. producer Connection game A learning activity based on matching options could be evaluated (this pattern could be related with “Make connections”). Grading opinion The student point of view about a certain topic can be assessed (this pattern could be related with “Post your opinion”). Bad news Instructor can signal or remark the corrections made in the student works (fixing common mistakes). Good news Instructor can highlight the strong points in the student works (providing positive reinforcement). eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 33 eLearningPapersIn-depth Appendix B. Instructional requirement questionnaire Contents Text documents require introducing special marks on them. Images such as photos, graphics, or diagrams need annotations or additional descriptions. Slide-based presentations require some kind of annotation or highlighting their components. In video sequences or “screencast” some elements need to be signaled or marked. , Activities Students have to carry out matching or filling blanks exercises. Course exercises require “freehand” inputs (e.g. symbols, equations, diagrams…). Students are required to summarize topics by using a graphical representation. Students share tasks in which annotations or diagrams are produced. Interaction Students can anonymously ask questions focused on the course resources during the class sessions. Students can post their point of view about a certain topic. Students participate in collaborative works. Students can vote or select a certain topic. Assessment An objective assessment is performed using a closed set of answers or matching options. Student opinions about a certain course topic can be assessed. Instructors perform annotations on the works delivered by students. Some student responses are selected and reviewed in front of class. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 34 eLearningPapers Students as learning designers:In-depth Using social media to scaffold the experience [ ] Authors Leanne Cameron [ +] MiriamTanti [ +] Faculty of Education. Australian Catholic University Introduction The ‘students as learning designers’ approach challenges Summary It has been stated that the field of transmission models of pedagogy and requires teachers to learning design holds the promise of relinquish some control to their students so that they might have providing teachers with a framework the space to experiment and discover how to learn. that will enable them to design high This paper outlines the findings of two studies that allowed quality, effective and innovative learning students to explore new ways of learning, where they were experiences for their students (Cameron, encouraged to take responsibility for their own learning, and 2009). By creating the possibility of outlines what potential social media tools may have in facilitating deconstructing their existing teaching this experience. These projects demonstrate that when students strategies; aiding reflection on their own are empowered to design their own learning activities, they can practice; documenting and scaffolding deeply engage in the learning process. innovative learning activities; and sharing and reusing expert practice, the field of learning design has the potential to improve the quality of teaching throughout the higher education sector. Traditionally, the key stakeholder in the learning process, the student, is not given a central design role, however, with the advent of web 2.0 tools, it has never been easier to provide students with the opportunity to contribute to their own learning. Many students have already chosen to use social media, eg. Facebook, Twitter, for their own communications and social interaction (November, 2011). In this paper, we report on what happens when students are empowered to design their own learning, and how best to scaffold the design process using the Tags social media tools with which they are students as learning designers, social media, already familiar. participatory media Languages cz da de bg et el es fr it lv lt hu nl pl pt ro sk sl fi sv eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 35 eLearningPapersIn-depth Overview students to creating and sharing their learner understanding using questions. own learning designs. It aimed to: However, they often needed lots of The paper describes two separate, support in understanding the relationship but related, studies. The “Students as •  rovide an opportunity for students to P between the learning activities and the Learning Designers Project” (Cameron have ownership over the design and pedagogy. & Gotlieb, 2009), involved five teachers creation of their learning experiences; and 165 students from five elementary It was not just a matter of helping the schools. A key element of the project • Determine the key teaching and  students think up relevant and authentic was that the students were asked to take learning opportunities afforded by learning tasks, their teacher’s role was a significant amount of responsibility student authoring projects; to provide students with carefully in planning for, and creating, their considered scaffolds that enabled them own learning. During the project, the •  nalyse the depth and variety of A to achieve beyond what they could as students produced 230 learning designs. the designs provided by students individuals with the resources before Research data was collected from when access to authoring software is them. In the “Scaffolding Student teachers and students via a pre-project provided; Learning Designers” Project, the survey and video recorded post-project •  valuate the tools that could provide E potential of social media tools to scaffold interviews. Throughout the project, the an efficient means of involving students this experience was examined. teachers took a problem-based learning in learning. approach and it became quickly apparent Several studies indicate that the features that the students required significant In the second project, “Scaffolding of social media tools may be used scaffolding, particularly in the early stages Student Learning Designers”, the same for educational purposes (Boling, et of the process. project design was employed, but an al., 2008; Glass & Spiegelman, 2008; additional aim was included: Haramiak, Boulton, & Irwin, 2009; In the subsequent project, “Scaffolding Kajder & Bull, 2004; Martindale & Wiley, Student Learning Designers”, the •  nalyse how social media tools were A 2005; Quible, 2005; Ray, 2006; Wassell potential of social media to provide employed to scaffold the learning & Crouch, 2008). Researchers argue the identified need for scaffolding design process. that social media tools, namely blogs was explored. The support received and microblogs can be used as effective by students designing their learning, In each project, students and teachers instructional tools in which teachers and both from their teachers and their were asked to look beyond their current students can communicate with each peers, was analysed. This study involved approach to teaching and learning and other and make connections between 206 Masters students at the Australian analyse the attitudes and conceptions content and pedagogy (Overby, 2009; Catholic University in their first year of that inform that approach. The project- Ray, 2006). Students can also utilise the study. Data was collected from students’ based learning strategy adopted required technologies to collaborate and share Tweets, blog entries and a post-project students to take a more active role their resources. online survey. in planning and creating their own learning. Understanding how they In the learning design environment might do this was a complex and multi- in the “Scaffolding Student Learning Objectives faceted problem. Designers” study, students were not The initial project, “Students as Learning merely using the social media tools to Students generally understood how to Designers Project”, was designed to receive information: they were engaging structure a basic learning task, eg. provide determine the educational impact of some information and then check eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 36 eLearningPapers Instructional Design Advantages to Students Disadvantages to StudentsIn-depth Considerations Collaboration Can learn from each other. Only as strong as the weakest link. Synergy results from 2 minds working together. Too many chiefs, not enough Indians. Can share workload & responsibilities “Many hands Difficult for some students to deal with responsibility for make small work” leadership Major amounts of time are necessary. Relevance Empowers learner to connect theory & hypotheses If it’s the wrong track, it’s a waste of time. to actual/ practical context. Adds realism to learning process. Provides pride in ownership of product Allows for constructive learning Learner control Encourages diversity. Can produce off-task results. Encourages multiple approaches to solutions. Lack of direction can occur when losing sight of objectives Allows for more sophisticated approaches. Procrastination can result. Encourages self-confidence. Allows control of own pace & time Technological Provides advance notice of content, context, and May intimidate the less well informed or skilled. preparation applications to be used. May get lost & overwhelmed by “information overload. ” Increases familiarity & ease with technology. Table 1: Advantages and Disadvantages to Students as Designers and Teachers (Murphy, Harvell, Sanders & Epps, 1999) in a constructive learning design process When students were given the didn’t know how to design to meet the with both their teachers and their peers. opportunity participate in a discussion challenge. with the researchers in their role as learning designers (with equal status It was noted that for those students Students as learning with their teachers), they rose to meet who were not autonomous learners, designers the challenge and provided insightful it was really important for the teacher comments, eg. How can groups be used to scaffold the learning activities so As learning designers, students are given to pull together individuals of similar the students were able to achieve and the opportunity to be creative and of different interest?; What constitutes a focus on learning the meacognitive and pursue their goals actively (Lui & Hsiao, ‘good’ answer?; how and why we provide communication skills necessary for this 2002). The initial project demonstrated feedback. type of work. The teachers needed to be that students are able to make decisions able to identify gaps in the students’ skills (with varying degrees of guidance) The table below most effectively and knowledge, and provide scaffolding about both content (what to learn) and summarises the advantages of using to help get the students to the next level. pedagogy (how to learn it), (Reigeluth, students as designers of learning and it 1996). In the latter “Scaffolding Student also outlines a number of disadvantages, some of which that the teachers in this Learning Designers” project, explicit Designing learning is a complex task. project also discussed in the post-project teacher presence was intentionally Caver, Lehrer, Connell & Erickson interview. withheld from the social media (1992) identified five categories of environment. The students were aware critical thinking skills they observed their tweets and blog entries were public students exhibiting when they were designing learning environments and/ The Teacher’s Role so their teachers could read them at any The presence of the teacher was clearly time, however, the teachers did not make or tools. These thinking skills were also evident throughout the initial “Students posts themselves. This was a conscious observed to be taking place in these as Learning Designers Project” project. effort on the part of the teachers to projects: Initially the research team set criteria encourage peer support, which was • Project management; with the students about what makes a indeed what occurred. • Research; good learning design but the teachers The value of scaffolding during the needed to have further discussions with • Organisation and representation; design process became evident in students to identify where they hadn’t • Presentation; and the initial project. The concept of completely understood the criteria, or scaffolding is derived from cognitive • Reflection. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 37 eLearningPapersIn-depth psychological research. It is defined as a the teachers provided criteria for the and encourage active engagement with “social interaction that a knowledgeable learning designs, taught metacognive and students. All of these were observed: participant can create, by means of communication skills, provided feedback speech, supportive conditions in which on the learning designs and provided •  ndependent learning, negotiated I the novice can participate in, and extend, some instruction on the use of the between student and teacher; current skills and knowledge to higher technology. • Personal development; levels of competence (Greenfield, 1984 • Problem-based learning; as quoted by Donato, 1994). Teachers often think that what they do is necessarily more important for •  xplicit reflection by students on their E According to Wood, Bruner & Ross student learning that other activities learning; (1976), scaffolded help is characterised in which they engage. Although the • Independent group work; by six features: importance of the teacher was clearly • Learning by doing; demonstrated in both projects, teachers • Recruiting interest in the task; • Developing learning skills; and had to be careful not to place themselves • Simplifying the task; in the position of mediating all the • Project work. • Maintaining pursuit of the goal; students needed to know. This may In order for the students to design their not only create unrealistic expectations, own learning activities, the teachers had •  arking critical features and M but teachers can potentially de-skill to relinquish some control. This resulted discrepancies between what has been their students by preventing them from in their students being: produced and the ideal solution; effectively learning from each other •  ontrolling frustration during C (Boud et al, 2001). • Given the initiative; problem-solving, and •  llowed to choose from a diversity of A •  emonstrating an idealized version of D sound methods; the act to be performed. Encouraging Student •  ork in teams on authentic, real-world W Engagement tasks; Donato (1994) reports that peer collaboration provides the same Throughout both projects, the •  tilise the features of advanced U opportunity for scaffolded help as does teachers and students developed a technologies; and that of the expert/novice relationship. highly engaging, customised learning environment that fostered student •  llowed to persevere until they reached A It is often assumed that scaffolding only appropriate standards (Reigeluth, 1996). occurs in the presence of an identifiable independence, initiative, teamwork, expert and that this assistance is thinking skills, metacognitive skills and There is no doubt the students were unidirectional, that is from the teacher to diversity. Within this environment, the actively engaged, however, just being the student. students collaborated to design effective allowed to do something that is not a learning activities. Their design task usual part of formal learning, and/or In the initial “Students as Learning required them to use higher order being recognised for creating something Designers Project” project teachers thinking processes and reflection, not just clever, is enough to keep students sometimes saw a need to “formalise the the lower order thinking skills normally motivated and on task (Prensky, 2007). informal” to realise the potential benefits used when they are simply required to Hence novelty may have been a factor of peer learning so that all students could reproduce knowledge. for the high level of student motivation benefit from it, not just those who were observed. already proficient learners. For example, Kimber & Wyatt-Smith (2006) cite eight strategies to foster deep learning eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 38 eLearningPapersIn-depth Additionally, both projects observed resources from their peers anywhere, any their approach to the curriculum. similar student behaviour to that time; share ideas, thoughts, reflections Teachers began to look at curriculum reported by Liu & Rutledge (1997), and and support and challenge each other. frameworks for allowing student that was that while students were highly The question was often asked, “What creation and sharing motivated in many respects and were on can I do to make this better?” and they task, the critical design skills of planning frequently got instant feedback. The Chang et al (2008) noted that resistance and time management were not easy for 140 character limit was a challenge for to the change in the teacher’s role is not them to acquire. some in this context but it provided a only felt by the teachers. Students have discipline that was beneficial in many also voiced a reluctance to accept the cases. shift away from teacher-centred learning. Learning with Social Media Have students been conditioned to the These results of the initial “Students The students excelled at picking up status quo, or are they at a time in their as Learning Designers Project” were the new technology in different and lives where they don’t want to upset impressive but what emerged during interesting ways and the teachers found their peers? the study was that students required they learnt from the students in this area. timely and effective support throughout This also helped create an environment the learning design process. Hence where the control of the learning process Conclusion the search began for tools to scaffold was more student-centred. The “students as learning designers” students’ learning without diminishing approach clearly demonstrated that the value of peer interaction and support the act of designing can facilitate deep that had been witnessed in the initial The Findings learning in the classroom. It enabled study. These projects clearly demonstrated the students to be independently engaged act of designing learning can facilitate in investigation, work autonomously The value of a blog to record work-in- students’ engagement and deep learning and collaboratively, and it also provided progress and as a reflection tool is well in the classroom. The findings were: their teachers with rich opportunities documented (Dawson, Murray, Parvis for key teaching moments. This & Paterson, 2005; JISC, 2008). Blogging •  here was an increase in use of the T approach challenges transmission models often increases student participation language of metacognition and an of pedagogy and requires teachers to in reflective activity, improves student increase in the use of and sharing of relinquish some control to their students engagement and can change the metacognitive strategies; so that they might be given the space dynamics of face-to-face sessions. to design, discover how to learn and to •  he classroom dynamic changed. T deeply engage in the learning process. However Twitter emerged as the social There was a recognition of teachers as Additionally, the paper outlined the media tool of choice with which to co-learner and guide and an increased potential social media tools have to provide scaffolding advice. Doggett recognition of peers as co-learners and facilitate this experience. In our projects (2009) outlines nine reasons why Twitter a source of support and advice; students were not merely using the social might be beneficial in an educational media tools to receive information: they •  tudents developed highly diverse S setting. Our project confirms that Twitter were engaging in a constructive learning learning designs; and was an invaluable tool in our project. design process with both their teachers •  his project provided an opportunity T and their peers. Using Twitter, students were able to for teachers to explicitly reflect on source a wide range of views and metacognitive skills and rethink eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 39 eLearningPapers ReferencesIn-depth  oud, D., Cohen, R. & Sampson, J. (eds). (2001). Peer learning in higher education: Learning from and with each other. B London: Kogan Page. Boling, E., Castek, J., Zawilinski, L., Barton, K., & Nierlich, T. (2008). Collaborative literacy: Blogs and Internet projects. The Reading Teacher, 61(6), 504-506.  ameron, L. (2009). How learning design can illuminate teaching practice. Proceedings of The Future of Learning Design C Conference, December 10, 2009. Paper 3. Retrieved from http://ro.uow.edu.au/fld/09/Program/3  Cameron, L. & Gotlieb, C. (2009). Students Participating in the Learning Design Process Using LAMS. In L. Cameron & J. Dalziel (Eds), Proceedings of the 4th International LAMS Conference 2009: Opening Up Learning Design., pp. 40-47 3-4th . December. 2009, Sydney: LAMS Foundation. Retrieved from: http://lamsfoundation.org/lams2009sydney/CD/pdfs/03_Cameron.pdf  Carver, S.M., Lehrer, R., Connell, T. & Erickson, J. (1992). Learning by hypermedia design: Issues of assessment and implementation. Educational Psychologist, 27(3), pp. 385-404.  Chang, R., Kennedy, G. & Petrovic, T. (2008). Web 2.0 and user-created content: Students negotiating shifts in academic authority. In Hello! Where are you in the landscape of educational technology? Proceedings ascilite Melbourne 2008. http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/melbourne08/procs/chang.pdf  awson, J., Murray, K., Parvis, S. & Paterson, J. (2005) Using weblogs to encourage reflective learning in History and D Classics – http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/cross_fac/heahistory/elibrary/resources/CS_Dawson_Weblogs_200707xx.pdf  Doggett, L. (2009). Nine great reasons why teachers should use Twitter. Retrieved from http://lauradoggett.com/2009/03/nine-great-reasons-why-teachers-should-use-twitter/ on 21 October, 2011.  Donato, R. (1994). “Collective scaffolding in second language learning” in Bygotskian approaches to second language research. Norwood, J. J.: Ablex Pub. Corp.  lass, R., & Spiegelman, M. (2008). Incorporating blogs into the syllabus: Making their space a learning space. Journal of G Educational Technology Systems, 6(2), 145-155.  aramiak, A., Boulton, H., & Irwin, B. (2009). Trainee teachers’ use of blogs as private reflections for professional H development. Learning, Media and Technology, 34(3), 259-269.  JISC. (2008). Effective Practice with e-Portfolios, p.18 – www.jisc.ac.uk/effectivepracticeeportfolios  ajder, S. B., & Bull, G.. (2004). A space for “writing without writing. Learning & Leading with Technology, 31(6), 32-35. K  imber, K. & Wyatt-Smith, C. (2006). Using and creating knowledge with new technologies: A case for students-as K designers. Learning, Media and Technology, Vo. 31, No. 1, March 2006, pp. 19-34.  iu, M. & Hsiao, Y. (2002). Middle School Students as Multimedia Designers: A Project-Based Learning Approach. Journal L of Interactive Learning Research, 13(4), 311-337 Norfolk, VA: AACE. Retrieved from . http://www.editlib.org/p/9529  M. & Rutledge, K. (1997). The effect of a “learner as multimedia designer” environment on at-risk high school Liu, students’ motivation and learning of design knowledge. Journal of Educational Computing Research. 16(2), pp. 145-177.  Murphy, K.L., Harvell, T.J., Sanders, B. & Epps, M.L. (1999). Students as designers and teachers of their courses via computer-mediated communication. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT), Houston, Texas on February 13, 1999. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 40 eLearningPapers  November, A. (2011). Students as contributors: The digital learning farm. Retrieved from http://novemberlearning.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/students-as-contributors.pdf on 21 October, 2011.In-depth Overby, A. (2009). The new conversation: Using weblogs for reflective practice in the studio art classroom. Art Education, 62(4), 18-24.  Prensky, M. (2007). Students as designers and creators of educational computer games: Who else? Retrieved from http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky-Students_as_Game_Creators-.pdf  eigeluth, C.M. (1996). IT Forum Paper #17: What is the new paradigm of Instructional Theory. Indiana University. R  uible, Z. K. (2005). Blogs: A natural in business communication courses. Business Communication Quarterly, 68(1), Q 73-76.  J. (2006). Welcome to the Blogoshere. The Educational Use of Blogs (aka Edublogs). Kappa Delta Pi Record, 42(4), Ray, 175-177.  assell, B., & Crouch, C. (2008). Fostering critical engagement in preservice teachers: Incorporating weblogs into W multicultural education. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 16(2), 211-232.  ood, D., Bruner, J.S., & Ross, G. (1976). The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of Child Psychology and W Psychiatry. 17 pp. 89-100. , eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 41 eLearningPapers Blended Collaborative ConstructiveIn-depth Participation (BCCP): A model for teaching in higher education [ ] Authors Ligorio M. Beatrice [ +] Cucchiara Stefania [ +] University of Bari 1. Introduction The Blended Collaborative Constructive Participation (BCCP) Summary Many universities have already model is a university teaching model built upon six years of experimented various distance learning, experimentation. blended learning or network learning Through a flexible structure and a set of six types of activities, solutions. Even traditional universities the aim of this model is to put into practice a series of already are in the process of softening their well-established pedagogical principles, such as the Community resistance to such solutions (Cahill, of Learners, the Community of Practice, the socio-constructivist 2011).Volery and Lord (2000) warn dimension, the dialogical perspective, and knowledge building. that if universities do not adopt e-learning, they will be left behind and A three-level system is presented as an assessment tool for web- they will lose ground to other types of forum discussions, organized around the contents of the course. educational providers. In general, there This system is meant to be used by teachers and by students to is a growing interest from universities monitor and support the evolution of the discussion. in understanding advantages, costs, and conditions of introducing e-learning as part of their educational provision to students. Many factors are recognized as critical for successfully delivering e-learning. O’Neil, Singh, and O’Donoghue (2004) distinguish structural issues, students’ learning strategies, and instructors and teaching style. These factors are surely interconnected but each of them needs a careful and specific design. Many authors have indicated the innovation of teaching models as a crucial aspect (Waks, 2007). Calls Tags for a new teaching pedagogy, that is capable of fruitfully exploiting the blended teaching, higher education, knowledge potentialities of technology, can be building, web-forum discussion found in almost all the research dealing with e-learning in higher education (McFadzean, 2001). Nevertheless, clear Languages cz da de bg et el es fr it lv lt hu nl pl pt ro sk sl fi sv eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 42 eLearningPapersIn-depth and detailed indications about how innovative pedagogical approaches, (c) closely related to a growing sense of to change such a teaching model and new assessments created from learning personal engagement in the practice, how the innovative teaching model outcomes, and (d) e-portfolios. a common objective, and a set of should be, are lacking. In this paper, we constantly negotiated procedures, propose a model for university blended Furthermore, the BCCP model inherits routines, and languages; teaching where structure and activities well-established, non-technologically are clearly described. The model has based educational models, such as: c)  he socio-constructivist dimension, T been developed during six years of the dialogical dimension, and the a)  he Community of Learners (CoL) T knowledge building approach experimentation funded by the Italian (Brown & Campione, 1990), that (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1994), Ministry of Research. The starting point considers students as active learners, according to which learning does not of the model was the transformation of capable of increasing, deepening, and refer to the individual’s achievements, strong theoretical ideas into practices evaluating their own knowledge. but rather to a clear attempt to that are suitable for a blended context. Each student is, at the same time, improve collective learning. Such Results of each year of experimentation a learner and a teacher when s/he a result is only possible through a were implemented the following year, becomes an expert on a specific part guided and structured interaction therefore the model we now present of the learning contents. In this sense, between peers and expert guidance. has a strong empirical basis. In the in a CoL, activities are based on the To enrich this perspective, discussions following section we will briefly present exchange of roles, self-evaluation, and interactions between various the theoretical background inspiring active searching of sources, and points of view are considered crucial. the model. metacognition. Swapping roles, in The interactive moments should particular, is a crucial aspect of this not be aimed at converging toward 2. Theoretical background model. Groups are essential in a CoL: a pre-fixed definition or idea; on they are an ideal place to test roles, the contrary, the multiplicity of The model we propose, called to discuss, and to compare ideas and perspectives should be maintained. Blended Collaborative Constructive information. The groups regularly When different points of view are Participation (BCCP), follows meet and update each other about confronted, discussed, mixed and Nkonge and Gueldenzoph’s (2006) their progress through so-called integrated, then knowledge building recommendations to successfully use “cross-talk” meetings, meant as implies a dialogical management technology in higher education. These moments for groups to reciprocally between many positions, each of recommendations are: (a) to encourage challenge each other about the them provided by a “voice”, in the contact between students and activities under development. In fact, bakhtinian sense (Bakhtin, 1981). professors, (b) to develop reciprocity during the “cross-talk”, students ask This means that no attempt is made and cooperation among students, (c) each other critical questions and offer to converge toward a unique and to encourage active learning, (d) to stimuli for new directions; common point of view; rather, new give prompt feedback, (e) to emphasize time on task, (f) to communicate high knowledge is possible when all the b)  he Communities of Practice T expectations, and (g) to respect diverse positions and voices are considered (CoP) (Wenger, 1998). According ways of learning. We also implemented and reciprocally enriched (Roth, to this model, learning happens some of MacKeogh and Fox’s (2009) 2009); when people can participate in suggestions, in particular as regards: cultural practices, crucial for the d) The Progressive Inquiry Model  (a) flexible modular frameworks, (b) community; therefore, learning is (PIM) (Hakkarainen, Lipponen, & eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 43 eLearningPapersIn-depth Järvela, 2002), that considers learning practice the many good pedagogical free platform called Synergeia (bscl. as an inquiry process deriving from ideas contained in the above-mentioned fit.fraunhofer.de), that provides basic general and broad questions – which perspective. With the BCCP model we functionalities such as the possibilities we have called “research questions”- attempt to highlight the link between to create folders, web-forums, wikis, and proceeding towards critical and theories and practice, and we consider and conceptual maps. Like many scientific thinking. In this model, technology to be capable of setting other platforms, Synergeia also students are spurred to finalize their up arenas where theories can actually provides inquiry tools to check users’ learning to realize a common and be put into practice. Therefore all the participations and to check by whom shared objective. This principle theoretical ideas we have presented can each item online has been posted, helps students collaborate in order be found in the elements composing read, and/or modified. Any platform to reach a status beyond individual the BCCP model, which will be or virtual space offering these tools achievement. presented in the next section. could be used to implement the BCCP model. Other sources of inspiration include 3. Structure and activities of the Reciprocal Teaching (RT) model In order to describe the model we (Palincsar & Brown, 1984), the Jisgaw the BCCP model distinguish structural elements and model (Aronson & Patnoe, 1997) and Before presenting the structure and activities (Ligorio & Sansone, 2009). the general principles for collaborative the activities composing the BCCP, learning and peer discussion a few assumptions should be cleared. 3.1 The structure (Dillenbourg, 1999). First of all, we conceive the blended The structure of the BCCP model It may appear that the BCCP model dimension as carefully integrating concerns the contents, the way students is based on a copious theoretical online and offline activities. These are grouped, and the timing and background. Actually, all these theories two contexts are not simply a re- alternation of online and offline. As have numerous dimensions in common. proposition of one another, neither is recommended by MacKeogh and Fox First of all, they aim to support active the online arena considered a repository (2009), we propose to structure the and self-regulated learners; secondly, of educational materials. Rather, we course into modules, as many as needed they seek to balance individual consider online and offline as strictly to cover the contents of the course agency with the sense of belonging interwoven, one empowering the and also taking into consideration the to a community; finally, the specific other (Bonk & Graham 2006; Ligorio, time available. The teacher is usually in finalization toward the production of Loperfido, Sansone, & Spadaro, 2010). charge of organizing the contents and a concrete product – be it a paper, a Secondly, we assume minimum the sequence of the modules, although map, a grid or a table. Another idea technology competencies for both there should be space for flexibility common to the theoretical approaches teachers and students. No fancy and negotiation with the students in used in the BCCP model concerns the software or complicated platforms are order to take into account their pre- importance given to metacognition, needed. Participants should only be existing knowledge and interests. We critical reflection, and self-assessment. able to navigate and perform simple recommend giving the students an operations such as downloading and overview of the modules, the rationale Instead of looking for new pedagogical uploading materials, opening new of their sequence, each module’s goals, models, which would imply a radical folders, orienting and posting notes in and the goals of the whole course. and not always feasible change for web-forums, and managing personal teachers, we propose to put into profiles. In our experience we used a eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 44 eLearningPapersIn-depth Each module should propose the same groups support active learners and foster is very flexible in terms of online type of activities and the same tempo. individual responsibility for achieving activities: they can require just a few This would support the students’ common goals and joint enterprise hours from one face-to-face meeting perception of many possibilities – as (Wenger, 1998). Halfway through the to the next, or many hours per day. In many as the number of modules – to course, the groups should be broken up fact the model can be tailored based on repeat the activities and, eventually, to and recomposed. This way, students can the needs, aims, and constraints of the improve their performance. By moving experience a new group and test their students. In any case, students should be from one module to the next, students social skills in a different context. free to spend the required hours online should gradually feel more confident at their own convenience. of the structure of the modules and In general the offline meetings will become more independent and active. follow the agenda given by the course. 3.2 The activities This may range from one hour weekly Furthermore, we propose considering a to many hours spread over two or three Six activities compose the BCCP final module devoted to the preparation weekly meetings. Regardless of the model. This set of activities represents of a collective product - for instance, specific agenda, our general suggestion the complete model but it is not always a list of important points about the is to devote equal time to the teacher’s necessary to implement all the activities; course or an instrument such as a grid lecturing and to group discussion it is perfectly possible to select only a to guide observational activities. Such a about the online activities. Two types few and neglect the others. module should help students build up a of lectures can be offered: a) lecturing a) Reading and writing. Each general vision of the course and of the to start up a module - these are lectures participant is required to read links between the modules. Moreover, during which the teacher outlines the individually the educational material the during this final module students are main points of the module, presents teacher assigns him/her. This material forced to go back to all the previous the educational materials, and sets up may have several formats (such as a modules, so that those modules to the research question of the module; chapter, a journal article, a website or which less attention was devoted can b) lecturing on-demand, requested by a set of slides), carefully selected by the then be compensated. the students about points and concepts teacher, and posted online in a specific needing clarification during the Students are usually divided into folder. To perform this task, a few days discussions. This is a way to make the groups that may vary in size, from a are usually allotted. This assignment is students active and capable of regulating minimum of three to a maximum of always part of each module; therefore, the learning process. The research eight, following recommendations each student is required to read a questions and the lecturing on-demand from the literature about group number of documents similar to the can be defined as negotiation spaces size (Blumenfeld, Marx, Soloway & number of modules composing the between the teacher and the students, Krajcik, 1996; Dillenbourg, 1999). course. Later, students have to write a meant as ways to break traditional Therefore the number of groups to be short critical review about that material. unidirectional teaching (from teacher to formed depends on the total number To write such a review, the teacher student). of students attending the course (i.e., offers the following precise indications: when there are 17 students, then two The online activities should be a) reporting the main issues of the subgroups can be formed, one with performed in between the face-to-face document they have read, b) outlining eight members and the other with meetings. Students can log online from its contribution to the research question of nine). Groups are the engine of university computers or from their of the module, c) giving a personal collaborative learning. In fact, small private locations. The BCCP model opinion, and d) from the second eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 45 eLearningPapersIn-depth module on, comparing the paper with ability to acquire their own critical self- various materials read by the students the previously read materials, either by assessment. composing the group. The discussions the same student or by other students. around the content are set in such a This activity is inspired by the Jigsaw. way as to foster a knowledge building The critical reviews are posted in In fact, students cover a piece of the process (Bereiter & Scardamalia, 2003). a virtual folder and all the group module with their individual readings To achieve such an objective, both members have to read and comment on and by posting and reciprocally reading individual and social dimensions are them. The reviews represent the starting the reviews they cover the content of strongly interwoven (Chan & van Aalst, point for the online discussions in each the whole module. Comparing many 2004). group, but they also support cross-group papers and being encouraged to express discussions around the same materials. personal points of view assures the c) Searching new materials. In fact, the same material is read by one dialogical nature of the discussion. In Students are encouraged to search new student in each group. Therefore, the fact, many voices are involved in this material to better address the module number of students reading the same activity — specifically, the students’ and to post it online accompanied by material depends on the number of voice, both as individuals and as part of a short justification. The justification groups. For instance, if in a course there a group, the voice of the experts of the contains information about author are three groups, there will be three material read, and finally the voice of and/or website credibility, why students reading the same material, the teacher. the material should be considered and they will confront and discuss this relevant for the module, and how it particular reading and their reviews on b) Discussing. Many types of can contribute to the inquiry on the it. So this activity leads to a twofold discussions are possible online: informal, module’s research question. Students level of discussion: a cross-group organizational and module-specific, all appreciate this practice and increasingly discussion about the same material, conducted asynchronically via web- select interesting educational material. and group discussion regarding all the forum. Informal and organizational The aim of this activity is twofold: materials of the module. Students enter discussions are possible throughout the it supports the students’ sensation of the group discussion with two “voices”: course, as students are allowed to open being active by contributing to the their own personal view, and that of the up new discussion forums whenever selection of educational materials; and, author of the material read. This way, they like. These spaces represent at the same time, students can reflect naïve and rhetorical discussions are also interesting opportunities for students on the criteria for recognizing valuable avoided. to express their thoughts and feelings information obtained on the Internet. about their participation in the course. Furthermore, for each module, the They are important spaces because d) Building collaborative products. teacher reads and comments two to various matters are addressed and solved The BCCP model proposes group- three reviews for each group so that, by and, above all, a sense of community is products and a collective final product. the end of the course, each student will built. While informal and organizational Group-products are built before moving have at least two commented reviews. discussion forums are freely organized on to a new module and they can be a In order to improve their writing by the students, the module-specific written synthesis or a conceptual map. skills, the students are required to read discussions are guided by the research and discuss in group the teacher’s question negotiated during the face- The synthesis describes how the group comments, even when they do not to-face meetings. Each group attempts worked during the module-specific concern their own review. The reviews to answer the research question discussion. The teacher provides a are aimed at enhancing the students’ by comparing and discussing the guideline about this product, which eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 46 eLearningPapersIn-depth includes the following points: a) the product. This is an activity carried out should be sensitive to the needs of the length of the text (usually about 500 by all the participants of the course. students who are not able to attend words); b) if and how the discussion the class; moved from the research question Having products typifying the group initially launched to eventual new work means externalizing the culture of -  erson responsible for negotiating the P questions; c) how the final answer was the group and creating further occasion lecture on-demand with the teacher, negotiated. The synthesis clearly aims for self-assessment and reflection upon on behalf of the group. to sustain reflective thinking, and to learning processes. The whole set of roles is meant to provide inputs that will improve the e) Role-taking. In our model, a support positive social interaction, reasoning and inquiry process for the number of roles are proposed and knowledge building, and a sense of next module. A wiki-like tool is highly all of them are aimed at shaping challenge in the students themselves. recommended to build this product. active students. In fact, ideally, each In fact, students find themselves acting The conceptual map can be designed student should always play a role; this in ways they would not normally act, by using specific software or the way, the student can always take the so they experience new ways of being. Microsoft tool to build diagrams, responsibility of some task essential for Role-playing has an impact on self- or even just pencil and paper. The the group and for the whole course. representation, broadens the range map should be about “what” has All roles are meant to interweave the of learning strategies and positions, been discussed, therefore it should process of learning with the acquisition and enriches the identity trajectory. contain the main ideas borne from of abilities and professional skills. So far, Different situations, triggered by the the discussion and the final research the roles tested in our blended courses roles, stress different aspects of the self answer given by the group. This activity are (Spadaro, Sansone, & Ligorio, 2009): and produce new identity positioning is useful to improve learning through (Hermans, 2004). Specific discussions - E-tutor, focusing on group  about the roles, about how students the recognition of primary concepts management and supporting group of knowledge and the relationships feel when playing them and about how discussion; to improve their efficacy, are available between them (Novak & Gowin, 1984). The final maps can be stored in throughout the course. These discussion - Critical friend, designed to promote  a folder and students can discuss and forums are presented as crucial cross-group collaboration by reading comment on them. In this manner, moments for the knowledge building and commenting on the activities and reflection on the process of building process. products of a different group; a concept map and on the differences f) E-portfolio and self-assessment. between composing a text and a map - Person responsible for a collaborative  In order to support self-evaluation is promoted. This is also a way to allow product (synthesis, map, final product), and metacognitive reflection about students to try out different formats and with the responsibility of guiding the activities performed, students communication modes. the activities necessary to finalize the are required to construct a personal product and of describing it during The final common product can e-portfolio and complete a self- the face-to-face meetings; be different things: a check list, an assessment form, provided by the observational grid, a questionnaire or - Person responsible for taking notes  teacher. The e-portfolio can be used in even multimedia. As we have already and/or video clips from face-to-face different ways at different moments: at said, a final module could be devoted meetings and for uploading them the start of the course, students can post entirely to the preparation of this online. Students covering this role their expectations and the goals they eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 47 eLearningPapers Reading and writing Individual reading of the assigned materialIn-depth Individual writing of a short review following the teacher’s instruction Cross-group discussion involving students reading the same material Collective discussion about the teacher’s comments on the review Pedagogical references: Jigsaw, RT, dialogical perspective, PIM Aim: to develop academic skills in reading and writing Discussing Group discussion about the research question Pedagogical references: PIM and dialogical perspective Aim: to express and compare ideas (both personal and based on the readings) Searching new materials Students search new material that is relevant for the module Pedagogical references: CoL and CoP Aim: to recognize scientific material Building collaborative products Written synthesis of how the group discussed Conceptual map of the main ideas discussed, and the answer to the research question elaborated by the group Pedagogical references: PIM; collaborative knowledge building and externalization Aim: academic skills and practical skills about e-learning (the content of the course) Role-taking E-tutor, critical friend, person responsible for the collaborative products, person responsible for taking notes and/or video clips from face-to-face meetings and for uploading them online. Pedagogical references: scaffolding, CoL, CoP self-development and positioning , Aim: to support active learning and responsibility taking E-portfolio and self-assessment. Opening and maintaining a personal folder Filling in a self-assessment form Pedagogical references: self-assessment and metacognition Aim: to improve skills for self-assessing expectations, activities, collaboration Table 1: The activities composing the BCCP model would like to achieve; and at the end Table 1 presents a synopsis of the to understand the effects of the model, of each module, students should fill in proposed activities, with the annotation we consider crucial the assessment of self-assessment forms and select their of the pedagogical references and their the quality of the discussions around best products of the module; at the end aims. the module-research question. In of the course, students may report their order to assess the discussions around assessment about the course and their The set of activities proposed with our the research question we will present own learning; they can also compare model is designed mainly to support an analysis of one of our courses. their final self-assessment with their active learners and collaborative The assessment of these discussions is initial expectations. knowledge building. In fact, individual focused on understanding if and how learning (by reading and writing) the knowledge building process is The self-evaluation form comprises is the starting point for subsequent progressing. To unravel this point we several questions, through which collaborative activities such as discussing looked at how students picked up the students describe how the activities and preparing group products. Indeed, content offered by the reading materials they performed (reviewing, role- the complex architecture of this and how they elaborated it. taking, online activities, offline blended course allows, simultaneously, meetings, conceptual maps, synthesis) individual work, work within small have contributed to their learning, groups, and large group activity. 4.1 Context and participants both in terms of content and skills. The discussions analyzed here took Self-assessment stimulates students’ place during a course on Educational metacognitive processes and reflection 4. Assessing the BCCP Psychology and e-Learning, offered on their own abilities and skills; model at the University of Bari (Italy) in moreover, it supports the development How can a teacher monitor the efficacy the academic year 2009-2010. This of critical self-evaluation. At the end of the BCCP model? The quality of the particular course lasted 13 weeks and of the course, the teacher takes into products and the amount of presence was divided into five modules. All the account the progress shown in the self- online, checked through specific tools modules were aimed at supporting evaluation filled forms. embedded in the platform, are good a fairly good understanding of what indicators of the students’ learning. But, e-learning means, its main issues and eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 48 eLearningPapersIn-depth its problematic aspects. The first four like “As I read …” or “As the teacher common decision was made and 100% modules covered the educational said during the lecture …”; of the agreement was reached. content of the course, while the last one was devoted to the collaborative b) “simple theories”, when students elaborate hypotheses and explanations 4.3 Results building of a grid meant to guide the observation of e-learning courses. The about facts. This level should be assigned Results show that 22.5% of the modules were about a) technology whenever there is a statement like “I interventions were about “facts”, and learning; b) e-learning contents; c) think …” or “My impression is …”; whereas ”simple theories” appeared online identity; and d) new trends. in 40% of the cases, and 32,5% of the c) “complex theories”, representing cases could be considered “complex 16 students – 4 males and 12 females, a deeper level of elaboration and theories”. 22 years old on average – were divided understanding in which students can into two groups of eight participants explain more facts, compare several To understand how these frequencies each. In this particular course ideas, and answer the research question were distributed throughout the students attended eight module-based guiding the module. This level is discussion, we segmented each discussions and produced 511 notes in recognizable when students declare discussion into three periods by simply total. something like “By comparing different looking at the dates of the notes: initial, ideas …” or “I would like to add intermediate and final period. It was something new”. found that the “facts” always reached 4.2 Methods of analysis the highest frequency at the start of A qualitative analysis was used. The aim More than one level could be assigned the discussions (on average 18% more was to gain an in-depth understanding to a single note; in fact, one note could compared to the final part). This level of the content of the notes posted in refer to many levels. Therefore we seems to be aimed at laying out a the forum through a content analysis, segmented the note in as many parts as common ground for the discussion by using a simple categorization that can the levels we could recognize in it. After sharing and reporting the concepts of also be used by teachers to assess in all the notes were analyzed, segmented, the module in the web-discussion. itinere the online discussion. and categorized, we counted the frequency and the percentage of The “simple theories” are the most In particular we considered three levels frequency of each level. frequent level in all the discussions. (Cucchiara & Ligorio, 2009), inspired This result may indicate that students by Bereiter and Scardamalia’s (2003) Two researchers first analyzed 10% are indeed able to produce theories, suggestions about the knowledge of the corpus together, to get in tune although they often remain at a simple building process: about the meaning of the levels and level. For students, this is a way to share how to segment the notes. Then, they and test their hypotheses or ideas. a) “facts”, which are information individually assigned the categories collected by reading the educational to the remaining notes. Later they The last level, concerning “complex material or the outcome of past compared the categories assigned theories”, appears mostly at the end of knowledge. This level can be recognized and found an agreement of 85%. The the discussions, when students finalize whenever the student writes something controversial cases were discussed until a their answer to the research question. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 49 eLearningPapersIn-depth At this level students are attempting We found that “transaction comments” paramount, as a great occasion to to raise the quality of the ideas by caused: a) on average, 21% of the strengthen the link between theory and comparing and synthesizing the various passages from “facts” to “simple practice. positions that emerged and trying to theories”; b) on average, 32% of the reach a higher level of understanding of passages from “simple theories” level to The structure and the activities the concepts discussed. “complex theories”. composing the model are the result of six years of experimentation during Moreover, in order to understand how This result highlights the social and which many improvements were the discussion shifts from one level to dialogical nature of the discussion, in produced. Furthermore, the model the next, we observed these occurrences that it progresses within the dialectic proved in many ways to be efficient in detail. We found a type of exchange between students and and effective. In this paper we have intervention capable of sustaining such the mutual support they give each presented the method of analyzing the a movement and called it “transaction other. The “transaction comments” discussions about the learning material, comment”. This type of intervention represent a form of help and a scaffold guided by a research question. The seems to be capable of sustaining the explicitly offered to and requested by reason for this choice is the fact that we development of the discussion toward a the students, aimed at stimulating the consider the asynchronous web-forum higher level. The “transaction comment” improvement of ideas (Cucchiara & peer discussion to be a very crucial has a specific feature: it does not strictly Ligorio, 2009). aspect of e-learning. But it is not easy refer to the content of the discussion, for teachers and instructors to monitor but it is a discourse strategy, with the This type of result can provide useful its depth and quality. We consider the clear purpose of triggering interactions feedback to teachers and students for analysis we have presented to be a among students. For example, after improving their discursive practices and tool that teachers and instructors can expressing their ideas, students may the online discussion. easily master. By looking at the three ask questions or opinions from their levels we propose (fact, simply theory, peers (i.e. “what do you think about complex theory), the quality of the 5.Conclusions this?”) with the intention of eliciting discussions can be monitored, and by feedback, or obtaining their alliance In this paper we have presented the using the transaction comments, it can or collaboration. The “transaction Blended Collaborative Constructive be advanced. comments” are usually able to push Participation model as a teaching model other participants to comment and for university. The model is built upon contribute to the general discussion. well-established pedagogical principles Often such comments unveil the and attempts to put them into practice. intention to support the development We consider the introduction of and improvement of ideas and the shift technology in university contexts, from one level to the next. where face-to-face meetings are eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 50 eLearningPapers ReferencesIn-depth  ronson, E. & Patnoe, S. (1997). The jigsaw classroom: Building cooperation in the classroom (2nd ed.). New York: A Addison Wesley Longman.  akhtin, M. (1981). The Dialogic Imagination. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. B  ereiter, C., Scardamalia, M. (2003). Learning to work creatively with knowledge, in De Corte, E.; Verscheffel, L.; B Entwistle, N.; Merrienboer, J.V. (eds.), Powerful learning environments: Unravelling basic components and dimension. Oxford: Elsevier Science.  lumenfeld, P B .C., Marx, R.W., Soloway, E., & Krajcik, J. (1996). Learning with Peers: from small group cooperation to Collaborative Communities. Educational Research, 25, (8), 37-40.  Bonk, C. J., & Graham, C. R. (Eds) (2006). The Handbook of Blended Learning: Global Perspectives, Local Designs. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.  Brown, A.L. & Campione, J.C. (1990). Communities of learning or a content by any other name. In D. Kuhn (ed.), Contribution to human development. (pp. 108-126). New York: Oxford University Press.  ahill, J. L. (2011). Implementing online or hybrid courses in a traditional university. eLearning Papers n.º 24, April 2011, C http://www.elearningpapers.eu/en/download/file/fid/22293  han, C.K.K., & Van Aalst, J. (2004). Learning, assessment, and collaboration in computer-supported collaborative C learning. In J. W. Strijbos, P Kirschner, & R. Martens (Eds.), What we know about CSCL: and implementing it in higher . education (pp. 87-112). Kluwer Academic Publishers.  ucchiara, S., & Ligorio, M.B., (2009). From facts to theories: a case study. Paper presented at Knowledge Building C Summer Institute. Palma de Mallorca, 29 August - 3 September 2009.  Dillenbourg, P (1999). What do you mean by collaborative learning? In P Dillenbourg (Ed.) Collaborative-learning: Cognitive . . and Computational Approaches (pp.1-19). Oxford, UK: Elsevier.  akkarainen, K., Lipponen, L., & Järvela, S. (2002). Epistemology of inquiry and computer-supported collaborative H learning. In T.D. Koshmann et al (Eds), CSCL 2: Carrying Forward the Conversation (pp. 129-156). Mahwah, N.J.: Laurence Erlbaum Associates.  ermans, H. (2004). Mediated identity in the emerging digital age: A dialogical perspective. Identity: An international H Journal of theory and research, 4(4), 297-405.  Kershaw, A. (1996). People, planning, and process: The acceptance of technological innovation in post-secondary organizations. Educational Technology, 44-48.  igorio, M.B., Loperfido, F ., Sansone, N., & Spadaro, P . (2010). Blending educational models to design blended L .F .F activities. In D. Persico & F Pozzi (eds.)Techniques for Fostering Collaboration in Online Learning Communities: Theoretical . and Practical Perspectives (pp.64-81) IGI Global.  igorio, M. B., & Sansone, N. (2009). Structure of a Blended University course: Applying Constructivist principles to a L blended course, in C. R. Payne (Ed.) Information Technology and Constructivism in Higher Education: Progressive Learning Frameworks. London, IGI Global, pp. 216-230.  Nkonge, B., & Gueldenzoph, L. E. (2006). Best practices in online education: Implications for policy and practice. Business Education Digest, (15), 42-53.  Novak, J. D., & Gowin, D. B. (1984). Learning how to learn. New York and Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.  O’Neill, K., Singh, G., & O’Donoghue, J. (2004). Implementing eLearning Programmes for Higher Education: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Information Technology Education V.3, 313-323. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 51 eLearningPapers  alincsar, A. S., & Brown, A. L. (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoring P activities. Cognition and Instruction, 2, 117-175.In-depth  W. M. (2009). Dialogism: A Bakhtinian Perspective on Science and Learning. Rotterdam: Sense Publisher. Roth,  Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C. (1994). Computer Support for Knowledge-Building Communities. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 3(3), 256-283.  Singh, G., O’Donoghue, J, & Worton, H. (2005). A Study Into The Effects Of eLearning On Higher Education. Journal of University Teaching and Learning Practice.  padaro, P F Sansone, N., & Ligorio, M. B. (2009). Role-taking for Knowledge Building in a Blended Learning course. S . ., Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, 5 (3), 11-21.  olery, T., & Lord, D. (2000). Critical success factors in online education. The International Journal of Education V Management, 14 (5), 216 – 223.  aks, L. J. (2007). The concept of fundamental educational change. Educational Theory, 57(3), 277-295. Retrieved from W http://proquest.umi.com.proxy1.ncu.edu/?did=1380272801 &sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=52110&RQT=309&VName=PQD  enger, E. (1998). Communities of Practice. Learning, Meaning and Identity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. W eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • From the field Experiences with technologies in learning environments n in g K  nowledge-building: Designing for learning using social and participatory media r C  reating Invitational Online Learning a Environments Using Art-Based Learning e s Interventions L re e rning pap ers.e u p lea ww.e a wP eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 53 eLearningPapers Knowledge-building:From the field Designing for learning using social and participatory media [ ] content, and the harnessing of This report presents the results of a classroom action research that looked collective intelligence which Mason at how one teacher redesigned her curriculum while integrating social (2008, p. 155) describes as a mismatch media, Web 2.0 and face-to-face teaching in an Australian public high between centralised control (traditional school. course design) and increased user control (course design reflecting Web It explores the qualities that social and participatory media bring to the 2.0 practice). This is a time where classroom while focussing on students as active and valued participants in pervasive media and a technology the learning process. Building knowledge using the uniqueness of social landscape is becoming increasingly media enabled students to become active and valued resources for both global, participatory and connected, the teacher and their peers. Designing for learning is a key challenge one in which learners and teachers facing education today; this case offers ideas for learning designers and can increasingly become creators of contributes to a research base that can support educators from all sectors. knowledge rather than mere consumers of prepared messages and ideas (Jacobsen Introduction found, venturing beyond the walls of 2010). the classroom, to design learning that Schools at present are justifiably wary Today’s youth are growing up in a digital involves knowledge-building activities, of social media in their classroom. world. Where and how they learn is is well supported by the integration of Over the last four years the researcher changing as mobile learning and social online social media, Web 2.0 and face- has been using social media in her networking become part of their every to-face teaching; producing a flexible classroom and, as a result, provided day life. As a result of this phenomenon, student-centred environment. students with an environment involving what it means to teach and learn is changing as new technologies make Course design using Web 2.0 more freedom and flexibility than the it possible to easily tap into the technologies needs to be seen as traditional classroom. A major issue of knowledge and skills that students ‘emergent’ (Mason 2008, p. 155). concern is that teachers are not available bring with them into the classroom. When designing the projects used to monitor students twenty-four hours Valuing their often hidden talents can throughout this research the teacher/ a day, seven days a week; hence, an be a difficult task within a high school researcher incorporated concepts of element of trust and understanding curriculum program. As this research student empowerment, user generated must be built. For some young people, Tags social and participatory media, online learning, knowledge-building, classroom action research, secondary school Author Gail Casey, Deakin University, Greelong, Oceania [ +] Acknowledgement The author would like to thank her Deakin PhD Supervisor, Professor Terry Evans, for his ongoing assistance throughout the study and acknowledge the quality of his advice. Languages cz da de bg et el es fr it lv lt hu nl pl pt ro sk sl fi sv eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 54 eLearningPapersFrom the field     Semester 2, 2010 classroom Ning Semester 1 2011 classroom Ning   Semester 2, 2011 classroom Ning Screen clipping taken: 19/10/2011 Screen clipping taken: 19/10/2011 Screen clipping taken: 19/10/2011 Figure 1: Visitors recorded on each of the three online Nings used during the research monitoring their own developed online Web 2.0. The data was collected over that does not merely emulate the work site for new activity or comment can approximately 18 months commencing of mature scholars or designers but become a seemingly addictive pastime July, 2010 and was collected from all that substantively advances the state of but as Mason (2008, p. 70) discusses, of the teacher/researchers semester knowledge in the classroom community there are many advantages in using the long-classes. The teacher/researcher and situates it within the larger societal unique qualities of social media when in taught 7 semester-length classes during knowledge building effort (Scardamalia the classroom: they require students to the first semester and 5 during the & Bereiter 2006). By using one online participate, think, contribute and become second semester. The third semester of Ning each semester as a shared social active in their learning. data collection was still in progress at networked classroom the teacher/ the time of writing this paper. Students researcher could observe the building Research Design were aged between 13 and 16 years and sharing of knowledge that occurred of age and the average class size was through formal teacher directed projects This research is a qualitative study 25. All students during the first two and informal student directed activities. investigating emergence, connections semesters of data collection were from One could also monitor the visitors to and designs for learning. The one Year 7 to 12 co-educational public the Ning from around the world. At connections now being made, outside high school in Geelong, Australia. times classes engaged in global projects the classroom, with social media and Students were predominantly from but the Ning was not used directly for learning, demonstrate that what it means mid-range socioeconomic backgrounds these. It is interesting however, to see to teach and learn is changing. The and the school student population was the selection of wider audience shown researcher combined Graham Nuthall’s approximately 900. The data collected in Figure 1 which shows the automated (2007) “lens on learning” with Luckin’s included teacher planning documents, visitor maps for each of the 3 Nings (2010) knowledge building pedagogy field notes, student work, end-of-week at the time of writing this paper (each to help her conceptualise and analyse reflections, mid-term and end-of-term computer’s unique identifier ensures data whilst making links to social reflections as well as critical friend that any one computer is only registered constructivist teaching in addition to and peer feedback. Students used once). This perhaps shows some work chaos and complexity theories. pseudonyms when online which they towards building, what Scardamalia and This study uses an action research could change at any time hence they Bereiter call, societal knowledge. method. The researcher is a PhD student often could not identify who a student Throughout this research, students as well as the classroom teacher and uses was or from which class they were a were faced with a wide range of tools Armstrong and Moore’s (2004, p. 13) member. which encouraged them to think, framework of the action research spiral create and share. Multimodal methods which explicitly seeks to encourage inclusive processes through research Designing for learning - of learning were at their fingertips and knowledge building new literacies became part of the day- design, practice and process, and research to-day learning cycle. Some examples outcomes. This action research cycle Knowledge building pedagogy is based of student work follow and are drawn included the designing of learning on the premise that authentic, creative from the large quantity of data collected experiences that combined social knowledge work can take place in as students used a wide range of Web media with face-to-face teaching and school classrooms – knowledge work 2.0 tools. These included: eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 55 eLearningPapersFrom the field   Figure 2: Animated podcast made by a student using a ‘Voki’ for an Internet Safety project, http://ghs2010.ning.com/group/internetsafety?groupUrl=internetsafety&id=6203891%3AGroup%3A4 301&xg_pw=&page=2#comments Screen clipping taken: 17/10/2011, 4:28 PM • Survey generators: http://polldaddy.com/ • Picture podcasting: http://voicethread.com/ • http://www.voki.com/ • http://blabberize.com/ • Photo editing: http://www.picnik.com/ • http://click7.org/image-mosaic-generator/?create • http://zoom.it/arOi • Word clouds: http://www.tagxedo.com/ • http://www.wordle.net/ • Cartoon makers: http://www.toondoo.com/ • http://www.makebeliefscomix.com/ • Movie making with copyright free music: http://animoto.com/ • Animation creators: http://www.xtranormal.com/watch/6919105/identity-theft-2 • Picture globe generator: http://taggalaxy.de/ • Picture editor: http://www.picnik.com/ • Mind mapping: https://bubbl.us/ • http://www.wallwisher.com/ • Real world pictures: http://www.google.com/earth/index.html • http://photosynth.net/ • http://maps.google.com/ • Timeline creator: http://www.timetoast.com/ • QR code generator: http://www.mobile-barcodes.com/qr-code-generator/ • Data visualization: http://ghs2011.ning.com/group/datavisualisation Knowledge-building represents an civilisation-wide knowledge and to Internet safety message onto the screen attempt to refashion education in make their classroom work a part of it. which was read aloud by the animated a fundamental way (Scardamalia & This is a shift from treating students as character when their work was Bereiter 2006, p. 97) so that it becomes learners and inquirers to treating them published. Students were keen to hear a coherent effort to initiate students as members of a knowledgbe building each others Voki and struggling students into a knowledge-creating culture. community (Scardamalia & Bereiter quickly understood the requirements of The following discussion of student 2006, p. 98). the task by watching the work of their work provide examples of students not Figure 2 shows a screen clip of an peers. Learning occurred not only by only developing knowledge-building animated podcast made by a Year 7 (13 students producing their own work but competencies but also coming to see year old) student during an Internet by listening to the work of others. themselves and their work as part of, safety project. This was made using a Figure 3 shows a 30 second long video what Scardamalia and Bereiter call, ‘Voki’ at http://www.voki.com/ made online by a Year 7 student using the civilisation-wide effort to advance and this can be heard by following the Animoto (http://animoto.com/) knowledge frontiers. In this context, the link below the screen clip. The work during a digital footprints project. integration of social media, Web 2.0 and involved students choosing an animated By using Animoto the student could face-to-face teaching became a realistic character followed by them choosing upload their own still pictures and select means for students to connect with this a character voice. They then typed an from a wide variety of music which eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 56 eLearningPapersFrom the field Figure3: Video clip made by a student using ‘Animoto’ for a digital footprints project, http://ghs2010.ning.com/group/digitalfootprints, Screen clipping taken: 17/10/2011, 4:28 PM is free of copyright to add to their to become part of a community of world. Examples of this can be seen video. Students enjoyed watching the learners with her students. in Figure 4, 5 and 6 where students created works of their peers and this Social media are about the content and connect with each other through motivated them to learn the concepts the building of a sense of community. projects that contained elements that of the project, complete the task Using a social network, such as a Ning, related to their real lives. When students and to integrate their own creativity, in the classroom allowed the teacher/ shared their analysis and published knowledge and skills. researcher not only to incorporate work online, it supported students multimedia and multimodal texts in a variety of ways. Some students Designing for learning but also to share these quickly and used it as a support structure for their - Integrating Social and easily, providing a collaborative own work and others engaged in a Participatory Media with Face-to- learning environment for students comparison with their own work while Face teaching to communicate. By incorporating some preferred to provide critical social media into the day-to-day lives commentary. All students are different Many students, in the developed world, of students in the classroom, new and as Luckin (2010, p. 173) points come with knowledge that enables literacies, that are becoming part of out; “we need to pause and consider them to create, connect and form a students’ out-of-school lives, were also how we might take more of a learner’s partnership in the learning process; easily incorporated. These concepts are resources into account when designing but these are not widely used in the supported by many academics including technology-rich learning activity and, as classroom, as discussed by Thomas and Alvarez (2001), Fletcher, (2007) Glover a result, how we may do better by our Brown. and Oliver (2008) and Hahn (2008). learners”. “The kind of learning that will Academic interest in the consequences Figure 4 is a screen clip showing a define the twenty-first century is not of the use of technology and the use of student’s published analysis and graph taking place in a classroom – at least media in the expansion of knowledge of the data they collected on how not in today’s classroom. Rather, it is and the development of learning and they spend their time during a specific happening all around us, everywhere, pedagogy, have shifted away from the week; this student’s pseudonym was and it is powerful”. (p. 17) linear issues of ‘use’ and ‘outcomes’ to ‘Mouse’ at the time the screen clip was Authentic integration of ICT is more nuanced concerns with the design taken. Through this project, students important if one is to think differently and evaluation of learning technologies, gained a deeper understanding of about learning and to explore ways to as well as the social complexities of themselves and their daily lives as well reproduce some of Thomas and Brown’s their use (Selwyn & Loliver 2011). as an awareness of how they differ from ideas of twenty-first century powerful their peers. Students were not only Luckin (2010, p. 169), when discussing learning. Throughout her research, engaged but motivated to gain the skills new opportunities for learning, the teacher/researcher found that she and knowledge which allowed them describes the increased connectivity had to, at times, “unlearn” many of to collect, create, publish and compare between people and between the her traditional teaching practices and themselves with others because this physical and virtual realities of their enabled them to connect, converse eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 57 eLearningPapersFrom the field and share this information with their peers online. This was one of a number of occasions when students achieved a series of very complicated processes; processes that would normally take them up to five periods (250 minutes) to complete were completed in only one or two periods (up to 100 minutes). During these occasions a buzz existed in the classroom and students would be out of their seat asking each other for help, comparing notes and being enthusiastically supportive to their peers. The online medium also offered alternatives which helped some students avoid the face-to-face shyness and awkwardness of other modes of sharing such as exchanging physical sheets of paper, moving into physical groups and standing out the front of the classroom presenting PowerPoint slides. When discussing our networked society, Bonk (2009, p. 327) asserts that this new economy now includes multiple voices and viewpoints that can be raised, debated and extended, based on personal experiences and observations. But who helps to ready our students for such an economy? Figures 5 and 6 are screen clips from the classroom Ning showing examples of these multiple voices. These voices provided supportive and constructive   peer feedback that continued to evolve over time through the action research cycle. The teacher/researcher believes that she had far greater success with Figure 4: How I spend my time project – students collected their own data which they published developing student voices online when & communicated online. comparing peer feedback with her eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 58 eLearningPapersFrom the field face-to-face classroom. When using student face-to-face feedback, often students would quickly loose interest in their peers’ work and provided little if any constructive feedback; class time given to this type of activity usually led to students being distracted from the task. Students in Figure 5 produced ‘supporting’ materials for their peers and in return their peers provided feedback to support improvement of work, as can be seen in the number of replies in the screen clip. The Ning   provided a mechanism for students to share their skills and knowledge, to help others, and hence not only to become active in the teaching and learning process but to become Figure 5: The number of peer replies to student made help videos varied depending on the video topic and how long the video took to publish. valued participants. Students became increasingly aware of their online voices, and their growth as digital citizens was essential as the research progressed. Figure 6 shows a screen clip of three examples of peer feedback and some initial peer assessment. For a student to be able to provide this type of feedback they must have an understanding of the requirements of the task and what their peer has done as well as how their feedback will help their peer achieve success. This type of assessment   was kept simple and students were expected to give a high (H), medium (M) or low (L) assessment to three of Figure 6: Students giving peers feedback and assessment. their peers. Students generally found it easy to understand the concept of; a low, not complete and little effort; high, complete and enjoyable to view; and wordy descriptions of assessment and students were able to learn from medium, not high or low. This type expectations. The Ning social network each other using the open publishing of assessment moved the teacher/ enabled student feedback and nature of the online social networking researcher away from detailed rubrics assessment to be open but supportive system. Training students to critique and eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 59 eLearningPapersFrom the field assess continued to be a challenging and and to see, in ways which could be group. This meant that one or two evolving process. used as models for other students. interest-grabbing ideas would not be • Students produced help tutorials to sufficient to sustain the process and Conclusion support the learning of others and actually changing the way student connected learning occurred; hence, the learning occurred in the classroom, Building a shared framework for class frame of thought moved past the using resources both physical and learning was made possible by using concept of ‘cheating’ and into a shared online, was essential. It was also essential the action research cycle to develop framework of learning. that the teacher gave ground to the different ways for students to construct students, learnt with the students and and share their skills and knowledge. To monitor and participate in the Ning learnt from the students. This included using their phones to required an increase in the teacher’s scan, take pictures and upload content. work time. As a partial counter-balance, There has been much research done During one semester, there were more it was found that the teacher/researcher on teaching and learning in the than 150 students sharing the one Ning successfully reduced her time spent traditional classroom. In the normal and these students made more than on correction by implementing peer context of the classroom even the forty online student directed groups and self-assessment with students and most experienced, sensitive teacher where, within the normal school rules by making more effective use of her is unable to measure how students of behaviour, they were able to express classroom observations. This led to a internalise and make sense of classroom themselves freely. Students needed valuable triangulation of assessment activities (Collins & O’Toole 2006, support and scaffolding, not only to data. Reviewing many of the screen p. 609). Graham Nuthall’s research, assist them in helping their peers in the clips collected in this study, one can as discussed by Collins and O’Toole, learning process, but also to understand see the diversity of roles and activities shows that, what matters to teachers and embed the wide range of Web 2.0 in which the students engaged. Initial is that they provided their students tools. The teacher was also new to many analysis of the research data suggests with positive experiences, that there of these practices and needed to work that by combining Web 2.0, face-to- was a good atmosphere in their classes, with the students as partners in the face teaching and social media, where that students felt safe and successful in learning process. students made online friends and used their learning activities, that personal pseudonyms, has changed the way they difficulties could be worked out and •  tudents came with knowledge and S work, communicate and learn but as that life was happy and good for them skills and were encouraged to use and Hattie (2008, p. 240) reminds us, the and their students. Nuthall’s research further develop these as well as to beliefs and conceptions held by teachers challenges educators to value these but share them. need to be questioned – not because to also move to accepting responsibility •  ocial networking was used to enable S for greater student understanding. This they are wrong (or right) but because students to become the resources for is fundamental to effective teaching the essence of good teaching is that their peers. and learning and the challenge is teacher expectations and conceptions •  eer-to-peer feedback was set up P must be subjected to debate, refutation to have students demonstrate their so that each student had 3 peers to and investigation. It is of note that understanding in practice (Collins provide feedback for improvement this research is of an extended process & O’Toole 2006, p. 609). Social and and assessment. where ‘engagement’ would not be participatory media allows more than •  ork was presented via a range of W sufficient. It was not a trial of a ‘good just the teacher to be the judge of this media and published, for all to share idea’ over a week or two, but lasting understanding of practice. almost six months with each student eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 60 eLearningPapersFrom the field References  Alvarez, MC (ed.) 2001, Developing Critical and Imaginative Thinking within electronic literacy, What adolescents deserve : a commitment to students’ literacy learning, International Reading Association, Newark, Del.  Armstrong, F & Moore, M 2004, ‘Action research: developing inclusive practice and transforming cultures’, in F Armstrong & M Moore (eds), Action research for inclusive education : changing places, changing practice, changing minds, RoutledgeFalmer, London ; New York pp. 1-16.  onk, CJ 2009, The world is open : how Web technology is revolutionizing education, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco. B  Collins, S & O’Toole, V 2006, ‘The use of Nuthall’s unique methodology to better understand the realities of children’s classroom experience’, Teaching and Teacher Education, vol. 22, pp. 592-611.  Fletcher, GH 2007, ‘Bloggers welcome here: social networking tools appear poised to enter the school system. It’s a breakthrough long overdue.(commentary)’, T H E Journal (Technological Horizons In Education), vol. 34, no. 11, p. 8(1).  Glover, I & Oliver, A 2008, ‘Hybridisation of Social Networking and Learning Environments’, in World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2008, Vienna, Austria, pp. 4951-8. Hahn, J 2008, ‘Born Digital: Understanding the First Generation of Digital Natives’, Library Journal, vol. 133, no. 13, p. 105.  Hattie, J 2008, Visible learning : a synthesis of meta-analyses relating to achievement, Routledge, London : New York.  acobsen, M 2010, ‘A Special Issue of the Canadian Journal of Learning and Technolgy on Knowledge Building’, Canadian J Journal of Learning & Technology, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 1-4.  uckin, R 2010, Re-designing learning contexts : technology-rich, learner-centred ecologies, Routledge, New York. L  ason, R 2008, E-learning and social networking handbook : resources for higher education, Routledge, New York. M  Nuthall, G 2007, The hidden lives of learners, New Zealand Council for Educational Research, Wellington, N.Z.  Scardamalia, M & Bereiter, C 2006, ‘Knowledge Building: Theory, Pedagogy, and Technology’, in K Sawyer (ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences, Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 97-115.  Selwyn, N & Loliver, M 2011, ‘Editorial’, Learning, Media and Technology, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 1-3.  Thomas, D & Brown, J, S 2011, A new Culture of Learning : Cultivating the Imagination for a World of Constant Change, amazon.com, Charleston, USA. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 61 eLearningPapers Creating Invitational Online LearningFrom the field Environments Using Art-Based Learning Interventions [ ] Effective online learning environments are inviting; infused with respect, Arts-Based Learning trust, intentionality, and optimism (Purkey, 2007). Arts-based learning Interventions interventions like Reflective Poetry, Minute at the Movies Analysis, “Our The arts-based learning interventions Community” Soap Scenes, and Theme Songs facilitate invitational online described include elements of literature, classes. These inexpensive, adaptable interventions enhance learning drama, and music. environments by encouraging human connections and creativity. Reflective Poetry. Online learners are invited to create poems that distill a Online learning environments should (Calman, 2005), dialogue (Calman), complex or abstract course concept into be inviting. Arts-based learning and engagement of affect (Mareno, a few carefully chosen words. Poems interventions enhance human 2006). Perry, Edwards, Menzies, and provide unique avenues of expression connections in online classrooms, and Janzen (2011) found APTs increased of emotion, feeling, and attitude. van help create an invitational atmosphere quality of interactions, enhanced sense Manan (1990) noted that poems do infused with respect, trust, intentionality, of community, furthered application not require a summary as they are the and optimism (Purkey, 2007). Artistic of course content, and helped learners summary. In this way poems allow, pedagogical technologies (APTs), establish group identity in online even force, writers to be concise and learning strategies founded in the courses. precise. Creating a poem requires the arts, (Perry & Edwards. 2010) include poet to engage in reflection regarding literary, visual, musical, or drama This report describes APTs that we developed and used in online graduate the topic of the poem. Students elements. The worth of the arts as share their poems with the class in a teaching tools has been recognized in courses to create invitational learning environments. Reflective Poetry, virtual poetry reading, and instructors face-to-face education (Kleiman, 2008). invite comments furthering reflective Paintings, photography, literature, poetry, Minute at the Movies Analysis, “Our Community” Soap Scenes, and Course thinking. music, and drama have contributed positively to the in-person classroom Theme Songs are described. Analysis, We have trialled different types of educational experience. Outcomes based on invitational theory, concludes poems; parallel, reflective, and Haiku. include reflection, (Darbyshire, the article. With parallel poems instructors provide 1994) , safe learning environments, learners with a poem (written by the Tags invitational online learning environment, artistic pedagogical technology, arts-based teaching, reflective poetry Authors Beth Perry, Faculty of Health Disciplines. Athabasca University [ +] Katherine J. Janzen, Faculty of Health and Community Studies. Mount Royal University [ +] Margaret Edwards, Faculty of Health Disciplines. Athabasca University [ +] Languages cz da de bg et el es fr it lv lt hu nl pl pt ro sk sl fi sv eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 62 eLearningPapersFrom the field instructor or selected from published poetry) on a course theme. Students are challenged to write a poem that parallels the instructors’ poem in topic, rhythm, form, and cadence. With reflective poems instructors provide students with a course theme and ask them to create a poem of any style related to their experience with this theme. Another poetic intervention, “Haiku it!,” invites students to condense a course discussion or reading into a Haiku—a poem of seventeen syllables—in three lines of five, seven, and five. One student response to the “Haiku it!” challenge condensed a discussion of Figure 1 organizational change: In change fear lives large No one knows what comes for them Tomorrow quivers and style.YouTube offers instructors a individuals who are members of the searchable library of movie trailers. imagined community. For example, Minute at the Movies Analysis. if the graduate course was targeted at This activity uses a video trailer from Movie clips introduce stories that grade school teachers learning about a movie related to a course topic. may help students understand related collaboration, the community of Students view the trailer and are theory. A movie story may teach characters created might include grade provided questions that aid them in principles and theories, helping students school teachers, parents, students, and their reflection regarding the actions gain both knowledge and attitudinal school administrators. Each community of a movie character that illustrate shifts. Actors’ actions also provide member has a Facebook-like profile. the topic. For example, in a course role-modelling. Using movie trailers (see Figure 1) The profiles are part of on effective leadership students might provides manageable sized content for the course materials. Throughout the be encouraged to review movie clips downloading, and the short highlights course, various community members from Twelve Angry Men—a movie help to focus discussion around specific are featured in scenarios that illustrate demonstrating influence as one man’s stories/theories. course concepts or create a storyline “leadership” causes the opinion of a to stimulate class discussion. The often whole room of people to change, or “Our Community” Soap Scenes. melodramatic nature of scenarios Dead Poet’s Society where one teacher- This learning intervention combines reflects the title of the learning activity leader demonstrates various leadership the drama of soap opera scenarios “soap scenes.” strategies with a group at a boys’ school. with Facebook-like profiles of These clips provide starting points created characters. The instructor As the course proceeds and community for discussion of leadership approach creates profiles of approximately 10 members are integrated into class eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 63 eLearningPapersFrom the field discussions, students begin to regard Conclusions class colleagues, the sense of trust and the fictitious community members respect is heightened. Learning environments affect student as part of the course and refer to learning (Haigh, 2008). Arts-based 2. Group optimism gives rise to a sense their actions and attributes in other learning interventions may help create that anything is possible. This optimism course discussions. Students may invitational learning environments, is fueled by success. With APTs students create additional member profiles, and infused with trust, respect, optimism, are told there are no right or wrong blank profile templates are provided and intentionality (Purkey, 2007). Trust answers; all participation is embraced to facilitate this. Some students create recognizes humans as interdependent. as valuable. Diversity and creativity self-profiles adding themselves to the Respect recognizes people are able, are encouraged. The class community community. valuable, and responsible. Optimism gradually develops optimism Course Theme Song. Using course focuses on the limitlessness of human (evidenced as confidence) that furthers theme songs adds music to online potential; intentionality recognizes that participation and individual and courses. Music evokes emotion, and a deliberate actions are required to create collective learning. theme song (used strategically during invitational environments (2007). the course) may provide learners with 3. Utilizing APTs, online course Why do the APTs of Reflective designers/instructors can easily, a community-building commonality. A Poetry, Minute at the Movies Analysis, inexpensively, and intentionally link to the theme song can be offered “Our Community” Soap Scenes, and take action to enhance learning at the beginning or end of course units Theme Songs positively influence the environments. APTs do not require and/or at challenging junctures as a invitational nature of the classroom? We additional software or programming. means of motivation and focus. propose the following: APTs can be adapted for multiple Choosing an appropriate theme course topics, cultures, and teaching and 1. Before trust and respect can be song is difficult as people appreciate learning styles. established participants must become different genres of music. Avoiding acquainted. Sharing self-authored potentially distracting or offensive lyrics poems, and movie choices and insights is important. Up-tempo, instrumental reveals personal qualities, values, songs are safer choices. Online open biases, and priorities. APTs provide an source (royalty free) databases of acceptable avenue for self-disclosure music such as www.jamendo.com are that allows familiarity to be enhanced. available. Alternatively, students may People get to know one another. choose the theme song which can be As students take risks, participate a team-building activity. A theme song in challenging activities, expose used in an online graduate course is vulnerabilities and emotions, and find “Destiny” available at http://www. sharing received non-judgementally by jamendo.com/en/track/702401. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • 64 eLearningPapersFrom the field References  Calman, K.C. (2005). The arts and humanities in health and medicine. Public Health, 119, 958-9.  Darbyshire, P (1994). Understanding caring through arts and humanities: A medical/nursing humanities approach to . promoting alternative experiences of thinking and learning. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 19, 856-863.  Kind, P Destiny. The Fallen Angel, retrieved October 14, 2011 from . http://www.jamendo.com/en/track/702401  Haigh, M. (2008). Coloring in the emotional language of place. Journal of Invitational Theory and Practice, 14, 25-40.  Kleiman, P (2008). Towards transformation: conceptions of creativity in higher education. Innovations in Education and . Teaching International, 45(3), 209-217.  Mareno, N. A. (2006). A nursing course with the great masters. Nursing Education Perspectives, 27(4), 182-183.  Perry, B., & Edwards, M. (2010). Creating a culture of community in the online classroom using artistic pedagogical technologies. Using Emerging Technologies in Distance Education. G. Veletsianos (Ed.). Edmonton, AB: AU Press.  Perry, B., & Edwards, M., Menzies, C., & Janzen, K. (2011). Using Invitational Theory to Understand the Effectiveness of Artistic Pedagogical Technologies in Creating an Invitational Classroom in the Online Educational Milieu. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on e-Learning (ICEL), Kelowna, BC, June 27-28.  Purkey, W. W. (2007). An introduction to invitational theory, retrieved October 15, 2011 from www.invitationaleducation.net/ie/ie_intro2.htm  an Manen, M. (1990). Researching lived experience: Human science for an action sensitive pedagogy. London, ON: v Althouse. eLearning Papers www.elearningpapers.eu Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
    • ear sning eL er learn ingpape rs.eu Papal edition .e www eci SpeLearning Papers is an online journal highlighting the latesttrends in the area, published five times a year, offering anexecutive summary of each article, translated in21 languages. eLearning Papers is free of charge, availableat its own domain: www.elearningpapers.euwww.elearningeuropa.info portal is an initiative of theEuropean Commission’s Directorate-General for Education andCulture, aiming to promote the use of ICT for lifelong learning.The site offers the latest information, tools and resourcesdeveloped around three main services: Directory, Newsletterand the online journal eLearning Papers.www.elearningeuropa.info is an open platform where theplayers and communities using it can obtain information, shareexperiences, present their projects and discuss ideas.elearningeuropa.info eLearning Papers Special Edition edited by An initiative of the European Commission