Transcript of "Creating invitational online learning environments using art based learning interventions"
From the field Creating Invitational Online Learning Environments Using Art-Based Learning InterventionsAuthors Effective online learning environments are inviting; infused with respect, trust, inten- tionality, and optimism (Purkey, 2007). Arts-based learning interventions like Reflec-Beth Perry, RN, PhDAssociate Professor tive Poetry, Minute at the Movies Analysis, “Our Community” Soap Scenes, and ThemeFaculty of Health Disciplines Songs facilitate invitational online classes. These inexpensive, adaptable interventionsAthabasca University enhance learning environments by encouraging human connections and creativity.Canadabethp@athabascau.caKatherine J. Janzen, RN,MN 1. IntroductionAssistant Professor Online learning environments should be inviting. Arts-based learning interventions enhanceFaculty of Health and human connections in online classrooms, and help create an invitational atmosphere infusedCommunity Studies with respect, trust, intentionality, and optimism (Purkey, 2007). Artistic pedagogical tech-Mount Royal UniversityCanada nologies (APTs), learning strategies founded in the arts, (Perry & Edwards. 2010) include email@example.com erary, visual, musical, or drama elements. The worth of the arts as teaching tools has been recognized in face-to-face education (Kleiman, 2008). Paintings, photography, literature, po-Margaret Edwards, RN,PhD etry, music, and drama have contributed positively to the in-person classroom educationalProfessor and Associate experience. Outcomes include reflection, (Darbyshire, 1994) , safe learning environments,Dean (Calman, 2005), dialogue (Calman), and engagement of affect (Mareno, 2006). Perry, Ed-Faculty of Health Disciplines wards, Menzies, and Janzen (2011) found APTs increased quality of interactions, enhancedAthabasca University sense of community, furthered application of course content, and helped learners establishCanada group identity in online firstname.lastname@example.org This report describes APTs that we developed and used in online graduate courses to create invitational learning environments. Reflective Poetry, Minute at the Movies Analysis, “OurTags Community” Soap Scenes, and Course Theme Songs are described. Analysis, based on invita- tional theory, concludes the article.invitational online learningenvironment, artisticpedagogical technology, 2. Arts-Based Learning Interventionsarts-based teaching,reflective poetry The arts-based learning interventions described include elements of literature, drama, and music. 2.1 Reflective Poetry Online learners are invited to create poems that distill a complex or abstract course concept into a few carefully chosen words. Poems provide unique avenues of expression of emotion, feeling, and attitude. van Manan (1990) noted that poems do not require a summary as they are the summary. In this way poems allow, even force, writers to be concise and precise. Creating a poem requires the poet to engage in reflection regarding the topic of the poem. ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • www.elearningpapers.eueL ers 27 u ers.e gpap .elea rnin n.º 27 • December 2011Pap www 1
From the fieldStudents share their poems with the class in a virtual poetry 2.2 Minute at the Movies Analysisreading, and instructors invite comments furthering reflectivethinking. This activity uses a video trailer from a movie related to a course topic. Students view the trailer and are provided questions thatWe have trialled different types of poems; parallel, reflective, aid them in their reflection regarding the actions of a movieand Haiku. With parallel poems instructors provide learners with character that illustrate the topic. For example, in a course ona poem (written by the instructor or selected from published effective leadership students might be encouraged to reviewpoetry) on a course theme. Students are challenged to write movie clips from Twelve Angry Men –a movie demonstrating in-a poem that parallels the instructors’ poem in topic, rhythm, fluence as one man’s “leadership” causes the opinion of a wholeform, and cadence. With reflective poems instructors provide room of people to change, or Dead Poet’s Society where onestudents with a course theme and ask them to create a poem of teacher-leader demonstrates various leadership strategies withany style related to their experience with this theme. Another a group at a boys’ school. These clips provide starting pointspoetic intervention, “Haiku it!,” invites students to condense a for discussion of leadership approach and style. YouTube offerscourse discussion or reading into a Haiku –a poem of seventeen instructors a searchable library of movie trailers.syllables– in three lines of five, seven, and five. Movie clips introduce stories that may help students under-One student response to the “Haiku it!” challenge condensed a stand related theory. A movie story may teach principles anddiscussion of organizational change: theories, helping students gain both knowledge and attitudinal shifts. Actors’ actions also provide role-modelling. Using movie In change fear lives large trailers provides manageable sized content for downloading, No one knows what comes for them and the short highlights help to focus discussion around specific Tomorrow quivers stories/theories. “Our Community” Soap Scenes. This learning intervention com- bines the drama of soap opera scenarios with Facebook-likeFigure 1: Example of a Community Member Facebook-like Profile ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • www.elearningpapers.eu eL ers 27 u ers.e gpap .elea rnin n.º 27 • December 2011 Pap www 2
From the fieldprofiles of created characters. The instructor creates profiles of and responsible. Optimism focuses on the limitlessness of hu-approximately 10 individuals who are members of the imagined man potential; intentionality recognizes that deliberate actionscommunity. For example, if the graduate course was targeted at are required to create invitational environments (2007).grade school teachers learning about collaboration, the commu- Why do the APTs of Reflective Poetry, Minute at the Moviesnity of characters created might include grade school teachers, Analysis, “Our Community” Soap Scenes, and Theme Songsparents, students, and school administrators. Each community positively influence the invitational nature of the classroom?member has a Facebook-like profile. (see Figure 1) The profiles We propose the following:are part of the course materials. Throughout the course, variouscommunity members are featured in scenarios that illustrate 1. Before trust and respect can be established participantscourse concepts or create a storyline to stimulate class discus- must become acquainted. Sharing self-authored poems,sion. The often melodramatic nature of scenarios reflects the and movie choices and insights reveals personal qualities,title of the learning activity “soap scenes.” values, biases, and priorities. APTs provide an acceptable avenue for self-disclosure that allows familiarity to be en-As the course proceeds and community members are integrat- hanced. People get to know one another. As students takeed into class discussions, students begin to regard the fictitious risks, participate in challenging activities, expose vulnera-community members as part of the course and refer to their bilities and emotions, and find sharing received non-judge-actions and attributes in other course discussions. Students may mentally by class colleagues, the sense of trust and respectcreate additional member profiles, and blank profile templates is heightened.are provided to facilitate this. Some students create self-profiles 2. Group optimism gives rise to a sense that anything is possi-adding themselves to the community. ble. This optimism is fueled by success. With APTs students are told there are no right or wrong answers; all participa-2.3 Course Theme Song tion is embraced as valuable. Diversity and creativity areUsing course theme songs adds music to online courses. Music encouraged. The class community gradually develops opti-evokes emotion, and a theme song (used strategically during mism (evidenced as confidence) that furthers participationthe course) may provide learners with a community-building and individual and collective learning.commonality. A link to the theme song can be offered at the 3. Utilizing APTs, online course designers/instructors can eas-beginning or end of course units and/or at challenging junctures ily, inexpensively, and intentionally take action to enhanceas a means of motivation and focus. learning environments. APTs do not require additional soft- ware or programming. APTs can be adapted for multipleChoosing an appropriate theme song is difficult as people ap- course topics, cultures, and teaching and learning styles.preciate different genres of music. Avoiding potentially distract-ing or offensive lyrics is important. Up-tempo, instrumentalsongs are safer choices. Online open source (royalty free) data-bases of music such as www.jamendo.com are available. Alter- Referencesnatively, students may choose the theme song which can be a Calman, K.C. (2005). The arts and humanities in health andteam-building activity. A theme song used in an online graduate medicine. Public Health, 119, 958-9.course is “Destiny” available at http://www.jamendo.com/en/ Darbyshire, P. (1994). Understanding caring through arts andtrack/702401. humanities: A medical/nursing humanities approach to promoting alternative experiences of thinking and learning. Journal of Advanced3. Conclusions Nursing, 19, 856-863.Learning environments affect student learning (Haigh, 2008). Kind, P., Destiny. The Fallen Angel, retrieved October 14, 2011Arts-based learning interventions may help create invitational from http://www.jamendo.com/en/track/702401.learning environments, infused with trust, respect, optimism,and intentionality (Purkey, 2007). Trust recognizes humans as Haigh, M. (2008). Coloring in the emotional language of place.interdependent. Respect recognizes people are able, valuable, Journal of Invitational Theory and Practice, 14, 25-40. ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • www.elearningpapers.eu eL ers 27 u ers.e gpap .elea rnin n.º 27 • December 2011 Pap www 3
From the fieldKleiman, P. (2008). Towards transformation: conceptions ofcreativity in higher education. Innovations in Education and TeachingInternational, 45(3), 209-217.Mareno, N. A. (2006). A nursing course with the great masters.Nursing Education Perspectives, 27(4), 182-183.Perry, B., & Edwards, M. (2010). Creating a culture of commu-nity in the online classroom using artistic pedagogical technologies.Using Emerging Technologies in Distance Education. G.Veletsianos (Ed.).Edmonton, AB: AU Press.Perry, B., & Edwards, M., Menzies, C., & Janzen, K. (2011).Using Invitational Theory to Understand the Effectiveness ofArtistic Pedagogical Technologies in Creating an InvitationalClassroom in the Online Educational Milieu. Proceedings of the6th International Conference on e-Learning (ICEL), Kelowna, BC,June 27-28.Purkey, W. W. (2007). An introduction to invitational theory,retrieved October 15, 2011 from www.invitationaleducation.net/ie/ie_intro2.htmvan Manen, M. (1990). Researching lived experience: Human sciencefor an action sensitive pedagogy. London, ON: Althouse. Edition and production Name of the publication: eLearning Papers Copyrights ISSN: 1887-1542 The texts published in this journal, unless otherwise indicated, are subject Publisher: elearningeuropa.info to a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-NoDerivativeWorks Edited by: P.A.U. Education, S.L. 3.0 Unported licence. They may be copied, distributed and broadcast pro- Postal address: c/Muntaner 262, 3r, 08021 Barcelona (Spain) vided that the author and the e-journal that publishes them, eLearning Phone: +34 933 670 400 Papers, are cited. Commercial use and derivative works are not permitted. Email: email@example.com The full licence can be consulted on http://creativecommons.org/licens- Internet: www.elearningpapers.eu es/by-nc-nd/3.0/ ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • www.elearningpapers.eueL ers 27 u ers.e gpap .elea rnin n.º 27 • December 2011Pap www 4