T-learning for social inclusion
            Chiara Sancin. Valentina Castello, Vittorio Dell’Aiuto & Daniela Di Genova
   ...
Although e-learning is an all-encompassing term used in reference to ‘learning through any
electronic device’, it is most ...
An MHP application can provide various information typologies: graphic support to the
audio/video programme; auxiliary inf...
−   training for immigrants supporting intercultural integration.
A segment of the (potential market) in which the use of ...
drastically based on socio-economic status, which is a combination of household income,
education level and age of people....
technology promises a large number of new possible uses for this kind of population, within
today’s information society. D...
Figure. System architecture to support interoperability

BEACON intends to achieve the ambitious goal of providing methodo...
−   The use of an accessible language to young audience, interactivity and speed of
        contents;
    −   Contents org...
Figure 5. Index of contents                   Figure 6. Example of a page course




Figure 7. Example of an exercise.    ...
Many others local, national and international projects are exploring, in these days, DTT
solutions for t-learning and t-go...
Piesing, J. (2006). The DVB multimedia home platform (MHP) and related specifications, Proceedings of
the IEEE, vol.94, Is...
Authors


               Chiara Sancin
               Project Manager Senior
               DIDA, Rome, Italy
            ...
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T-learning for social inclusion

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Authors: Chiara Sancin, Valentina Castello, Vittorio Dell’Aiuto, Daniela Di Genova.
This paper focuses on research themes related to t-learning applications. It particularly deals with digital divide and social inclusion issues and the most relevant features of t-learning.

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  1. 1. T-learning for social inclusion Chiara Sancin. Valentina Castello, Vittorio Dell’Aiuto & Daniela Di Genova DIDA, Italy Summary This paper focuses on research themes related to t-learning applications. It particularly deals with digital divide and social inclusion issues and the most relevant features of t-learning. It reports also the main evidences arising from the Beacon project, funded on the last call of the 6th framework program. BEACON (Brazilian European Consortium for DTT Services) is a three years innovative research project on Digital Terrestrial Television with three core objectives: − the development of interoperability between the European (DVB) and the Brazilian (SBTVD) Digital Terrestrial Television standards; − the study of a methodology for distance learning through digital television; and − the delivery of t-learning services related to social inclusion in Sao Paulo, Brasil. The term t-learning can be related to the fruition of interactive training materials, contents and services using a digital decoder. The t-learning usability features and their ability to spread on a lager scale than eLearning open up new scenarios for teaching addressed to a broader number of potential users, in terms of both formal and non formal training. The real development of the t-learning system and its applications is based on the integration of the opportunities and functionalities of both Digital Terrestrial Television and eLearning, especially in terms of increasing interactivity, bringing up opportunities for more engaged learning and virtual communities. The development of new value added services based on the Digital Video Broadcasting Terrestrial (DVB-T) technology will make it possible to address a large amount of end users. The main goal is to offer learning services to users that can’t afford – for economic or cultural causes – an internet connection and a PC, but are TV owners, and to let them acquire knowledge in many sectors, favouring the improvement of their working competitiveness. The new digital broadcasting platforms will contribute to media diversity in many countries’ future and will increase the possibility of learning activities and governmental and cultural services for citizens. Keywords: t-learning, interactivity, inclusion, digital decoder, media, dvb-t, dvb, dtt, sbtvd, digital terrestrial television, broadcasting platforms 1 Introduction Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT) is an implementation of digital technology that, comparing to the analogue television, provides a greater number of channels, a better quality of picture and sound through a conventional antenna rather than a satellite dish or a cable connection. Digital television represents a new multiple-channel data broadcasting that affect not only the technology side but also the content itself. Digital terrestrial television represents an opportunity both for consumers, which may benefit from better quality services and a richer offer of programs and providers, and industries, which may obtain profit from the development of a new technology and market. 1 eLearning Papers • www.elearningpapers.eu • Nº 12 • February 2009 • ISSN 1887-1542
  2. 2. Although e-learning is an all-encompassing term used in reference to ‘learning through any electronic device’, it is most commonly used for computer-enhanced learning. As a subset of e- learning, t-learning (learning through interactive digital television - IDTV) can prove highly beneficial to regions where access to internet-enabled computers is significantly low. Within this framework, the t-learning has reached a considerable importance in the last years and is emerging as an innovative media to allow users to get learning services at home. The real development of the t-learning system and of its applications is based on the integration of the opportunities and functionalities of both Digital Terrestrial Television and e-learning. This paper focuses on the research themes related to t-learning system applications and technology supported learning for disadvantaged groups. It particularly deals with digital divide and social inclusion issues and the most relevant features of t-learning. It reports also the main evidences arising from the Beacon (Brazilian European Consortium for DTT Services) project. 2 T-learning The term t-learning can be related to the fruition of interactive training materials and tools using a digital decoder (commonly referred as STB or Set Top Box). The number of the people that will be able to access the programs by t-learning results to be greater in comparison to the people able to follow some courses by e-learning. The reception of the Digital Television happens through a specific decoder of limited cost, endowed with a simple interface that can be connected to a standard television set. This device is usually of small size and does not need complex operations for the switching on, the turning off and the selection of the desired channels. The diffusion of the digital television happens through the transmission in broadcast by radio waves and introduces a important advantage in comparison to the Internet way, in particular in domestic environments. Usually the available Television, in addition, is a system without traffic or bandwidth limitations. Moreover, the interaction with remote service centres can be easily designed to require a connection to an active phone line for a very short time. Finally, the psychological cost of the fruition of training in a domestic environment is particularly low, and this is another advantage of t-learning diffusion and a crucial factor to interest a high percentage of potential users. The definition of “t-learning application” fits only to a service that has been carefully devised and designed according to a didactical model to meet the end-user needs and be advantageous compared to other forms of training (in particular, it must present real advantages compared to e-learning and training through standard television, video-lessons and the like). The main criteria behind the design of a generic centre delivering DTT services make reference to an architecture that have to support: − a great number of users (potentially millions) with a specific infrastructure dimensioned to allow a great number of concurring interactive contacts (about ten thousands connections); − the possibility to implement security mechanisms because the exchanged information could be reserved. Implementing t-learning training systems and services requires a choice of methodological models able to supply the end user with great advantages. From a technical point of view, the media on DTT has all the features required: audio and video stream rendering is of high quality; it’s possible to run presentations with graphic aids synchronised; the user interface is simple and can be accessed with an ordinary TV remote control. Moreover, t-learning combines TV transmissions with a specific MHP application creating a multimedia programme which is a mixture of television and e-learning. 2 eLearning Papers • www.elearningpapers.eu • Nº 12 • February 2009 • ISSN 1887-1542
  3. 3. An MHP application can provide various information typologies: graphic support to the audio/video programme; auxiliary information programmes; access control; interactivity. After the success of the e-learning experience, the focus on t-learning methodologies has been placed right away on the usage of the interaction element, since this factor has determined the popularity and success of training through technologies (gaming, virtual communities, cooperative learning). T-learning (Television-Learning) has reached a considerable importance in the last years and is emerging as a potentially important media to create opportunities for learning at home. As a subset of e-learning delivered through different media, t-learning can prove highly beneficial to regions where access to internet-enabled computers is significantly low. To this extent, DTT is strictly linked to social inclusion issues. As a platform for education, Interactive DTT is considered a key system to reach the widest audiences. Figure. Interactive TV overall architecture 3 System applications It is necessary to identify which are the typologies of training more suitable for t-learning, with special regard to the so called disadvantaged communities (in terms of gender, geographical location, physical disabilities, financial status etc). According to some recent researches, the more relevant potential users (and related targets) may be referred to: − specialized training for disable people; − social or public training; − ECM programme (Continual Education in Medicine) for the healthcare personnel training; 3 eLearning Papers • www.elearningpapers.eu • Nº 12 • February 2009 • ISSN 1887-1542
  4. 4. − training for immigrants supporting intercultural integration. A segment of the (potential market) in which the use of t-learning can result advantageous, is represented by the special training required for supporting disabled people, particularly mental disables. There is an increasing trend to involve families in the care of these people but there is also a difficulty in providing a valid support. Also in this case the advantages are represented by the use of some simple and cheap devices lowering the threshold of access to the service. The training for the healthcare personnel trough t-learning is arising a significant interest. ECM is the program of the continuous training for doctors, nurses, pharmacists, biologists, psychologists, etc. Such programmes may take place in a classroom, on-line or in a mixed mode (classroom and on-line) environment. Online training has several advantages because it is adaptable to the working activity of the healthcare personnel and it can be easily distributed during the year. We consider that only a limited percentage of doctors has a Personal Computer at home; moreover it’s difficult to use some public sanitary structures for the training activities. The e-learning results to be just suitable in this class of sanitary workers. To be able to communicate the training directly at home using simple and economic devices constitutes a notable simplification of the process of distribution of the courses. The t-learning usability features and its ability to spread on a lager scale than e-learning opens up new scenarios for teaching addressed to a broader number of potential users in terms of both formal and non formal trainings. Certain components such as edutainment and gaming will play an important role in designing training methodologies effective to foster learning processes of these users, by effectively use media mix and engagement strategies. Finally, the increased interactivity brings up opportunities for more engaged learning also by creating virtual communities that contributes to mitigate the isolation feeling. 4 T-learning for social inclusion The need to enhance educational and training opportunities is one of the most challenging priorities to be met in our ever evolving knowledge-based societies. A diffused lifelong learning culture appears to be the lever to respond to the evolution of skills and know-how requirements. The use of ICT in the fields of work, education and training has opened up a variety of opportunities to enhance learning processes at individual as well as at organizational level, in terms of accessibility, flexibility, customisation, collaboration, knowledge and sharing. In many ways the proliferation of services delivered through ICT can favour disadvantaged people especially where mobility is an issue and where the person has reasonable access to the technology. E-learning is potentially inclusive since it is based on the idea that the use of ICT can facilitate the access to learning resources, having the potential to overcome some social and physical disadvantages (ICT can allow disables to express themselves fully in education, in work and in their personal lives). Improving access to ICT is not an end in itself but a means of delivering services, overcoming isolation, empowering individuals and bringing people with same needs and interests together. Knowing how to access and use information is one of the key skills for employment and involvement in the information age. It is widely agreed that the need to tackle social exclusion is integrally linked with enhancing national and European competitiveness. However, the nature of e-learning can entail access difficulties and digital divide phenomena, namely the gap between those people and communities who can make effective use of ICT and those who cannot; many recent studies indicate that access to Internet connection at home is the key to bridging the digital divide. The problem is that exists a large technological gap across the countries. Digital divide reserves the benefits of the networked information society for a so- called “information elite” and cuts off large parts of society from such developments, this can be avoided by creating infrastructures which provide all consumers with access to services and content in the communications landscape. The penetration rate of Internet diffusion is 4 eLearning Papers • www.elearningpapers.eu • Nº 12 • February 2009 • ISSN 1887-1542
  5. 5. drastically based on socio-economic status, which is a combination of household income, education level and age of people. Potential users of DTT technology can be mainly children and old people because they haven’t the necessary skills to use personal computers; on the contrary, the television enjoyment is higher between younger and older people. The development of web-based learning initiatives has showed some shortages, mainly related to the digital divide issues, such as the requirements in using computers for several users, the inadequate computers distribution and the irregular and limited presence of broadband infrastructure. In response to that an initiative is being taken to port educational services to other mediums than personal computers: t-learning, supported by Interactive Digital TV (IDTV). T-learning may represent a very challenging way to achieve the double scope to learn and to exploit new technologies through an instrument so widely spread and familiar even in lower social classes such as the television set. Social exclusion is subject to many and different attempts of definition and it points to the multidimensional nature of the process of exclusion, which has increasing effects on individuals, groups of population, region or urban areas, or society as a whole. There is not just one digital divide but multiple divides which relate to a variety of factors such as: gender, age, ‘ethnic clustering’, uncertainty of living/financial condition, work instability, and social instability. Therefore digital divide conceptualisations and policies need to be rethought and to take into account the fact that it is basically about social access to digital technologies, which goes beyond the idea of “access to the technical kit” and considers the social relations around the uses of ICT and the socio-technical aspects of the emergent knowledge society. It is about lifestyle choice; identities creation; changes in social structure and relationships; emergence of new work methods; changes in the economies of education and training; creation of new communities of learners/citizens according to a societal learning paradigm. E-inclusion becomes therefore a ‘must’ in the actions carried out at macro level by EU Member States, and at macro and micro level by all social actors (collective and individual, public and private). E-inclusion is the information society dimension of quot;Social Inclusion Processquot; which the EU Member States launched at the European Council in Nice in their strategy to fight exclusion. Social exclusion as a dynamic concept in which different important factors contribute to deprivation; it becomes relevant to take into account a range of “indices of deprivation” (as the University of Oxford named them), such us: employment, housing and income deprivation; disability; education, skills and training deprivation; geographical access to services; crime exposure and physical environment. Social exclusion calls for attention to education, and training policies, in particular with the view that life long learning is becoming vital if people are to be empowered to act as full members of the knowledge and information society. Access to and the quality of public and private services are also major issues as well as care services. Fighting against school failure and ensuring access to the technology of the Knowledge Society, and the skills and competence needed to take advantage of it is also essential to ensure that the information age does not actually create new divisions in society, but rather promotes inclusion and cohesion . The migration from analogue to digital technology also provides more transmission capacity and enables a more efficient use of the frequency spectrum, which is especially relevant in terrestrial broadcasting. This will have positive effects on providers as well as consumers. For television broadcasters, digital transmission will reduce broadcasting costs compared to traditional networks. In digital terrestrial broadcasting, this more efficient use of the frequency spectrum not only arises due to the ability to use one channel to broadcast content from several television stations, but also due to the possibility of using single frequency network infrastructure, which would cause massive reception problems. This network allows to supply an entire mountain valley or urban area using only one television frequency. Even if we assume that the medium of television will not deliver the same level of interactivity as the Internet, this 5 eLearning Papers • www.elearningpapers.eu • Nº 12 • February 2009 • ISSN 1887-1542
  6. 6. technology promises a large number of new possible uses for this kind of population, within today’s information society. Digitization will allow a revolution of traditional television. It’s an extraordinary development which will allow the user to receive a great variety of services enabling various forms of interaction (depending on the television set). One special feature of this objective lies in the continued development of a knowledge based information society with open access for all consumers and non-discriminatory access to data transmission services on the providers’ side. Another important aspect is the possibility to provide government services directly at home (the so-called e-government). For content and service providers, dissemination will become easier and less expensive. After the migration to digital data transmission, consumers can expect more channels as well as new types of content and services. In these terms, the development of DTT system, services and content strongly foster social inclusion, e-democracy, life long learning policies and actions, in other terms, it positively impact on removing obstacles to a wider and stronger citizen participation, quality of life, poverty and group risk inclusion (according to Eu priorities 2009 and 2010). In the Brazilian context, the digitization of broadcasting transmission plays an especially important role as a means of transporting content and data services in the information society. The possibility to deeply and continuously adapt and customise e-contents and e-services according to the needs of the addressed target groups/individuals makes t-learning a precious support to complement other initiatives geared to promote social inclusion. IDTV can play a critical role in supporting policies addressing digital divide because it can be effectively implemented to support social inclusion programs, such as home care for disables or language training programs for immigrants. 5 T-Learning for social inclusion: main evidences from Beacon BEACON (Brazilian European Consortium for DTT Services) is a three year innovative research project on Digital Terrestrial Television, in Europe and Brasil, with three core objectives: the development of interoperability between the European (DVB) and the Brazilian (SBTVD) Digital Terrestrial Television standards, the study of a methodology for distance learning through digital television and the delivery of t-learning services related to social inclusion in Sao Paulo, Brasil. BEACON aims to go ahead in the state of the art of the Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT). In view of the objective to realise innovative t-learning pilot services related to social inclusion in the State of Sao Paulo (Brazil), BEACON will face the interoperability issue on Interactive TV Platforms. In line with main European Union Commission aims, BEACON intends to promote international cooperation on digital TV open standards and interoperability to the aim of exchanging content among different areas of the world. BEACON Project want contribute to the development and to the diffusion of the new digital terrestrial television technology, in other parts of the world, by bringing its significant experience and know-how in this field. This project is characterized by a deep interest to exploit the technology for digital inclusion and social aims. On the basis of state-of-the-art technologies in both Europe (DVB-MHP framework) and Brazil (SBTVD-T platform) interoperability through an adaptable abstraction layer will be created. 6 eLearning Papers • www.elearningpapers.eu • Nº 12 • February 2009 • ISSN 1887-1542
  7. 7. Figure. System architecture to support interoperability BEACON intends to achieve the ambitious goal of providing methodologies, process schemas and pilot applications that will run on different Interactive TV platform worldwide (Brazil, Europe, North America, Japan). On the training and learning processes and systems side, the project is aimed to promote pedagogical innovation in training, notably though the use of ICT, by focusing on: designing and implementing tools to support individuals undertaking self-directed learning; strengthening distance learning and language learning through developing new delivery methods. The technological and pedagogical research issues are followed by in-depth testing (through pilot runs in Sao Paulo). The use of a User-Centred Design (UCD) evaluation methodology during this pilot phase will enable the definition of a sustainable model for t- learning development. Since the DTT wide range of potentials of usages and diffusion, Brazilian government’s fundamental objectives was to promote its development in order to diminish the discomforting conditions caused by the social exclusion. Moreover, the number of households with a TV set are more wide spread than PC; hence the use of TV as a means of content is rather relevant with reference to this specific context. The two targets identified in the Beacon project are support teachers for people with special needs (i.e. for people with disability) and students accessing the university system. In order to access public University, students need to success in the so called “vestibulario” exam. Pre-vestibular course is actually a social inclusion factor; the hardest subjects are Portuguese and the scientific; experts involved in the research pointed out that Brazilian students find most difficult the interpretation of written tasks. In addition, DTT utilization is valued in that most students own a TV as opposed to internet which is often accessed only from outside the household. Finally, as television is a very well-known medium for the transmission of information, knowledge, etc… the expectation of the target group is to have a pre-determined learning track with a simple and linear methodology. Main analysis outcomes highlight that t-learning courses and services for students should be developed according the following considerations: 7 eLearning Papers • www.elearningpapers.eu • Nº 12 • February 2009 • ISSN 1887-1542
  8. 8. − The use of an accessible language to young audience, interactivity and speed of contents; − Contents organized in modules to meet the needs and level of preparation of students coming from different schools; − The course should not be too flexible to allow the students to enter the learning activities as he/she pleases; − To allow the pupil to access the contents already submitted whenever he/she wishes to; − The school subjects for the experimentation should be selected and chosen among: Portuguese and Scientifics; − It is advisable a juvenile format, to make the subject of study more appealing; − The emotional factors should not be disregarded (e.g. displaying a guide/coach during the learning activity); − To have a support services for surfing the contents and a propedeutical utilization track; − To utilize interactivity and to be included simulations/exercises, self- evaluation test. Contents should be planned according to the severe cognitive learning difficulties of the students which cropped up in the various analysis. Finally, a tutor participation would be also much appreciated not only regarding the services supporting the content understanding but also with regard of motivational aspects (the majority of students and experts show uneasiness towards distant learning, felt as a distracting and very directional tool). Research group is now focusing in designing tutoring model (and related competencies maps) that can be effectively implemented to support t-learning courses. The following figures are an example of a friendly and simple prototype of user interface studied for the BEACON project. Figure 1. The access to courses Figure 2. index of the courses Figure 3. Log-in Figure 4. Home page 8 eLearning Papers • www.elearningpapers.eu • Nº 12 • February 2009 • ISSN 1887-1542
  9. 9. Figure 5. Index of contents Figure 6. Example of a page course Figure 7. Example of an exercise. Figure 8. Example of the interaction with tutor. Another project funded on the 6th framework program is SAMBA; its objective is to create a framework for allowing local communities and citizens (including really low income population) to access community-oriented content and services by means of iDTV channels. In doing so, SAMBA explored also the potentials of utilization of iDTV within mobile virtual communities and its possible impact for the creation of future services and business models related to iDTV (fixed and mobile) market. In order to meet the project objectives of creation and delivery of iDTV based community services, SAMBA conducted the following approach: from the content and services production point of view, SAMBA creates a framework for the development of iDTV interactive applications that are cross-compatible between DVB-T MHP and DVB-H. from the final user point of view, SAMBA takes in account both: 1) usability issues related to technology adoption by non expert users, and 2) low cost requirements for meeting the needs of low-income users and communities. For meeting this last requirement, SAMBA studied the use of already existing PLC based networks as return channel of low cost set-top-boxes. Due to the emerging of mobile iDTV market in the targeted geographical areas (Europe and Latin America), SAMBA addressed (BEACON, indeed, focus on standard interoperability) compatibility and integration issues between different mobile and fixed iDTV standards in order to sustain opportunities for future developments. 9 eLearning Papers • www.elearningpapers.eu • Nº 12 • February 2009 • ISSN 1887-1542
  10. 10. Many others local, national and international projects are exploring, in these days, DTT solutions for t-learning and t-government. Interest is growing and at the same time, first results and evidences are building a common view on critical issues and opportunities related to DTT. 6 Some conclusions and research’s and application’s challenges There are real premises to suppose that DTT will increasingly become the dominant means for accessing interactive instructional services and, as a result, that t-learning services will have a large scale spreading. T-learning is regarded as: a better methodology with respect to e- learning being easier to use and considering that difficult access to computers is still a cause for social exclusion in Brazil; a widespread communication and training medium (TV sets are in all households and they are easier to use); an effective solution for fostering social inclusion (thanks to its accessibility and cost-effectiveness). The development of new value added services, based on the Digital Video Broadcasting Terrestrial (DVB-T) technology will make possible to address a large amount of end users. The main goal is to offer learning services to users that can’t afford – for economic or cultural causes – an internet connection and a PC, but are TV owners, and to let them acquire knowledge in many sectors, favouring so the improvement of their working competitiveness. The new digital broadcasting platforms will contribute to media diversity in many countries, as well as strengthening both current and future television broadcasters by providing independent infrastructure, which will also increase learning activities, governmental and cultural services for citizens. In this context, the terrestrial transmission of broadcasting services will play a special and important role in the combination of various platforms and so to address effectively digital divide issues and social inclusion opportunities through a wider education system. Nevertheless the spreading of t-learning services will primarily depend on their effectiveness and reliability (that must at least be comparable to those of e-learning) that in turn depend on: − the development of consumer access devices (end user terminals and associated open middleware) that have to be affordable and easy to use; − the suitability of the developed t-learning services - whereas suitability of the services relies on the understanding of the type of learning resources and the way people learn at home; − the availability of the technological solutions that enable and facilitate such developments. References Attewell F., Gustafsson M. (2002). Mobile communications technologies for young adult learning and skills development (m-Learning), Proceedings of the IEEE Int. Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE’02), Växjö, Sweden. Atwere D. et al. (2003). Interactive TV: a Learning Platform with Potential. Learning and Skills Development Agency. Batatia, H., Ayache A., Markkanen H.(2002). Netpro: an innovative approach to network project based learning, Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Computers in Education (ICCE’02), Auckland, New Zealand, pp.382- 386. Crinon R. J., Bhat D., Catapano D., Thomas G., T. Van Loo J. (2006). Data Broadcasting And Interactive Television, Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 94, No. 1 Garner Group’s Report (2000). Digital Divide and American Society, presented to the House Subcommittee on Government Management, Information and Technology. López-Nores,M. et al. (2004). A Technological Framework for TV-supported Collaborative Learning, Proceedings of the IEEE Sixth International Symposium on Multimedia Software Engineering, ISMSE’04 Aarreniemi-Jokipelto, P (2005). T-Learning Model for Learning via Digital TV, 16th EAEEIE conference. 10 eLearning Papers • www.elearningpapers.eu • Nº 12 • February 2009 • ISSN 1887-1542
  11. 11. Piesing, J. (2006). The DVB multimedia home platform (MHP) and related specifications, Proceedings of the IEEE, vol.94, Issue: 1, 237- 247. Vossen G., Westerkamp P. (2003). E-Learning as a web service, Proc. of the 7th Int. Database Engineering and Applications Symposium (IDEAS’03), Hong Kong, SAR, pp.242-249. Papers Andrealis A.,Baldo D., Benelli G., Daino G.L (2007). Towards iTV applications’ portability across Digital Terrestrial Television frameworks”, September 2007, Dubrovnik-Split (presented to IEEE SoftCOM 2007 International Conference on Software, Telecommunications and Computer Networks) Bijnens H., De Gruyter J.( 2008). How learning through digital terrestrial television (DTT) can lead to an inclusive society: The BEACON t-learning pilots in the State of Sao Paolo (Brasil), DIVERSE 2008 - Developing Innovative Visual Educational Resources for Students Everywhere 1-3 July 2008, Haarlem, The Netherlands Recchioni M., Castello V., Sancin C., Roscani M., Bijnens H. (2008). An innovative and inclusive training system by digital terrestrial television:evidences from beacon project (25 Aprile 2008) presented at EDEN Annual Conference 2008 (11-14 June 2008, Lisbon, Portugal). Recchioni M., Castello V., Dell’Aiuto V., Sancin C. (2008). Strumenti collaborativi, intermodalità e life long learning. dove vanno le innovazioni, (15 Giugno 2008) presented at Sie-L Conference (Società Italiana di e-Learning) - E-Learning Tra Formazione Istitutionale e Life-Long Learning 8-11 October 2008, Trento, Italy Recchioni M., Castello V., Sancin C., Dell’Aiuto V., Daino G. (2008). T-Learning Systems Applications, Interoperability and iTv portability. Evidences from Beacon Project, 30 Maggio 2008 presented to 2008 NEM - Networked and Electronic Media- Summit “Towards Future Media Internet” 13-15 October 2008, Saint-Malo, France Sancin C., Miani S., Bravetti F., Castello V. (2008). Applicazione in ambito internazionale del t-learning, 13 Giugno 2008 presented to Sie-L Conference (Società Italiana di e-Learning) - E-Learning Tra Formazione Istitutionale e Life-Long Learning 8-11 October 2008, Trento, Italy Sancin C. (2008). T-Learning Systems Applications in a multi-channel digital environment. Evidences from European Projects, 11 Giugno 2008 networking session presented to ICT 2008 - 25-27 November 2008, Lyon, France. Beacon deliverables (source : http://www.beacon-dtt.com/en/index.php ) Dell’Aiuto V., Sancin C., Bravetti F., Miani S., Roscani M., Deliverable D1.1: User needs and context of use, (2007). Sancin C., Bravetti F., Miani S., Dell’Aiuto V., Roscani M. (2008). Deliverable D2.1: Common user interface, (2008). CIE and contributions by DIDA, USI, CIE, FFA, TMS, UFPB, Deliverable D2.2: tLearning Services design, (2008) Daino G., Deliverable D3.1: DTT System design, (2007) Bijnens H., De Gruyter J., Deliverable D4.2: Project Presentation & Dissemination/Exploitation Plan, (2007). 11 eLearning Papers • www.elearningpapers.eu • Nº 12 • February 2009 • ISSN 1887-1542
  12. 12. Authors Chiara Sancin Project Manager Senior DIDA, Rome, Italy csancin@didagroup.it Valentina Castello Innovation Department Head DIDA, Rome, Italy vcastello@didagroup.it Vittorio Dell’Aiuto BEACON Project Coordinator DIDA, Rome, Italy vdellaiuto@didagroup.it Daniela Di Genova BEACON Fellow DIDA, Rome, Italy ddgenova@didagroup.it Copyrights The texts published in this journal, unless otherwise indicated, are subject to a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-NoDerivativeWorks 2.5 licence. They may be copied, distributed and broadcast provided that the author and the e-journal that publishes them, eLearning Papers, are cited. Commercial use and derivative works are not permitted. The full licence can be consulted on http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc- nd/2.5/ Edition and production Name of the publication: eLearning Papers ISSN: 1887-1542 Publisher: elearningeuropa.info Edited by: P.A.U. Education, S.L. Postal address: C/ Muntaner 262, 3º, 08021 Barcelona, Spain Telephone: +34 933 670 400 Email: editorial@elearningeuropa.info Internet: www.elearningpapers.eu 12 eLearning Papers • www.elearningpapers.eu • Nº 12 • February 2009 • ISSN 1887-1542

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