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Lecture03

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  • 1. Lecture 03 C++ Programming BasicsComparison between C++ & C:i) input/output statementii) data typeiii) arithmetic operatorsiv) header files
  • 2. C++ vs CC++ is a superset of C.C++ was originally called “C with classes”.
  • 3. Basic C++ Program Construct
  • 4. Basic C++ Program Construct A Sample Program// first.cpp#include <iostream>//preprocessorusing namespace std; //directiveint main(){ int ftemp; // temperature in Fahrenheit cout << "Enter temperature in Fahr.: "; cin >> ftemp; int ctemp = (ftemp - 32) * 5 / 9; cout << "Equivalent in Celsius is: " << ctemp << endl; return 0;
  • 5. CommentsC Style:/* This program demonstrate function overloading */C++ Style:// This program demonstrate// function overloading
  • 6. Preprocessor Directive #includeC Style:#include<stdio.h>C++ Style:#include<iostream.h> OR THE FOLLOWING ANSI STANDARD#include<iostream>using namespace std;
  • 7. Input and OutputC Input and Ouput:#include<stdio.h>scanf(“%i”, &num);printf(“The number is %in“, num);C++ Input and Ouput:#include<iostream.h>cin >> num;cout << “The number is “, num << endl;
  • 8. Stream I/OInsertion and Extraction
  • 9. ConstantsC-Style Symbolic Constant:#define PI 3.14159We can’t specify the data type! What is a Variable ?C++ const Qualifier: What is anconst float PI = 3.14159; Identifier? Rules for declaring an identifier?Recommended ! Int Sum1 ; Float 1Salaray
  • 10. Boolean Type• Integer, character, and floating-point types are available both in C and C++.• Boolean type is available in C++, but not in C.• Variables of type bool can have only two possible values: true and false (Boolean Values).• Even though a single bit is enough to store variables of type bool, compilers often store them as integers for ease of processing.
  • 11. Boolean Type Void Main( ) { int num; bool flag = true;void main() Cin>> num;{ if (num > 0 ) bool flag = true; flag = true; else if (flag) flag = false; cout<<“Hello Halizah”<<endl; if (flag == true ) cout<<“positive else number”; cout<<“Hello World!”<<endl; else} cout “negative number”; }
  • 12. Type Conversion : Order of Data Types Data Type Order long double Highest double float long int short char Lowest
  • 13. Automatic Type Conversion• When two operands of different types are encountered in the same expression, the lower-type variable is automatically converted to the higher type variable. int denominator; float numerator, quotient; ... quotient = numerator/denominator;• denominator is converted from int to float before the division.
  • 14. The setw Manipulator#include <iostream.h>#include <iomanip.h> // for setwint main(){ long pop=2425785; cout << setw(8) << "LOCATION" << setw(12) << "POPULATION" << endl << setw(8) << "Portcity" << setw(12) << pop << endlreturn 0;}Output of the program:LOCATION POPULATIONPortcity 2425785
  • 15. The <cmath> Standard Library Functions// sqrt.cpp// demonstrate sqrt() library function#include <iostream> // for cout, etc.#include <cmath> // for sqrt()using namespace std;int main(){ double number, answer; cout << "Enter a number: "; cin >> number; answer = sqrt(number); cout << "Square root is " << answer << endl; return 0;}
  • 16. Header and Library Files