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Mkt 121 advertising management notes (Albert Cuadrante)


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  • 1. Mkt 121 Advertising ManagementProfessor: Albert Cuadrante I. Introduction Creative ads work and are memorable, but effective ads make you want to buy the product Marketing o Creating preference for a product or service by building a relationship with your target consumers 1. Creating preferences - in marketing, we sell brands, not products or services. 2. Relationship – it is more difficult to ask for money from people we don’t have relationships with. Otherwise, there will be an elimination of choices. Marketers want you to think of their brand when you need something. Price is not always the rationale for buying something. Advertising o E = I (Advertising is an expression to create an impression) 1477 – First print ad (English print ad advertised in Church prayer books) “Advertising” - first introduced in the English language in 1655 and meant “to sell” Difference between the product and a brand o Product – the thing you sell o Brand – identity of your product or service. It is important to brand because we need to distinguish our brand and because we need to establish a relationship with consumers. Brand equity o What your brand stands for in the mind and hearts of your target consumers o This is what people pay for. Types of advertising o Brand advertising (thematic advertising) – ads focused on enhancing and strengthening brand equity. (ex. Commercials) o Retail advertising – focuses on ads that sell the brand at the point of sale. (ex. Posters you see upon entering a Nike store) o Political advertising – pushes for a propaganda, platform or campaign of individuals or groups of people. o Direct advertising – ads designed to stimulate sale via a replied mechanism. You can reply to direct advertising. (ex. Direct mail and telemarketing) o Business-to-business advertising (B2B) – targeted consumers are professionals
  • 2. o Corporate advertising – ads designed to establish and strengthen corporate identity (ex. Nestle’s 100 years ad) o Advocacy advertising – public service ads that are usually done for free for a good cause (ex. DOH’s dengue season ads) o Directory – designed to let you know where you can avail of the product or service (ex. Yellow pages, 500 km to the nearest Jollibee store)5 key players in the advertising industry o Client / advertiser o Creative agency – advertising agency that develops the advertising o Media agency – in charge of placing the advertising that was created by the creative agency o Production agency – produces and executes the ad into TV, radio or print ad o Freelance producers – not connected to any agencyConsumer understanding  concept development  copystrategy  advertising brief  advertising development  mediaTypes of consumers (not always exclusive) o Decision maker – typically has the money / purchasing power. This person does not always have the final say. 1. Categories: a. High-involvement products – expensive products (ex. Insurance, real estate) b. Medical or health-related products – technical terms are used c. Telecommunications – (ex. Diapers) o Purchaser–household products, dishwashing liquid, impulse purchases like chocolate o User – personal products (ex. Snacks, personal care products, fashion and clothing, beauty products)Target market o Group of people who are most likely to respond favorably to your brand’s benefit 1. Make people open up their minds and make them consider the product in the future 2. Marketing does not create a need, but makes the consumer aware of a need that he did not know about beforehandDifference between a trend and a fad o Trends last longer while fads fizzle out o Make sure that our product is more a trend than a fad o Weed out products that have a short life o How to spot trends vs. fads 1. Will the product/service fit basic lifestyle changes? (ex. The increasing number of women in the workforce, the increasing vanity of men, health- conscious)
  • 3. 2. Are your products able to deliver an immediate benefit? (If your product or service takes a little more time for the consumer to appreciate, then they tend to be fads) (ex. Olay’s promise of 7 day anti- aging) 3. Can your product be personalized? (The more a product can be customized, the longer the product’s life is) 4. Is your product or service a trend or just a side effect of the trend? (ex. Mobile communication is a trend, and cellphones are the side effect of the trend) (If something has been there for more than five years, then it is a trend.) 5. Do other developments support this product or service benefit? (ex. Miniaturization can become a trend, but it goes up and down) 6. Who has adapted to the change? Who are the trendsetters?Perception o Perception is a process by which we receive information through our senses and assign meaning to them o Perception is reality o It is very expensive to undo perception. o Three types we create perception: 1. Selective exposure – when we subject ourselves to only things that are pleasing to us. 2. Selective distortion – when we interpret information in a way that is consistent with our own opinion or experience. 3. Selective retention – when we save information for future reference. This information may not be relevant to you now, but you are interested in it for later. o What can distort perception? 1. Family 2. Society 3. Reference groups – group of people we use as role models for behavior for particular situations 4. Culture – tangible and intangible things that define a people (ex. Customs, traditions)Decision process o Need recognition – advertising makes you aware of a need o Information research – advertising makes you aware of the options that you have o Evaluate and comparison – advertising allows us to make a decision on the options that were available o Outlet selection – advertising can direct us to where we can avail of the product or service
  • 4. o Actual purchase – advertising influences your decision at point of purchase o Post-purchase evaluation – make up your mind and see if you want to do this again. Advertising affirms this decision to make a repurchase or make you switch next time. ConceptII. Group assignment Think of a product that does not yet exist in the Philippine market o Brand it yourself o Realistic o 3 products that are not here yet. Mark with an asterisk which one is your first choice. o Go through the toothpaste exercise with the target market and attach to the paper o Interview at least 30 peopleIII. The Persuaders Consumers are like roaches because they develop immunity to advertising Once a culture becomes advertising friendly, it ceases to be a culture at all Adidas advertisement You cannot walk down a street without seeing advertisement Over the last 20 years, New York has become an advertisement city Even the subway tunnel is an advertisement backdrop The more messages advertisers create, the more messages they have to create to reach us (causing clutter, which causes more clutter) The moment they stop advertising, they fade from memory Advertising wants to become the atmosphere, not just suffuse the atmosphere The Persuasion Industry – where will the advertising arms race lead? Song – new airline that is a subsidiary of Delta airlines. Their way of persuading us that they can compete with hip, low-cost airlines like Jet Blue o It’s not enough to launch a new airline. They had to invent a culture of flying o Started with focus group – capture idea of travel o Airlines ignored a target group: women (name: Carrie) o Goal: forge a real connection with women o Andy Spade – co-creator of Kate Spade (a brand that caters to people like Carrie) o Take an idea and make it something bigger o Downplay the airline’s new features in order to highlight its soul
  • 5. o Communication drives commerce o What differentiates something – creating something that communicates to people on anything other than the logical level o Should the pitch be aimed at the head or the heart? o We no longer believe that one product is better, brighter, cleaner than the other o New approach to marketing – not just what the product did, but what the product means (ex. Nike, Starbucks) o Pseudo-spiritual marketing (ex. Nike is about transcendence through sports) o Brands can forge emotional or spiritual bonds with consumers o Create and maintain a whole meaning system. Be a community. o Find out why people join cults and apply this to brands o Because: People need to belong and they want to make meaning. We need to make what the world is about and we need to be with others o Meaning system – can be based on all-time values of the community o Emotional branding – fill the empty places where non commercial institutions could have once done the job o Brands are an invitation to a lifestyle and community o More spiritual trend in advertising put pressure on the advertising agencies o Publicists, Interpublic, WPP, Adcon (?) o There is fear in the advertising agenciesFeel a world through your five senses that can create loyaltybeyond reason – that is where premium profits lieLove Marks – a brand that has created loyalty beyond reason,where it is recognized immediately as having some kind of iconicplace in your heartTide is not just a laundry detergent. It is a liberator. Move it from adetergent to the heart of the familyFor Song, there is a spirit that cannot be copied. Song is not anairline. It is a culture.Can consumers see through the brand experience and go to thething that the product is?I know I’m wasting half my ad dollars, but I don’t know which half.What works? Where does it work?TV audiences are watching fewer ads, and people watch online(without ads)If the audience is skipping commercials to get to the program, thenads should be part of the programMadison+Vine – integration between advertising and programsthat begins even before the show is conceptualizedIt’s not product placement. It’s the seamless integration of productand narration (lie)
  • 6. Advertising as a piece of entertainment that people will not only tolerate; they will look for Webisodes – AmEx starring Jerry Seinfeld (prompts people to sign up for AmEx) Tie-ups between people and ads – to reach wider audiences (ex. Victoria’s secret and Bob Dylan) Market research – Consumers are driven by unconscious needs and impulses o Unconscious associations with everything we buy (mental connection with every word in an advertisement) o Why do people do what they do? (ex. Past reason, through emotion to the primal core where all purchase reasons rely) o Reptilian hot buttons – what prompts us to act (not intellectually) People who want to do well do not necessarily get the best results. Marketers should understand the real need of the customers. Give them what they want. It’s not what you want to tell the public. It’s what they want to hear. HEED THE PUBLIC WELL. Know how to listen. What words will best sell an issue? 80% of our life is emotion and 20% is intellect. Narrow-casting – reaching out to voters on a one-to-one basis Life stage segments – how Acxiom divides the consumer base Understand more about consumers People are focused on their own needs and desires As long as we are thinking about ourselves, we are better consumers Consumers are always the focus of attention The persuaders listen to us when others won’t. They make us feel powerful. How does the problem of clutter become solved? Marketers find a way deep inside us so it doesn’t’ feel like clutter anymore. We’re all persuaders Reduce the person to persuade himself. That is the secret to all persuasion. Marketing is about understanding which translates to choosing proper communication (visuals, words and people that you use)IV. In Search for the Illusive Insight -- talk of Tats Caluag-Cruz, Senior Executive Officer of PublicisJimenezBasic (#1 Advertising Corporation in the Philippines) A new communication landscape has emerged o Old school marketing – talk to consumers and bombard them with information about your brand
  • 7. o Today’s new reality – main objective is to your communication to strike conversations among consumers so they talk about your brandThey don’t want an insight into your mind, thrilling as it might be.They want an insight from their own mind. o You don’t just tell the consumers about your product. You make it important to them.Finding the insight is important because it makes you understandpeople around you o This is the way we can make our product relevant to the consumer. Make the product enter their lives.Everything that makes the world go round is grounded on stronginsights.The best advertising campaigns are grounded on strong insights. o An insight is a launch pad and can turn a reaction from your consumer into an action (purchase)What is an insight? What is not an insight? (Difference betweeninsight and observation) o An observation is the action or process of looking closely and carefully in order to gain information. We observe through market research, immersion, FGDs and the like. These are insight generation activities that lead to insights. o Insight originated from “inner” and “sight”. It should have a deeper viewpoint than what is just obviously seen or observed. Insights are motivators that usually enlighten and provide Eureka moments. The search for insight is a never-ending process. o Insights are understandings about human nature, culture, products, etc. that bring products to life. They are the underlying human truths that explain the behavior of people in relation to brands. o Focus on your strongest insight and don’t give many.How do we find insights and use them? o Every category has a consumer conversation about it. The conversation revolves around a product. o The breakout brands have had the biggest insights and have had the most talked-about conversations. o Successful brands inject an idea into the culture that is based on an insight that is worth talking about. This changes the expectations for the entire category.Where do we search for these insights? o Market – how I buy (traditional consumer insight) o Trends - What influences my choice o Social structure – how I engage in society o Culture - what are the things I do subconsciously o Human psychology – how I think about life—joy, sorrow, aspirationInsights can come from any place.
  • 8. o Category (business offering) o Brand (business offering) o Culture – where your product is marketed (human need) o Consumer (human need) Your insight should always be grounded in the brand and the consumer. Discuss getting insights: o Category 1. The characteristics and messaging of the category? 2. What are they offering? o Brand 1. Image, spirit, truth and views of brand/Product? 2. What it really stands for/core quality? o Culture 1. What are the macro cultural and societal trends? 2. How the world is affecting us, influencing us and changing us? o Consumer 1. The needs, wants and behavior (in relation to the category)? 2. What are they getting and not getting from the category? Some tips in insight writing o Insights can come from any place—category, brand, culture and consumer. But it should reign true however way you dissect it. o An insight may be good but the way you write it makes it even better. The language, choice of words, the tension…makes a huge difference. o An insight should be simple and easy to understand. If it becomes too complicated to put down in words, it may not be real. o Insights should be inspiring, as they inspire the creative work. Lack of inspiration leads to uninspiring advertising. o Insights should be able to move people. If they do not, they are just mere observations. They are meaningless.V. Insights Goal: get the ad to make the customer pay attention Insights – the unarticulated truths behind the purchase behavior of consumers o Product insights – habit or product focused (functionality of the product/service; the way people use products; may include attitudes borne out of previous experience with the product’s functional benefits). How will we get product insights?
  • 9. 1. What is the accepted standard of excellence? (ex. Whitens like bleach; deodorants protecting male athletes from sweat) 2. When do products fail? (ex. Overnight dryness is important for diapers; a coal miner calling with Globe from the core of the earth) 3. Is the way the product works different from the way consumers think it works? o People insights – more emotional or situational. Allows us to go beyond what consumers do or believe. Goes deeper than what we hear or see. 1. How does your product improve peoples’ lives? (ex. Ariel taking time away from doing laundry so the housewife can spend time with her family) 2. What is the most important moment for which the product is used and why is it important? (ex. Feminine napkins; deodorants) 3. Who will notice? (ex. there is always an appreciating guy in a beauty commercial) 4. Who can I trust or believe to help me solve my problem? (ex. Endorsements by pediatricians for children’s milk) Laddering – research technique used to gain a deeper understanding of consumers’ motivations, attitudes and desires behind their product preference. This usually results in a progression of needs from functional to emotional. Advertising that does not seem interesting probably does not have a good insight Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – brands need to satisfy the base needs before going to higher need levels o Physical survival needs – water, food, sleep, sex o Need for safety and security – physical safety, economic security, cleanliness, comfort o Social needs / belonging – acceptance, group membership, love and affection o Need for self esteem – important projects, recognition of strength, prestige and status o Need for self actualization – luxury goods; challenging projects, opportunities for innovation and creativity, learning at a higher levelVI. Concept Concept is the promise that a brand makes to resolve an unmet need or a consumer frustration; the reason why it will be able to satisfy that need or frustration and other elements that may affect the product or service perception We need a concept because people need to understand what your product is all about.
  • 10. What to remember when writing a concept: o The concept is written to target consumers as the audience; therefore, you should write it in consumer language (not conversational = not consumer language) o Everything you write in a concept should be executable in a 30 second ad. The concept should be able to be read in 30 seconds.Parts of a concept: o Accepted consumer belief o Benefit statement o Reason to believe o HeadlineElements of a strong concept: REPTILE o Relevant benefit o Elimination of a negative o Product superiority o Trend growth o Identified competitive advantage – know how your product is better or different o Loved brand o Excellent value – people should be convinced that your product is worth itParts of a concept o Accepted consumer belief (ACB) – statement in the concept that expresses the target consumer’s frustration of an unmet need. It can also contain your insight. Main role: create empathy from your target consumers. It also allows you to set up your benefit statement. 3 types of ACBs: 1. ACB about existing belief or perception – ex. Eating too much sweets can cause tooth decay 2. Statements that set up a problem or describe a paradox – ex. Healthy chips often taste bad; chewing gum can prevent tooth decay; strong on germs, mild on hands 3. Statements which establish competitive positioning – ex. Downloading via dial-up is slow o Benefit statement – the product or service’s promise. Answers the consumer question “what’s in it for me?” This is what your product wants to stand for. Two types of benefit statements: 1. Product benefit – describes the benefit in objective or functional terms. Focuses on how the product works. 2. People benefit – it describes the promise in more subjective terms and uses emotional or non- functional benefits of the product. Answers the question “what is the benefit of the benefit?” People benefits should always be based on the product’s
  • 11. functional benefit.This is because the people benefit is a result of how you use the product.Guidelines in writing an ACB: o Use consumer language o Focus on one problem / frustration at a time (be single- minded) 1. Be realistic – do not set up a problem you cannot solve 2. Try not to say anything nice about your competitor – ex. “Sa ibang leading brand” o Make sure your benefit is relevant and distinctive (ex. Solar flashlight) o Whenever you can claim superiority, claim it.Reason to believe (RTB) – the part of the concept that lendscredibility to your benefit. Answers the question “why should Ibelieve you?” This helps address consumer skepticism. It’s notalways necessary to have an RTB. You only put an RTB when youneed to prove. If you do not have one, do not invent one. 3 types ofRTB:Product feature or Endorsement Distinct product actioningredient o Quality of the o Professional o Technical ingredient endorsement performance o Product o Celebrity (ex. Colgate on aesthetics endorsement a shell) o Lack or o Testimonials o Visual demo absence of (ordinary o Torture test ingredient people) o Unique ingredients o Unique featureGuidelines in writing RTB o Use consumer language o Make sure that your RTB tightly supports the benefit o Check the logic of consumers o Do not be too technical (be creative with technical terms)Headline - Expresses the most important idea of a concept(written last) o Guidelines in writing the headline: 1. Use consumer language 2. Headline should be benefit-based (one sentence only) – focused and single minded 3. Make it the last thing you write because it summarizes the productConcept writing guidelines
  • 12. o Put only in concept what you can realistically translate to advertising o Use consumer language. Avoid technical jargon. o Target reading comprehension of a Grade 4 student o The concept should be able to be read aloud in 30 seconds or less. o The brand name should be evident and prominent. o The exact variants and prices should be explicitly stated. o For high involvement products such as food, use a picture (preferably an actual photo) of the product.Example: Nike o Nike allows you to be the best that you can be o ACB: in sports or any activity, it is always your goal to win. You, therefore, choose the equipment and gear that you think will help bring out your best. o Benefit: Nike shoes and athletic great provide users superior performance in their chosen sport or activity. o Reason why: because Nike products are used by the world’s best, Nike allows you to be the best that you can be.The Promise Board o I promise you ____________ (Benefit) o I promise you will __________ (benefit) o I know that it’s important to you because ___________________ (ACB) o You can believe and trust my promise because _________ (RTB) o Here are the different ways you can experience my promise: ___________ (variants) o To summarize, I promise ______________ o Here is what the experience will cost you: ____________Choosing your strategy: The three U’s: o Increase Users (non-users) o Increase Usage(current users) (frequency) – brush your teeth thrice instead of twice o Increase Uses (current users) – getting you to use the product in different occasionsTypes of non-users: o Non-category or non-subcategory users – people who don’t use that product at all 1. More difficult to convince because they still do not appreciate the value of the product 2. Ex. Detergent bar users (vs. powder use), Landline only users (vs. cellphone users) o New Market Entrants – about to be ready to use your products 1. May be open to your message because they are starting to have new needs they didn’t have before 2. Ex. Household appliances (newlyweds)
  • 13. o Competitors’ Users 1. May be relatively easier to convince because they are already using competitive products.Types of users: o Loyal / heavy / regular users 1. The users you must always ensure will continue to patronize you 2. These also represent the “low hanging fruit” users o Occasional users 1. Moderate or low usage / consumption / patronage o your product 2. Low consumption may be due to less need or competitive product usage, including the so-called “variety seekers” or even users who may have concerns about repeating. o “Loose” user 1. Current users that you are nevertheless in danger of losing 2. Risk of loss may be due to a decline in consumption due to changing needs or encroachment by competitorsStrategy Map / StratMap o A simple yet effective way of thinking through what must be done to effect the desired change in the target audience’s mindset (and hence, behavior) Current Future Target audience Then they will do currently does this (desired this behavior) Because they If I can make currently think them think this (Benefit Barrier) Benefit barrier – the thought that prevents the target audience from believing or accepting your benefit
  • 14. ACTION ACTION “If I can make Existing beliefs them believe…” and attitudes (incorporate (Benefit barrier) strategic benefit) Insight Insight – opens up the mind of your target audience for the benefit barrierVII. The Copy Strategy o The precise articulation of what we want consumers to understand about what our brand stands for. Why the should prefer it over competition. It serves as the basis for developing the brand’s equity advertising. The Copy Strategy is a long-term document and not normally subject to revisions. o Positioning statement Concept vs Copy Strategy Concept Copy strategy Audience is the Audience is Ad agency consumer Written in business Written in consumer language language Objective is to create Objective is to test equity advertising relevance and appeal of benefit Accepted Consumer Belief Benefit Benefit Reason to believe Reason to believe Brand character Brand character o Describes the personality, human traits or attitude that your brand stands for and embodies in its advertising. o It helps your brand establish rapport and be more relatable to your target market. o Brand character examples:
  • 15. 1. The Miracle of Everyday Life (Immodium) 2. Approaches the dishwashing with good optimism (dishwashing liquid) 3. The ultimate expression of love that a Mother can give (diaper) 4. Part of the family tradition (Pillsbury) 5. Mom’s magical helper – what’s hard for others is child’s play for her (Mr. Clean) 6. Energetic and youthful in spirit; fun and easy going (Rejoice) 7. Young, self-confident, sensual woman who openly enjoys her femininity (sanitary product)In order to be effective, a copy strategy must be precise: o Expressed in clear and simple business language o Direct-to-the-point o Decisive (prioritizes)Your brand’s strategic benefit, as articulated in the benefitstatement, must be distinctive. Note however that thedistinctiveness can also come from the Reason Why, BrandCharacter or actual advertising execution.Evaluating copy strategies: o Are you committed to execute the benefit in all your ads? (long-term) o If you have more than one benefit, are they prioritized? o Are there executional elements in your strategy? 1. Don’t specify “Michael Jordan.” Specify “top basketball athletes in the world” so the agency has a choice. o Does your RTB tightly support the benefit? o Is your brand character specific and clear? o Is it simple and unambiguous so that everyone has a common understanding and appreciation of the strategy?10 things to remember when you write a copy strategy: o Do not have hidden benefits 1. Writing a benefit statement with two benefits when you say one o Do not have too many benefits o Do not write vague benefits o Avoid the word “best” o Avoid unclear comparative statements 1. “Whitens your teeth better” o Do not have unprioritized benefits 1. If they are equal then use the word “and” o Avoid vague RTBs 1. “Special ingredient for cleaning product” o Do not have too many RTBs 1. Comes across as defensive o Always have a brand character o Avoid vague brand characters
  • 16. 1. “Trustworthy”, “happy”, “honest”VIII. Advertising Brief Summary of the mutually agreed elements by client and agency in developing the advertising 2 primary functions: o To guide the agency o To inspire the creative people 10 parts of the ad brief: o Project name 1. Nice title to tag your commercial (does not have to relate to your product) o Advertising objective 1. Generally can be summarized into three: a. Inform (ex. New product; pharmaceuticals) b. Persuade (ex. Make people switch; telecom providers) c. Remind (ex. Remind people why they chose it; Johnson & Johnson) o Target Market 1. Demographics a. Basic socio-economic information that helps me try to imagine who the people are 2. Psychographics a. Lifestyle descriptions b. Behavior descriptions o Current Mindset 1. Lifted from StratMap o Consumer Insight o Desired Mindset o Copy Strategy 1. Benefit Statement 2. RTB 3. Brand Character o Executional considerations 1. Things we strive to minimize; best if we have none (to give the agency creative freedom) 2. Things that the agency should have in the ad. What needs to be there: a. Price / mechanics b. Selling line c. Logo d. Etc. o Material required 1. TVC (length: 15s, 30s or 60s) 2. Radio commercial 3. Print 4. Etc.
  • 17. o Budget Importance of ad brief o Needed to be seen and reflected in the adIX. TV Advertising 2 types of TV ads: o Thematic advertising 1. Ads developed to strengthen and push the brand’s core equities (what we will focus on) o Tactical advertising 1. Created to communicate short-term business needs of the brand (ex. Promotions) 4 elements in creating thematic advertising: o Advertising idea – the creative transformation of your benefit into an executional idea. The advertising idea will most likely come from the ad agency (this deals with how they take your strategy and make it creative). Also called the creative magnifier. 1. What to remember about the ad idea: a. The advertising idea is not the benefit. It is not the insight. It is not necessarily the selling line, although good advertising ideas can make good selling lines. 2. Why do we want to have an ad idea? a. Ad ideas give rise to good campaigns b. Ad ideas give the agency a little bit more room for creativity 3. How to know if the ad idea is good: a. Ad idea must be related to your benefit b. Ad idea should be provocative or interesting c. Ad idea has to be relevant d. Ad idea is preferably distinctive vs. competition 4. Campaign – a series of executions with the same idea 5. Example: Allied Dunbar Financial insurance – allows you to have peace of mind (BS). Idea: when life is uncertain, you have to face the music. 6. Bounty Paper Towels – let your kid be a kid (idea) 7. Ariel: removes stains without scrubbing (Benefit), Ariel sets you free (idea) o Drama – the story in advertising. We look at 2 things: 1. Dramatic Focus a. Is the drama or the story centered on the benefit? b. Can the commercial exist without the brand’s benefit being communicated? 2. Dramatic Effect
  • 18. a. The ability of your commercial to sustain your viewer’s attention b. How to achieve dramatic effect? i. Dramatic intensity ii. Surprise ending iii. Humor c. Drama is most affected by brand character o Big picture – the way by which your brand tells its story in the visuals. The Big Picture is the visual that most appropriately and recognizably visualizes your benefit. 1. If you see a commercial, ask yourself what you remember the most. 2. What you look for: a. Substance – does the visual you have communicate your benefit? b. Provocativeness – is the visual distinctive and recognizable? 3. We try to avoid: a. Unbalanced visuals – dwelling too much on the problem than the benefit b. Unclear visuals – visual elements that are abstract or too far removed from reality i. When do we get unclear visuals? Ex. In pharmaceuticals, if they try to explain how the product works c. Difficult visuals – hard to visualize (ex. Feminine napkins use blue liquid not red) d. Off-strategy visuals – visuals that are inconsistent with your copy strategy, particularly your brand character o Selling line – the expression of your benefit using consumer language. Sometimes known as the tagline. 1. What makes a good selling line? a. Substantive – by reading the selling line, you can derive the benefit. b. Distinctive and memorable, can be used for a long time 2. What do we avoid with selling lines? a. Selling lines need to be distinctive – cannot have a generic selling linesX. Storyboards What to do when the agency is presenting the storyboard: o Understand 1. Understand what the storyboard elements are (what the picture says) 2. Understand the copy / the words
  • 19. 3. Understand what the agency is trying to get you to agree to o Evaluation 1. Learn to trust your gut (80% of the time it is correct) a. Your gut is the basic consumer reaction to an ad, and we are all consumers 2. Check if the ad brief is in your storyboard a. Check for insight b. Check for copy strategy 3. Check for the ad idea a. Overall – what is the overall reaction to the storyboard? Gut feel. b. Strategy – check for ad brief. Is the storyboard on strategy? c. Visuals – is there a big picture? Is the drama focused? d. Drama – check the focus and effect if it is consistent with brand character. Check if the ad idea is effectively dramatized 4. Communicate your comments well to the agency a. Communicate your opinion. b. Don’t always try to find a fault if there’s no fault. c. Don’t comment too much on the execution d. “I’m not sure I’m with you on this board.” e. “Maybe there’s another way of expressing this story. Maybe there’s another way we can...” f. “I’ve seen this story before. It might not make our brand stand out.”XI. 6 General formats of TV commercials o Demo ad 1. Focuses on executing how the product works (in terms of features, functionality, special instructions) o Product as the Hero ad 1. Glorifies or romanticizes products, especially food o Vignettes 1. Treatment where you see several episodes driving to a common message. Hair and beauty commercials show lots of different scenes then cut to the product and then show someone with smooth hair. o Endorsements and Testimonials 1. Endorsers are celebrities/well-known people, while testimonials are the common user o Day In A Life (DIAL)
  • 20. 1. Commercials where they show a typical day in the life of the target market, dramatizing how the product plays a role in the daily life of the person o Infomercial (Information Commercial) 1. Infomercial is designed to educate and inform the target consumer about how the product works in the general product category it operates in. Example: dengue preventionXII. Print Advertising 4 elements of print: ad idea, drama, big picture, selling line General creative principle in print: choose whether you send a postcard (heavily visually driven) or write a letter (copy-driven and text heavy) What makes good print ads: o Headline and visual should be integrated o Benefit should either be in the Headline or Visual (or both) o The Headline should be provocative o Use simple direct language – avoid cleverness o The visual should be the dominant element in the layout – unless you don’t have one o Show the product / brand o Bold colors are better than pastel o Keep your layout simple (upper left to lower right) Violator or Headline  Key visual  Brand o Keep your copy or text as short as possible o Keep your ad humanXIII. Radio Advertising Hearing is passive while listening is active. Hearing is indifferent and listening requires attention. Hearing is more auditory and listening involves comprehension. Consumers tend to be hearers than listeners Types of Radio Listenership o Music 1. Usually FM and mostly young adults o News and Information 1. Usually AM and mostly older o Entertainment 1. Dramas, talk shows, interactive programs, (Top 10 lists, Dear Dr. Love, etc) 2. Predominantly female listeners o Sports 1. Mostly male listeners Advantages of Radio:
  • 21. o Very targeted – can easily tailor to listener profile (ex. Teens) and time of day (morning, noon or night) o Speed – easier to produce a radio commercial (1 day); allows you to be more reactive to competitive threats o Lower cost – average cost of radio commercial is P250,000 to P300,000 o Wider reach – more people own a radio (99%) o Localized versioning / flexibility – can easily do dialect ads o Maximizes Mental Imagery – especially good for benefits that are hard to visualize (ex. Contraceptives) Disadvantages for Radio o Attention span is shorter for radio – radio is normally used as ambient noise; so more hearing vs. listening o No visuals – more challenging to engage the listener o Harder to break out of clutter – due to no visuals and noise pollution o Listenership is declining – due to iPods, CDs, internet radio, etc. Signature sound – the audio device that magnifies the benefit of the product. It replaces the big picture.XIV. Digital Marketing: An Overview Digital landscape o Asia Pacific accounts for 42% of worldwide internet users with 21.5% penetration rate o Philippines has 29.7% internet penetration o Immature internet penetration does not equal immature digital behavior o Most intensive: Social networking and Messenger o Most popular activities: Portals, search and entertainment Philippine online numbers o Highest percentage of internet users: Ages 10-19 and 20- 29 o Internet café usage has gone lower, while home internet has increased o Top online activities 1. Visiting social networking sites 2. Search 3. Instant messaging 4. Internet portal 5. Visiting public chat rooms 6. Email 7. Played games online 8. Listen to songs on music websites 9. Downloaded or uploaded music files online 10. Shared/posted something online that you created
  • 22. o Mobile internet usage is more for social networking and search o Top Philippine websites: 1. Facebook 2. Google 3. Yahoo 4. YouTube 5. Blogger 6. Wikipedia 7. Twitter 8. Sulit 9. Wordpress 10. Tumblr o Top local sites: 1. 2. 3. GMA news 4. Ebay PH 5. ABS-CBN News 6. Philstar 7. PEP 8. Pinoy Exchange 9. Cebu Pacific 10. Ayosdito.phThe “New” Target Market o The rise of the internet and mobile led to the “new consumer” o Power shifts back to the consumer o Characteristics of the new consumer: 1. Tech-savvy 2. Multi-taskers 3. Opinion-driven 4. Selective o Shrinking attention economy – attention span is getting lower and it is getting harder for marketers to talk to consumers o The New Currency 1. More explanation 2. Instantaneous reactions 3. Deeper conversations 4. Consumer opinionsGetting through to the consumer o Building experiences with the consumer, with technology as the bridge o Use content that is: 1. Useful 2. Relevant 3. Entertaining 4. Strikes curiosity
  • 23. o Make it fun o Build appropriately o Building to share o Build to reach In this shrinking attention economy, we need to be more deliberate in how we communicate, in order to deliver results. The next phase of media is to insinuate themselves into our life streams Social media o A type of online media that expedites conversation, which delivers content and allows readers/viewers/listeners to participate in the creation or development of the content. Classifications of Digital Media o Paid – a channel we pay to use (ex. Display ads, paid search) o Owned – a channel a brand owns (ex. Website, blog, Twitter account) o Earned – customers are the channel (ex. Word of mouth, viral buzz, online chatter) Display ads o Search engine marketing vs. Search marketing optimization Some takes on group buying: o Consumer is the winner o Good for businesses in: 1. Building awareness / trial 2. Drive store traffic 3. Free advertising 4. Slow moving items 5. Opportunity to up sell and cross sell o Not for building loyaltyXV. Media Fundamentals Advertising o Creation of the message you want to communicate Media o Selection of the channels of communication The trend: o Concurrent selection of Advertising and Medium in creating the message Update on the Philippine media landscape o Central Luzon, NCR and Calabarzon are the most populous region. Calabarzon will have the largest population by 2010, surpassing the NCR. o The Philippines is largely populated by young adults. Communication to them must be relevant because the adults will be the old (and dead) ones of the future.
  • 24. o The working segment accounts for 45% of the adult population. o Key Media Facts: 1. Metro Manila has the biggest ownership of media, but Davao is second. 2. Challenge is to come up with new, in-sync ideas (traditional, internet and mobile) Media Planning Process Advertiser Media PlannerWHO Target audience Target audience Consumer contact pointsWHAT Message Translation to Brand character appropriate media vehicles (wholesome vs. sexy)BUDGET Manage spending within budget (target to save)AWARENESS Translate awareness into media-specific measuresSALES Measures Methods of measurement DAY AFTER COINCIDENTAL PEOPLE METER RECALLBASIC METHOD In home visits to In home visits, Instantaneous interview telephone measurement respondent on surveys, or diary using remote programs viewed, usage to get “real device the day after time” viewing Measures individual viewingLIMITATIONS Requires recall, Difficult to run Requires which is not during primetime, household totally accurate, can not read cooperation and not continuous. switching compliance Gives advantage accurately; not to well known continuous programsUSAGE PSRC-DAR survey Radio surveys AGC-Nielsen – covers provincial Mega Manila cities like Baguio, (previously Dagupan, Naga, Dagupan, Cebu Legaspi, Bacolod, and Davao) Iloilo, Cebu, Cagayan de Oro, Zamboanga, Davao, General SantosDATA
  • 25. AVAILABILITYAND RESULTS T.A.R.P.S. o Target Audience Rating Points o The number of viewers expressed as a percentage of the total number of the specified viewer group with TV o TARP = number of (target audience) viewers watching the program or channel x 100% / total number of (target audience) viewers with TV o Numerator: target viewers with TV sets ON on the program o Denominator: All target viewers with TV (on and off) TARP Specifications o Must specify all three specs o Can aggregate several units o Gender, Eco class and Age Ratings and shares o Ratings – the percentage of household / viewers watching a particular program, among all viewers with TV, regardless of whether the TV set is on or off. o Share - the percentage of household / viewers watching a particular program, among all household/viewers who have their TV sets ON. Reach vs. Frequency o Reach – the percentage of all individuals who have seen at least one minute of the event in a week (or in a month). o Frequency – the number of times a viewer is exposed to the commercial in a week (or a month). o Consumption behavior and purchase behavior – to take note of when you pick reach or frequency. If you are frequently bought and consumed, then you pick frequency. General media strategies o Flighting – points in the year where you don’t have an ad out (when you have no budget, when you have a seasonal product like pharmaceuticals) o Pulsing – you’re not totally out during the entire year, but you lay low. o Continuous XVI. Below-The-Line advertising Brochures, leaflets, take 1s o Things to keep in mind: 1. Use the headline to communicate your selling message 2. Be single-minded in your primary message as well as in your visualization
  • 26. 3. Caption your pictures. These are read twice as often as body copy. 4. Ensure copy-visual lock. This strengthens the message. 5. Avoid clichés. (ex. Generic pictures of happy family which everyone uses) 6. Provide complete facts, but present this in a manner that can be skimmed easily. 7. Make the reader want to keep the brochure, because of its quality. 8. Makes sure you end with a call to action.Outdoor advertising o Average travel time: AB is 1 hour, C/D is 1.25 hours o While travelling… 1. Look at cars and people: 66% 2. Look at billboards: 45% (only 8% read) 3. Listen to radio: 27% o Routes frequently travelled: 1. EDSA 2. Rizal Ave. to Taft Ave. o Important attributes to help awareness and recall in billboards: 1. Use bright and cheerful colors 2. Use of photographic or real life situations 3. Contains product information 4. Uniqueness of billboard design 5. Use of product illustration 6. Use of celebrity endorserPoint of Purchase o Point-of-Purchase Advertising (POPA). Refers to materials and displays designed by the manufacturer and distributed to the trade, with the objective of promoting a brand or family of brands at point-of-purchase. o Key merchandising strategy: achieve presence in the key contact points of your target consumers o Why? 1. Consumers are increasingly mobile; they’re not just at home or in supermarkets 2. Traditional advertising and merchandising venues are getting cluttered o Identify some key contact points for Revicon and Centrum. o Materials that fall under POP: 1. Banners / bannerettes 2. Shelf dividers 3. Wigglers 4. Awnings 5. Posters 6. Off shelf displays
  • 27. 7. Price cards / shelf cards o Guidelines in POPA design 1. Consider general eye movement a. Upper left corner to lower right corner 2. Own a color a. Ex. Coke is red 3. Own a distinct symbol a. Ex. Energizer Bunny 4. Maximize your branding; avoid clutter 5. Provide discontinuity – try to be unique in your material 6. Must be impactful and eye-stopping 7. Demand a consistent look for all materials 8. Whenever possible, clearly present your product benefit o Guidelines in POPA design 1. Establish strong in-store presence 2. To create POP awareness of brand’s benefit 3. Inform consumers of special promotions and prices 4. Help push the brand at POPXVII. Emotional or Rational Advertising Three basic consumer types: o Classical consumers – those who choose a brand based primarily on its functional benefits 1. Dominated in the post-war era 2. Ex. McDonalds with hot and fast food in a self- service restaurant o Contemporary consumers – those who choose brands based on the benefits of the primary functional benefit 1. Ex. McDonalds with convenience and saving time and a drive-through o Post-modern consumers – those who choose a brand that allows him/her to fulfill his/her goals 1. Ex. McDonalds as a place that brings the family together with a play area Multiple goals: o Conflicting goals 1. Ex. Dockers with “business casual” attire o Neglected goals 1. Goals that we choose to set aside for a while. They are still important, but we cannot realistically attend to them at the moment. o For post-modern consumers, you need to determine the goals behind the action (via laddering) Kinds of products and ads: INFORMATIVE / HIGH AFFECTIVE products INVOLVEMENT products o Feeling, high o Thinking, high importance
  • 28. importance o Highly image driven o Houses, real estate, o Cosmetics, cars perfumes, fashion brands, luxury brands HABIT products SELF-SATSFACTION / o Thinking, low IMPULSE products importance o Feeling, low o Toothpaste, soap importance o Cigarettes, chocolates When do we use rational ads? o Rational ads have product insights, o Rational ads have product benefits, o Distinctive RTBs o Product introduction o Defending against a competitor calls for rational ads o Technical message about how products works o Value or price o Promotions o Information campaigns – rational ads to explain the information When do you do emotional ads? o Emotional ads have people insights o Emotional ads have people benefits o Image brands o If you have a parity performing product – a product with no better functions than competitors (ex. Tempra for kids and Biogesic for working adults) o Loyalty ads – feel good about your company (ex. San Miguel) o No RTB (ex. Johnson & Johnson) o Service-oriented business (ex. Hotels, resorts) o Public service or advocacy ads o Aesthetic or cosmetic brandsXVIII. For the Finals We are given a P55 million budget. Do not underspend by over 2%. Do not overspend. 4 million pesos production cost for a 30-second tv commercial Fill in the TV rate card Minimize the text in the billboardXIX.
  • 29. BLAZE