Facts, Figures & Trends of 2012 and Forecast 2013 of the Eastern European B2C E-commerce Market
Including Infographics and...
© Ecommerce Europe www.ecommerce-europe.eu
Table of Contents
PREFACE page 4
ABOUT ECOMMERCE EUROPE page 5
OUR REPORT PARTNERS page 6
MEDIA PARTNERS page 7
Eastern EU...
François Momboisse
President of Ecommerce Europe
Eastern Europe B2C E-commerce
Preface
B2C e-commerce in Eastern Europe is...
About Ecommerce Europe
Ecommerce Europe
Ecommerce Europe was founded by leading national e-commerce associations
across Eu...
Our Report Partners
This report has been empowered by the following partners
www.ecommerce-europe.eu Page 6© Ecommerce Eur...
Henning Heesen
E-Commerce Cross-Border-Specialist
and Board member of Salesupply AG
Russia: From ‘sleeping giant’ to ‘risi...
Pontus Kristiansson
Vice President EMEA RichRelevance
Eastern European growth outpaces other Western Europe
In terms of gr...
Henk-Jan van der Weide
VP Northern Europe & SA at hybris
What is your general impression of e-commerce in Europe?
The ‘e’ ...
Eastern Europe
Europe € 312 bn + 19,0%
EU 28 € 275bn + 18,0%
Eastern Europe € 13,1 bn + 35,6%
Total B2C Ecommerce 2012 of ...
Eastern Europe in Brief
Introduction
The Eastern European region consists of
Albania, Belarus, Bosnia & Herzegovina,
Bulga...
B2C E-commerce in Eastern Europe
Online Expenditure
Expenditure per online shopper, in euros, 2012
EASTERN EUROPE’S B2C E-...
Facts, Figures & Trends of 2012 and Forecast 2013 of the Romanian B2C E-commerce Market
www.ecommerce-europe.eu
Country Re...
Romania
Europe € 312 bn + 19,0%
EU 28 € 277 bn + 18,0%
Eastern Europe € 13,1 bn + 35,7 %
Romania € 800 mn + 33,3%
Total B2...
ROMANIA’S TOTAL GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT
Romania in brief
The Romanian GDP per capita at
current prices in 2012 was €6.200. ...
B2C e-commerce in Romania
Cross-border
Online purchases made by
Romanians from foreign web
shops rose from €6 mn in 2011 t...
Facts, Figures & Trends of 2012 and Forecast 2013 of the Russian B2C E-commerce Market
www.ecommerce-europe.eu
Country Rep...
Russia
Europe € 312 bn + 19,0%
EU 28 € 277 bn + 18,0%
Eastern Europe € 13,1 bn + 35,7%
Russia € 10,3 bn +35,5%
Total B2C E...
11,7%
6,9%
8,4%
5,1%
6,7%
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 (e)
8,4%
7,5%
6,65% 6,0% 5,7%
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 (e)
Russia in br...
B2C e-commerce in Russia
The online consumer and main market players
An online shopper in Russia is more
likely to be fema...
Facts, Figures & Trends of 2012 and Forecast 2013 of the Ukrainian B2C E-commerce Market
www.ecommerce-europe.eu
Country R...
Ukraine
Europe € 312 bn + 19,0%
EU 28 € 277 bn + 18,0%
Eastern Europe € 13,1 bn + 35,7%
Ukraine € 1,25 bn +48,0%
Total B2C...
Ukraine in brief
Ukraine was greatly affected by
the economic crisis of 2008 and as
a result a 14,8% decrease in
Ukraine's...
13-17 years 18 - 24 years 25 - 34 years
35-44 years 45-54 years 55-64 years
65 yeas +
In Ukraine, Social Media usage is
ga...
Ecommerce Europe
How to get involved?
Who can be involved?
• E-commerce associations, voting members of Ecommerce Europe: ...
Our Business Partners
Interested in becoming a business partner? Contact info@ecommerce-europe.eu
© Ecommerce Europe www.e...
Our Media Partners
Interested in becoming a media partner? Contact us at info@ecommerce-europe.eu
Ecommerce Europe media p...
Company Members
Ecommerce Europe Company Members are B2C companies
selling products and/or services online to consumers in...
Ecommerce Europe’s reports on B2C e- commerce
Interested? Order at research@ecommerce-europe.eu
European B2C Ecommerce Rep...
EMSEC
EMSEC aims to provide guidelines to measure and
monitor B2C e-commerce in order to enable all
European countries to ...
Event Tickets
Event Tickets
Tickets for concerts and festivals
Tickets for cinema and theater
Tickets for zoos and amuseme...
European Measurement Standard for E-commerce
EMSEC
© Ecommerce Europe www.ecommerce-europe.eu
Travel
Package Travel Flight...
Definitions
Definitions related to internet, e-commerce and online retailing
• Broadband access: the availability of broad...
Definitions
Definitions related to internet, e-commerce and online retailing
• Logistics Performance Index (LPI): The Logi...
Methodology , Acknowledgements and Sources
This report could only be realized by consulting a great
many sources, availabl...
About the authors
Questions? Feel free to contact our researcher
Jorij Abraham, Director Research & Advice
Jorij Abraham (...
Europe 2012 Key data at a glance
West € 158,bn + 18,0%
Central €76,3 bn + 20,5%
South € 32,4 bn + 29,3%
North €28,5 bn + 1...
Eastern Europe B2C Ecommerce
Colophon
National Associations:
Ecommerce Europe
Rue d’Accolay 15 box 6
B-1000 Brussels - Bel...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Eastern Europe B2C eCommerce Report 2014

1,456

Published on

Eastern Europe B2C eCommerce Report 2014

Published in: Retail, Business, Travel
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,456
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
50
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Eastern Europe B2C eCommerce Report 2014

  1. 1. Facts, Figures & Trends of 2012 and Forecast 2013 of the Eastern European B2C E-commerce Market Including Infographics and Country Profiles of Leading and Emerging E-commerce Markets in Eastern Europe www.ecommerce-europe.eu Eastern Europe B2C E-commerce Report 2013 Powered by:
  2. 2. © Ecommerce Europe www.ecommerce-europe.eu
  3. 3. Table of Contents PREFACE page 4 ABOUT ECOMMERCE EUROPE page 5 OUR REPORT PARTNERS page 6 MEDIA PARTNERS page 7 Eastern EUROPE IN BRIEF page 10 – 17 Introduction page 11 Demographic Indicators page 12 Economic Indicators page 13 Share in Europe page 14 Online share and growth page 15 Online expenditure page 16 B2C E-commerce overview page 17 Eastern EUROPEAN COUNTRIES page 18 – 60 Romania page 18 Russia page 30 Ukraine page 46 HOW TO GET INVOLVED page 61 BUSINESS PARTNERS page 62 MEDIA PARTNERS page 63 JOINING ECOMMERCE EUROPE page 64 MORE REPORTS ON B2C ECOMMERCE page 65 EUROPEAN MEASUREMENT STANDARD OF B2C ECOMMERCE (EMSEC) page 66 – 68 DEFINITIONS page 69 - 70 METHODOLOGY, ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS AND SOURCES page 71 ABOUT THE AUTHORS page 72 B2C ECOMMERCE IN EUROPE AT A GLANCE page 73 COLOPHONE page 74 © Ecommerce Europe www.ecommerce-europe.eu Page 3
  4. 4. François Momboisse President of Ecommerce Europe Eastern Europe B2C E-commerce Preface B2C e-commerce in Eastern Europe is, compared to the other regions, in Europe still in iemerging but is showing high growth potential, especially Russia and Ukraine. In 2012 the total B2C e- commerce turnover, including online retail goods and services such as online travel bookings, events and other tickets, downloads etc., reached €13.1 billion, a growth of 35.6%, which is the highest growth of all five European regions. Growth in 2013 is estimated even better: a growth of 47% to reach €19,3 billion. This Eastern European B2C e-commerce Report 2013 focuses on facts, figures, trends and forecasts for the Eastern European region. Ecommerce Europe is also publishing regional reports covering the other European regions: North, Central, East and South. In this report we compare key e-commerce and other data from Belgium, France, Ireland, the Netherlands and the UK. Ecommerce Europe, representing e-commerce associations and e-commerce companies in Europe, wishes to thank all participating national associations and their individual research partners for providing data and information. We also extend our thanks to all participating company members, business partners and stakeholders for their involvement in making Ecommerce Europe reports possible. Ecommerce Europe’s mission is to promote the interests of B2C e- commerce in Europe. Ecommerce Europe offers a platform to guide and assist companies in identifying and accessing new markets in Europe and worldwide and also to provide information on this fascinating, fast-growing industry. To this end, Ecommerce Europe not only collects data and know-how, but also prepares in-depth reports including facts, figures, trends and forecasts on Europe, the various regions of Europe, and on leading and emerging countries and markets around the globe. The aim of all our reports is to provide insight in order to help online retailers make the best possible decisions in support of their strategy to expand their business into new markets. Brussels, January 2014 Wijnand Jongen Vice-President and Chair of the Executive Committee © Ecommerce Europe www.ecommerce-europe.eu Page 4
  5. 5. About Ecommerce Europe Ecommerce Europe Ecommerce Europe was founded by leading national e-commerce associations across Europe. Ecommerce Europe represents 4.000+ companies selling products and/or services online to consumers in Europe. Mission To advance the interests and influence of e-commerce in Europe through advocacy, communication and networking. Goals • Enhance the success of the European B2C e-commerce industry; • Provide for a strong and effective representation of B2C e-commerce industry in Brussels; • Advance the interest of B2C e-commerce industry with relevant stakeholders and institutions; • In an environment where e-commerce companies feel at home; • With new brand recognition and membership engagement at all levels. National Associations Ecommerce Europe welcomes and invites national associations in EU member states and EFTA countries representing (part of) the e-commerce B2C industry in their domestic market to join the association. National Associations: © Ecommerce Europe www.ecommerce-europe.eu Page 5
  6. 6. Our Report Partners This report has been empowered by the following partners www.ecommerce-europe.eu Page 6© Ecommerce Europe Hybris helps businesses on every continent sell more goods, services and digital content through every touch point, channel and device. Hybris was founded in 1997 with a simple mission: to create superbly engineered commerce solutions. Over the years, the necessary ingredients for that have evolved – multichannel, open standards, very high performance, data centricity, customer centricity – and so our company and products have evolved. RichRelevance is the global leader in omni-channel personalization. More than 160 companies in 40 countries use RichRelevance to turn data into actionable insight, which delivers the most relevant experience for consumers as they shop across web, store and mobile. RichRelevance drives more than one billion decisions every day, and has delivered over $8 billion in attributable sales to its clients, which include Target, Marks & Spencer and PriceMinister. Salesupply is a global e-business services company that enables online retailers to achieve profitable international growth faster, more efficiently and with relatively low costs. Salesupply provides a full range of solutions ranging from research and strategy, to effective localisation of web shops, followed by complete operational support, traffic generation and brand management.
  7. 7. Henning Heesen E-Commerce Cross-Border-Specialist and Board member of Salesupply AG Russia: From ‘sleeping giant’ to ‘rising star’ Russia is often hyped as a “rising star” in e-commerce heaven: Soaring internet penetration and a huge growth potential were the reasons for that. With over 160 million people, Russia is the biggest single market in Europe. Russia tripled its online sales in the last three years and online sales could hit 25 billion euro this year. However, to begin your online business in Russia, you want to start in the region Moscow and St. Petersburg. The greater area counts about 25-30 million people with an considerable budget to spend. The middle class is growing very fast and people like to spend money online. Also the logistic infrastructure is, for Russian standards, well developed there. The largest long-run opportunities however lie in the regions beyond Moscow and St. Petersburg. Russia has another 9 cities with over 1 million people that most Europeans have never heard of. These 130 million people spread from the Caucasus over Siberia to Manchuria are what makes Russia the real ‘sleeping giant’. Internet penetration is growing fast here, and the middle class is rising. Delivery to these areas is a logistical challenge that will be solved in the next couple of years when the offer and demand for online sales will increase significantly. Structural improvements in Romania Romania , since its entry in the European Union in 2007, has received funds and incentives to improve its infrastructure, which is a benefit for the development of e- commerce. Romanians are generally quite internet- savvy. In bigger cities such as Bucharest, Sibiu and Timisoara, the internet population is considerably larger than in rural areas. But penetration is increasing steadily throughout the whole country and the market is offering more and more opportunities for online retail. “Russia is a rising star” Long-term opportunities lie beyond Moscow and St. Petersburg © Ecommerce Europe www.ecommerce-europe.eu Page 7 E-commerce in Ukraine : Strong growth and potential The Ukrainian e-commerce market has grown nearly threefold over the past four years. The 300 largest of the 8000 online stores generate more than three quarters of the e-commerce turnover. With 45 million inhabitants, the current e-commerce turnover of €1,2bn still shows a large growth potential for the future. In general, I think doing business in either of these three countries requires thorough research and building a reliable local network of experts and partners. Any foreign company eying to enter these markets has to be aware of the economic charcteristics and the culture that shape the business climate and adapt to that. If you are willing to make this effort, there are large opportunities to be explored.
  8. 8. Pontus Kristiansson Vice President EMEA RichRelevance Eastern European growth outpaces other Western Europe In terms of growth, the Eastern European region outpaces Western Europe. This is due to the fact that there is still a lot of ground to gain. Many of the countries, such as Romania, are still in a transition phase from being centrally regulated economies to free capitalistic market systems. Market conditions are improving In general however, the education levels are high, people are increasingly internet-smart and consumers’ demand for more shopping choices increases. As internet penetration increases and the logistic infrastructures continue to structurally improve, the Eastern European Region becomes an interesting market for international online retail businesses. Russia: The most promising market in Eastern Europe The most promising emerging market in the region is Russia: Russia is one of the fastest growing e-commerce markets worldwide, and throughout the past years, more and more international companies have shown interest in this country. Russia, with 60 Million internet users boasting the largest online community in Europe, is a market still largely controlled by local companies. “Eastern Europe is showing great potential” Adapting to the local internet culture allows seizing promising opportunities © Ecommerce Europe www.ecommerce-europe.eu Page 8 Local companies dominate the market This is due to a variety of factors: delivery is an issue- tackled by larger players such as Ozon.ru by having developed their own fulfilment organization. Next to that, the Russian internet culture is very different from that in other markets: Translation alone is insufficient to gain the customers’ trust: Companies must take into account completely different rules of the game: Instead of Facebook, Russian use VKontakte, Search is done on Yandex, and cash still dominates the payment market. International players enter Russia But as the Russian’s appetite for e-commerce grows, more companies are willing to take the steps necessary to enter the market, examples being the British fashion PurePlayer ASOS and the Chinese e-commerce giant Alibaba. The growth prospects of this country are thus more than promising.
  9. 9. Henk-Jan van der Weide VP Northern Europe & SA at hybris What is your general impression of e-commerce in Europe? The ‘e’ of e-commerce is disappearing. Online is a very important element in the route a customer follows, from the moment he or she has an idea to the actual transaction: the purchase path. E-commerce is no longer a thing that companies do as an additional channel, it has reached a phase of maturity and is now a fully integrated component of the customer’s purchasing journey. Which European regions do you consider the most promising and why? Russia and Turkey are both important emerging European markets. However, we also need to consider Scandinavia. Scandinavia was hit harshly by the bursting of the dot-com bubble around the year 2000; the market grew more slowly than for example in the UK. Scandinavia is however now picking up pace. What do you consider the important trends to be? The dominant trend is mobile: mobile commerce and mobile payments. Interesting possibilities consist, for example, in the ability to track customers, the integration of mobile into offline shop processes and the use of NFC technology for payments. Imagine that shop staff is equipped with a tablet that enables them to help the customer in a completely new way, even taking care of the checkout process. In short, the whole POS is going through a transition with mobile being a key element of this change. What in your opinion is this year’s most overrated e-commerce trend? “I believe QR Codes have been an overrated trend: it is too difficult to use, what with starting your app, having an Internet connection, scanning the code -- altogether too complicated! Which challenges do online retailers underestimate the most when expanding their e-business across Europe? Patience is key. Those new markets will still be out there in two years. If a company has 100 employees in The Netherlands and then tries to enter the German market with two dedicated staff members, this is not going to work. Selling in foreign markets is full of complexities. If companies want to succeed, they need to do it step by step, with a mature team and with patience. Is there anything else you would like to share with our readers? I believe pure-players are being challenged by Amazon: Amazon wants to control 26% of the global e-commerce market by 2016. They are heavily investing in growth right now. Retailers who want to set themselves apart have to keep in mind that clients are seeking an omni-channel experience. I would strongly advise pure-players to go offline in regions where they have many customers. Research has shown that customers of omni-channel retailers are 200% more loyal than customers of pure players. Again, this is because of the role that different sales channels play in the customer journey from the instant that interest is ignited to the moment of sale: 50% of people will change from channel in every step they make in their purchasing journey. Many retailers are losing clients because they fail to offer a seamless experience across all touch-points. The “e” in e-commerce is disappearing Offering a seamless experience across all touch-points is key for cross- border growth © Ecommerce Europe www.ecommerce-europe.eu Page 9
  10. 10. Eastern Europe Europe € 312 bn + 19,0% EU 28 € 275bn + 18,0% Eastern Europe € 13,1 bn + 35,6% Total B2C Ecommerce 2012 of goods & services 17% 51% 100% 249 million people live in Eastern Europe 114 million people use the internet 28 million people are e-shoppers € 13,1 bn e-commerce turnover of goods & services 81% Goods 19% Services 1,6% Estimated share of online retail in total retail Estimated 40% of active internet users are on social media E-commerce GDP 0,66 % Total GDP € 1.992 bn 1 2 3 Ranking Eastern Europe in turnover (EUR million) © Ecommerce Europe 2013 www.ecommerce-europe.eu info: research@ecommerce-europe.eu 2012 Key e-commerce facts at a glance Powered by: Ukraine Romania 1 Russia € 10.300 2 Ukraine € 1.250 3 Romania € 800 4 Bulgaria € 120 # Other countries¹ € 617 Russia Bulgaria 1 Other countries include: Albania, Belarus, Bosnia & Herzegovina, FYR Macedonia, Moldova, Kosovo, Montenegro and Serbia. National Associations: NAMO (National Association for Distance Selling & Ecommerce) Moscow, Russia Ukrainian Direct Marketing Association (UDMA); Kiev
  11. 11. Eastern Europe in Brief Introduction The Eastern European region consists of Albania, Belarus, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Kosovo, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Russia, Serbia and Ukraine. This report focuses on Russia, Ukraine and Romania. The rest of the countries will be referred to as “others” , as B2C e- commerce is still in its infancy . The Eastern European region is home to a total of 248,7 million inhabitants living in around 92 million households. Russia is by far the largest country of the region, with a population of 143,2 million or 57% of the region’s total population. With a surface of 17.075.000 km2 Russia is not only the largest Eastern European nation but also Europe’s largest country both in surface as in population. Ukraine is the second largest country with a surface of 603.628 km2 and 45,6 million inhabitants. Romania has a population of 21,3 million people with a surface of 238.392 km2. EASTERN EUROPE’S POPULATION Share of Eastern European population, 2012 © Ecommerce Europe www.ecommerce-europe.eu Page 11 Ukraine Romania Russia Moldavia Bulgaria Serbia Kosovo Belarus Russia 57%Ukraine 18% Romania 9% Bulgaria 3% Others 13%
  12. 12. B2C E-commerce in Eastern Europe Online Expenditure Expenditure per online shopper, in euros, 2012 EASTERN EUROPE’S B2C E-COMMERCE Eastern European consumers from Bulgaria, Romania, Russia and Ukraine spent on average €427 online in 2012. This is below the EU28 and European average of €1.309 and €1.398 respectively. Russians spent most online in 2012 with €515. Ukrainians rank second with an average spend of €510. The Romanians and Bulgarians are third and fourth in rank with respect to online spending (€400 and €370 respectively). Consumers from the other countries (including Albania, Belarus, Bosnia & Herzegovina, FYR Macedonia, Montenegro, Kosovo, Moldova and Serbia) spent on average €285 online in 2012. © Ecommerce Europe www.ecommerce-europe.eu Page 16 €1.398 € 1.309 €370 €400 €515 €510 €285 EU28 Europe Bulgaria Romania Russia Ukraine Others
  13. 13. Facts, Figures & Trends of 2012 and Forecast 2013 of the Romanian B2C E-commerce Market www.ecommerce-europe.eu Country Report Romania 2013
  14. 14. Romania Europe € 312 bn + 19,0% EU 28 € 277 bn + 18,0% Eastern Europe € 13,1 bn + 35,7 % Romania € 800 mn + 33,3% Total B2C E-commerce 2012 of goods & services Bucharest 10% 45% 100% 21,30 million people live in Romania 9,60 million people use the internet 2,00 million people are e-shoppers € 800 mn e-commerce turnover of goods & services 1,7% Estimated share of online retail in total retail Estimated 16% of active internet users are on social media E-commerce GDP 0,6% Total GDP €131.747 mn 1 2 3 Ranking Eastern Europe in turnover (EUR million) © Ecommerce Europe 2013 www.ecommerce-europe.eu info: research@ecommerce-europe.eu 2012 Key e-commerce facts at a glance 25% Goods 75% Services Romanian Trustmark: No trustmark available Romanian national E-commerce association No e-commerce association available 1 Russia € 10.300 2 Ukraine € 1.250 3 Romania € 800 4 Bulgaria € 120 # Other countries¹ € 617 ¹ Other countries include: Albania, Moldova, Kosovo) Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro, FYR Macedonia and Serbia. Powered by:
  15. 15. ROMANIA’S TOTAL GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT Romania in brief The Romanian GDP per capita at current prices in 2012 was €6.200. In 2013 GDP per capita is projected to reach €6.650, following a growth in real terms of 2,2%. Disposable income continues to grow and inflationary pressures are low pushing up purchasing power of consumers. The share of e-commerce was in 2012 0,6% of the Romanian GDP and is estimated to reach 0,74% in 2013 . The Internet is one of the fastest growing sectors compared to traditional sectors due to growing confidence and the further penetration of the internet in Romania. It will be one of the drivers of the economy in the coming years. Key economic indicators Year In million EUR 2013(e) € 140.520 2012 € 131.747 2011 € 131.327 2010 € 124.327 2009 € 118.196 GDP at market prices, in million euro, 2009 - 2012 © Ecommerce Europe www.ecommerce-europe.eu Page 22 Source: Eurostat and IMF World Economic Outlook 2013 ROMANIA’S GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT PER CAPITA Year In EUR 2012 € 12.600 2011 € 11.800 2010 € 11.400 2009 € 11.100 A current prices Source: Eurostat and IMF World Economic Outlook 2013
  16. 16. B2C e-commerce in Romania Cross-border Online purchases made by Romanians from foreign web shops rose from €6 mn in 2011 to €8 mn in 2012, an increase of 25%. Only a fraction (2%) of all online purchases were made from a foreign web site in 2012. 1% 1% 1% 1% 2% 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 (e) ROMANIA’S CROSS BORDER E-COMMERCE Percentage of e-commerce purchased at foreign sites, 2009-2013 Source: © Ecommerce Europe www.ecommerce-europe.eu Page 28 VAT overview Threshold RON 118.000 Standard VAT rate 24% Reduced VAT rates 5% and 9% Where to register Bucharest Directorate General for Public Finance Periods for declaration monthly Source: International VAT Management, Van Driel Fruijtier Resseler ROMANIA’S VAT Percentage of e-commerce purchased at foreign sites, 2013
  17. 17. Facts, Figures & Trends of 2012 and Forecast 2013 of the Russian B2C E-commerce Market www.ecommerce-europe.eu Country Report Russia 2013
  18. 18. Russia Europe € 312 bn + 19,0% EU 28 € 277 bn + 18,0% Eastern Europe € 13,1 bn + 35,7% Russia € 10,3 bn +35,5% Total B2C E-commerce 2012 of goods & services 14% 48% 100% 143 million people live in Russia 68 million people use the internet 20 million people are e-shoppers € 10,3 bn e-commerce turnover of goods & services 1,7% Estimated share of online retail in total retail Estimated 40% of active internet users are on social media E-commerce GDP 0,7% Total GDP € 1.562.000 bn 1 2 3 Ranking Eastern Europe in turnover (EUR million) © Ecommerce Europe 2013 www.ecommerce-europe.eu info: research@ecommerce-europe.eu 2012 Key e-commerce facts at a glance 80% Goods 20% Services Moscow Russian Trustmark: No trustmark available Russian national E-commerce association No e-commerce association available 1 Russia € 10.300 2 Ukraine € 1.250 3 Romania € 600 4 Bulgaria € 120 # Other countries¹ € 617 ¹ Other countries include: Albania, Moldova, Kosovo) Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro, FYR Macedonia and Serbia. Powered by:
  19. 19. 11,7% 6,9% 8,4% 5,1% 6,7% 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 (e) 8,4% 7,5% 6,65% 6,0% 5,7% 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 (e) Russia in brief The labor force in Russia reached 75,24 million persons in 2012. Unemployment declined to 6,00% in 2012. This decline will continue in 2013 and is expected to reach 5,70% by the end of the year. Unemployment in Russia is still well below the EU28 average of 11% in 2013. The inflation rate of Russia has seen a fluctuating trajectory since since 2009 that started with 11,7%. This also marked the highest peek of inflation in 5 years. Consumers have a worse opinion regarding the current state of the Russian economy and appear to be increasingly worried regarding the future economic prospects of the country. Key economic indicators RUSSIA’S UNEMPLOYMENT RATE RUSSIA’S INFLATION RATE Percentage of the total labor force, 2009 - 2013 Annual change on Consumer Price Index (CPI), 2009 - 2013 © Ecommerce Europe www.ecommerce-europe.eu Page 37 Source: Eurostat and IMF World Economic Outlook 2013 Source: Eurostat and IMF World Economic Outlook 2013
  20. 20. B2C e-commerce in Russia The online consumer and main market players An online shopper in Russia is more likely to be female (64%) than male (36%). The average age of an online shopper (who shopped in the last 12 months) is 44 years. Key reasons for Russian consumers to purchase goods and services online were lower prices (47%), saving time (36%), convenience (location, time) (33%) as well as online customer reviews (32%). Online shopping is also significantly more predominant among households with higher incomes. According to studies there were around 25,000 online retailers in Russia, a growth of 56%, compared to the 16,000 in 2010. That number could very well reach 100,000 in just a couple of years. Rank (#) Online retailers Market sector Revenue EUR 1 Utkonos grocery online retailer € 230mn 2 Wildberries online fashion retailer € 223mn 3 OZON.ru online shopping mall € 207mn 4 Holodilnik.ru online retailer of home appliances € 201mn 5 KupiVIP.ru Online fashion retailer € 197mn Source: Forbes.ru 2013 Top 3 Reasons for purchasing goods and services online 1. Lower price (47%) 2. Lower time consumption (36%) 2. Convenience (33%) 3. Online customer reviews (32%) TOP 5 ONLINE RETAILERS OF RUSSIA © Ecommerce Europe www.ecommerce-europe.eu Page 41 Source: Morgan and Stanley , eCommerce Disruption: A Global Theme – Transforming Traditional Retail 2013 Source: Ecommerce Europe 2012
  21. 21. Facts, Figures & Trends of 2012 and Forecast 2013 of the Ukrainian B2C E-commerce Market www.ecommerce-europe.eu Country Report Ukraine 2013
  22. 22. Ukraine Europe € 312 bn + 19,0% EU 28 € 277 bn + 18,0% Eastern Europe € 13,1 bn + 35,7% Ukraine € 1,25 bn +48,0% Total B2C E-commerce 2012 of goods & services Kiev 5% 33% 100% 45,63 million people live in Ukraine 15,40 million people use the internet 2,47 million people are e-shoppers € 1,25 bn e-commerce turnover of goods & services 1,3% Estimated share of online retail in total retail Estimated 44% of active internet users are on social media E-commerce GDP 0,9% Total GDP €137.177 bn 1 2 3 Ranking Eastern Europe in turnover (EUR million) © Ecommerce Europe 2013 www.ecommerce-europe.eu info: research@ecommerce-europe.eu 2012 Key e-commerce facts at a glance 50% Goods 50% Services Ukrainian Trustmark: No trustmark available Ukrainian national E-commerce association No e-commerce association available 1 Russia € 10.300 2 Ukraine € 1.250 3 Romania € 600 4 Bulgaria € 120 # Other countries¹ € 617 ¹ Other countries include: Albania, Moldova, Kosovo) Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro, FYR Macedonia and Serbia. Powered by:
  23. 23. Ukraine in brief Ukraine was greatly affected by the economic crisis of 2008 and as a result a 14,8% decrease in Ukraine's GDP took place over 2008 and 2009. Despite the excellent potential, the economy was still struggling in 2012. The economy entered a recession in the second half of 2012, bringing growth in real GDP for the whole year to just 0.2 per cent. In October 2013, the IMF raised its projection for Ukraine's economic growth in 2013 to 0.4 per cent from zero. The IMF downgraded its projection for Ukraine's economic growth in 2014 to 1 %, citing worsening financial conditions in Eastern Europe. Key economic indicators UKRAINE’S GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT REAL GROWTH RATE Percentage change of GDP, 2007 - 2013 Year In million EUR 2013(f) € 136.000 2012 € 137.177 2011 € 117.390 2010 € 102.780 2009 € 84.041 GDP at market prices, in million euro, 2009 - 2012 UKRAINE’S TOTAL GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT © Ecommerce Europe www.ecommerce-europe.eu Page 50 Source: Eurostat and IMF World Economic Outlook 2013 Source: Eurostat and IMF World Economic Outlook 2013-14,8% 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 (f) 4,1 % 5,1 % 0,2 % 0,4 %
  24. 24. 13-17 years 18 - 24 years 25 - 34 years 35-44 years 45-54 years 55-64 years 65 yeas + In Ukraine, Social Media usage is gaining momentum . Especially periods of political tensions have caused spikes in the usage of Twitter and Facebook, which so far have not been the country’s most popular social networks. 40% of the Ukrainian population is active on the originally Russian platform Vkontakte. Only 4% is active on Facebook. 61% of those users is between 18 and 34 years old. Two other popular social networking sites in Ukraine are Mail.ru- operated Moy Mir and Odnoklassiki. Social media in Ukraine Market Sectors FACEBOOK USERS Facebook is used by of the population Of the population has a VKontakte account 4% 40% 51%49% SOCIAL MEDIA USERS BY GENDER In percentage of total population © Ecommerce Europe www.ecommerce-europe.eu Page 59 Percentage of population, 2012 Source: Social baker
  25. 25. Ecommerce Europe How to get involved? Who can be involved? • E-commerce associations, voting members of Ecommerce Europe: association membership • Companies selling products and/or services online: EU webshop register / company membership • Preferred suppliers to the European e-commerce industry: business partnership • Organizations and NGO’s related to e-commerce industry: associative partnership • European institutions, consumer organizations and stakeholders: partners for dialogue Why get involved? • Be a part, get involved or stay informed on public affairs initiatives that define your business. • Take advantage of research publications, receive several B2C • E-commerce Reports for free. • Learn from position papers, webinars and white • papers by leading ecommerce associations, companies and preferred business partners. • Show you’re engaged by displaying the Ecommerce Europe member or business partner logo. • Network, meet and greet with colleagues at Round Tables • sessions in European capitals and at the yearly Global E-commerce Summit. © Ecommerce Europe www.ecommerce-europe.eu Page 61
  26. 26. Our Business Partners Interested in becoming a business partner? Contact info@ecommerce-europe.eu © Ecommerce Europe www.ecommerce-europe.eu Page 62
  27. 27. Our Media Partners Interested in becoming a media partner? Contact us at info@ecommerce-europe.eu Ecommerce Europe media partners are (inter)national publishers and/or publications related to the European e-commerce industry. As the Internet continues to become a part of almost every aspect of our lives, the growing internationalization of the online retail sector places increasing demands on e-tailers to make rapid preparations for cross-border activity. Actors in the online trade sector are constantly being confronted with new challenges concerning legal issues, pricing, shipping, payment and supply. Strong partnerships are vital in order to tap into the cross-border market, optimise trade flows and ultimately increase profitability. Ecommerce Europe is looking for media partners who publish on e-commerce in the following sectors: • Affiliate marketing • Customer service • E-commerce systems • Email marketing • Fulfilment • Hosting • Payment solutions • Research & consultancy • Search Engine Optimization • Etc. © Ecommerce Europe www.ecommerce-europe.eu Page 63
  28. 28. Company Members Ecommerce Europe Company Members are B2C companies selling products and/or services online to consumers in Europe. Company membership is open to all B2C online companies at € 950 per year. Benefits for COMPANY MEMBERS include: • Exclusive Ecommerce Europe business partner logo • Yearly European B2C E-commerce Report (€1,950) • 5 Regional Reports on European B2C E-commerce (€3,950) • 2 Full Conference Packages Global E-commerce Summit • Free entrance to 3 Ecommerce Europe pre-conferences • Free entrance to Round Table meetings in 8 European cities • Pro-active involvement white papers and position papers Ecommerce Europe membership Interested? Feel free to contact us: info@ecommerce-europe.eu Business partners Ecommerce Europe business partners are preferred suppliers of the European e-commerce industry. The cost is € 8,500 per year upon balloting. Benefits for PREFFERED BUSINESS PARTNERS include: • Exclusive Ecommerce Europe business partner logo • Yearly European B2C E-commerce Report (€1,950) • 5 Regional Reports on European B2C E-commerce (€3,950) • 2 Full Conference Packages Global E-commerce Summit • Free entrance to 3 Ecommerce Europe pre-conferences • Free entrance to Round Table meetings in 8 European cities • Pro-active involvement white papers and position papers © Ecommerce Europe www.ecommerce-europe.eu Page 64
  29. 29. Ecommerce Europe’s reports on B2C e- commerce Interested? Order at research@ecommerce-europe.eu European B2C Ecommerce Report 2013: €1.950 5 European regional reports 2013: €790 per report including 30 Infographics and in-depth Country Profiles Eastern Europe Report Belgium, France, Ireland, Netherlands, and United Kingdom Central Europe Report Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland and Switzerland Southern Europe Report Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Turkey Northern Europe Report Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway and Sweden Eastern Europe Report Romania, Russia, and Ukraine All European reports (5 regional reports + European Report): €2,950 All-In-One Ecommerce Report Package: €4.950 (European and Global Report + 5 European Regional Reports + 5 Regional/Continental Reports) Global B2C Ecommerce Report 2013: €2.450 Regional /continental reports: €950 per report North America: USA, Mexico and Canada Latin America: Brazil, Argentina, Chile and others Asia-Pacific: Japan, China, India, Australia, Indonesia, Vietnam, South Korea etc. MENA REGION: Middle East and North Africa BRIC Countries: Brazil, Russia, Indonesia, China and other economic entities All-In-One Ecommerce Report Package: €4.950 (European and Global Report + 5 European Regional Reports + 5 Regional/Continental Reports) Tailor-made reports are available upon request: research@ecommerce-europe.eu. © Ecommerce Europe www.ecommerce-europe.eu Page 65
  30. 30. EMSEC EMSEC aims to provide guidelines to measure and monitor B2C e-commerce in order to enable all European countries to provide data with respect to the penetration of B2C ecommerce in a standardised way. All Ecommerce Europe figures and estimates are based upon the EMSEC, unless otherwise noted. The EMSEC agrees with data and research by GfK. The EMSEC reports on sales figures for the total B2C e-commerce in Europe and in country profiles based on total sales of goods and services. Total sales of goods and services are based according to the areas/sectors/ classification of areas and sectors as laid down on the next few pages. All data are reported in the national currency of the country involved are converted into euros according to the average (annual) rate of exchange as provided by the European Central Bank (ECB). Growth rates are calculated and measured by the B2C e-commerce sales in national currency. European Measurement Standard for E-commerce EMSEC Definition of B2C e-commerce sales Definition of B2C e-commerce: ‘Any B2C contract on the sale of products or services fully or partly concluded by a technique for distance communication’. Technique for distance communication: means that can be used for communication regarding the offer made by the trader and concluding an contract, without the necessity of the consumer and trader being in the same place at the same time. Contract: an contract whereby sole or partly use is made of one or more techniques for distance communication within the framework of a system organized by the trader for the distance sale of products and/or services, up to and including the moment that the contract is concluded; Classification of B2C E-commerce The following classification in Table 1 provides an overview of areas and sectors included in EMSEC. Online purchases of the following items are excluded from EMSEC: • Transactions between private individuals/consumers (C2C) such as auctions and marketplaces and between businesses (B2B) • Online gambling and gaming • Car and motor vehicles • Houses and real estate • Utilities (e.g. water, heating, electricity) • Mortgages, loans, credit cards, overdrafts • Savings accounts, funds, stocks & shares, bonds. B2C e-commerce therefore includes all online transactions between businesses and consumers using desktop computers, laptops, tablets, smartphones, point-of-sales and smart-wearibles, such as webshop, physical store (‘online instore’), e- mail, QR-code, catalogue, etc. B2C e-commerce includes Value Added Tax (VAT) or other sales tax, delivery costs and Apps, but exclude returns. © Ecommerce Europe www.ecommerce-europe.eu Page 66
  31. 31. Event Tickets Event Tickets Tickets for concerts and festivals Tickets for cinema and theater Tickets for zoos and amusement parks Tickets for museums Tickets for sport matches European Measurement Standard for E-commerce EMSEC © Ecommerce Europe www.ecommerce-europe.eu Fashion Clothing Shoes & Personal lifestyle Underwear & Upperwear Shoes Children's wear Jewellery, Bijoux, Watches & others fashion accessories (e.g. sunglasses) Swimwear & Sportswear Nightwear & legwear Bags, wallets, suitcases Electronics Consumer Electronics Information Technology (IT) Household Electronics Photo-equipment IT hardware (pc's, laptops, tablets etc.) MDA: air-conditioning, dishwashers, wash machines and other white goods Audio-equipment Computer Software TV/video-equipment Music- instruments Car - electronics (navigation, audio etc.) USB-sticks, DVD/CD- recordable, ink cartridges, computer accessories SDA: equipment for personal care, home comfort, kitchen appliances Food/Nearfood/Health Food/Nearfood Health & Beauty Food & Beverages Personal care & Hygiene Fresh produce Baby care Packaged consumer goods Perfume Detergents/household cleaning OTC Animal feed Tobacco Sports & Recreation Sport & Recreation Sports hardware (e.g. football, tennis rackets) Bicycles & accessories Articles for camping and recreation Toys Toys Indoor –and outdoor toys Page 67
  32. 32. European Measurement Standard for E-commerce EMSEC © Ecommerce Europe www.ecommerce-europe.eu Travel Package Travel Flight Tickets & Accommodations Package travel Flight Tickets Private Transport if booked through a tour operator Hotel stays Apartment/bungalow/camping site -> all of the above not booked in combination with other travel-parts Media & Entertainment Media & Entertainment Music (physical, download & streaming)/Spotify based on new subscriptions Video (DVD, blue-ray, downloads) Games hardware & games software Books & e-books Apps New subscriptions newspapers ands magazines (no single copy sales) Telecom Telecom Smartphones, mobile phones & Phone devices Telefax and answering machines Headsets & Accessoires (mobile) phone’s Prepaid cards and tariffs of new phone subscriptions Insurances New indemnity, Life and Health Insurances Liability insurance Car insurance Fire and theft insurance ANW-gap insurance (insurance for receiving a payment in addition to a survivor's allowance) Health Insurance – Base Health insurance - additional Bike/caravan/motorbike/ scooter insurance Annuity insurance pension Disability insurance – entrepreneurs Accident insurance Boat insurance Life insurance Funeral insurance Disability insurance - private Legal assistance insurance Home insurance Endowment insurance based on savings Mortgage related disability insurance Travel insurance (continuous/annual + short- term) Insurance package Endowment insurance based on investments Mixed insurance (=endowment insurance + life insurance) Others Services Products Dating based on new subscriptions Cars and parts Articles for animals Other Services Flowers & Plants Optician (excl. sunglasses, hearing-aid) Adult Page 68
  33. 33. Definitions Definitions related to internet, e-commerce and online retailing • Broadband access: the availability of broadband is measured by the percentage of households that are connectable to an exchange that has been converted to support DSL-technology, to a cable network upgraded for Internet traffic, or to other broadband technologies. It includes fixed and mobile connections (source: Eurostat) • Cross-border e-commerce: percentage of e-commerce purchased at foreign sites • E-commerce (or electronic commerce), a subset of e-business, is any B2C contract on the sale of products or services fully or partly concluded by a technique for distance communication’. • E-commerce GDP: total amount of goods and services online divided by the total Gross Domestic Product (GDP). • Economic Freedom Index: the Index of Economic Freedom is an annual guide published by The Wall Street Journal and The Heritage Foundation, Washington's No. 1 think tank. For over a decade, The Wall Street Journal and The Heritage Foundation have tracked the march of economic freedom around the world with the influential Index of Economic Freedom. • E-households: amount of households that uses the Internet for personal gain. • E-household expenditure: expenditure per household that bought goods or services in the past year. • European Measurement Standard for E-commerce (EMSEC): aims to provide guidelines to measure and monitor B2C e-commerce in order to enable all European countries to provide data with respect to the penetration of B2C ecommerce in a standardised way. • E-services (or electronic services) are defined as: “Deeds, efforts or performances whose delivery is mediated by information technology. Such e-service includes the service element of e- retailing, customer support, and service delivery”. This definition reflects three main components- service providers, service receiver and the channels of service delivery (i.e., technology). (Jennifer Rowley, Professor Information and Communications, Manchester Metropolitan University, UK) • Inactive online population: users that have access to the Internet but have not (yet) purchased goods or services online in the past year. © Ecommerce Europe www.ecommerce-europe.eu Page 69
  34. 34. Definitions Definitions related to internet, e-commerce and online retailing • Logistics Performance Index (LPI): The Logistics Performance Index (LPI) measures the logistics "friendliness" of 155 countries. It helps countries identify the challenges and opportunities they face in their trade logistics performance and what they can do to improve, The Index is developed by the World Bank, is based on a worldwide survey of operators on the ground such as global freight forwarders and express carriers . • Mobile commerce (or m-commerce, mCommerce) is the ability to conduct commerce, using a mobile device e.g. a mobile phone, a PDA, a smart phone, a tablet or other (emerging) mobile equipment. • Mobile subscriptions: mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included (source: Eurostat) • Online buyer (or e-shopper, e-buyer) is defined as an individual who regularly bought or ordered goods or services over the internet. • Online expenditure: spent per user who purchased goods or services online. • Online Retail (or e-retail, electronic retail or retailing or even e- tailing) is the selling of retail goods and services on the Internet. In the limited sense of the word, sectors such as online leisure travel, event tickets, downloading music or software are not included. Online-only retail shops are often referred to as pure players. • Penetration levels: the percentage of a population using the internet, mobile, smartphone and tablet devices. • Retail sales are defined as the selling of mainly goods from businesses to individuals from a traditional or so-called bricks-and- mortar shop. • The Ease of Doing Business Index is developed by the World Bank, averages the country's percentile rankings on 9 topics, made up of a variety of indicators, giving equal weight to each topic. The rankings for all economies are benchmarked to June 2010. The Index covers 185 countries. © Ecommerce Europe www.ecommerce-europe.eu Page 70
  35. 35. Methodology , Acknowledgements and Sources This report could only be realized by consulting a great many sources, available in the various countries and regions in Europe and around the globe. The wide variety of sources include public domain publications, blogs, websites, industry and financial specialist publications, regional and local news, annual reports, press releases, etc. etc. Sometimes the information sourced are contradictory. Sometimes different figures and data were given by different sources within the same country, f.e. due to different definitions. In our reports and country profiles we have mentioned different sources, definitions and the different outcomes of such reports, studies and interpretations. This report is meant solely for use by the recipient and is not for circulation. This report is based on information that we consider reliable, but we cannot vouch for its being accurate or complete, nor should it be relied upon as such. Opinions expressed are our current opinions as of the date of this report. The sources consulted include, but are not limited to: (Inter)national Associations • Ecommerce Europe • Distansehandel Norge (Norway) • FDIH (Denmark) • KAUPPA (Finland) • SDH (Sweden) Corporate sources • A.T. Kearney • Deloitte • Facebook • Forrester • GfK • Google • Hybris • Innopay • Planet Retail • Salesupply • Social Bakers • Twitter • TNS NIPPO • VDFR VAT Management Publications • eMarketer • E-commercefacts.com • Eurostat • Internet Retailing Other sources • Digital Hub Development Agency (DHDA) • European Commission • Eurostat • European Central Bank (ECB) • European Banking Association (EBA Clearing) • International Monetary Fund (IMF) • International Telecommunications Union (ITU) • Internetworldstats • National Statistics offices • The Heritage Foundation • United Nations (UN) • CIA: World Factbook • World Economic Forum © Ecommerce Europe www.ecommerce-europe.eu Page 71
  36. 36. About the authors Questions? Feel free to contact our researcher Jorij Abraham, Director Research & Advice Jorij Abraham (1972) has been part of the international e- commerce community since 1997. He has been manager e- commerce at Bijenkorf, TUI and Sanoma Media and Director of Consulting as Unic Since 2013 he is Director of Research & Advise at Ecommerce Europe. He is also director of the eCommerce Foundation, a research institute offering practical ecommerce research and benchmark services. Aad Weening, Advisor International eCommerce Aad Weening (1941) has been involved in distance selling and retail practically all his working life. From 1966 until 1979 he worked at a professional secretariat agency offering legal and economic advice as well as lobbying services for 10 trade sectors. From 1979 he managed the Dutch Mail Order Association (today Thuiswinkel.org), first in the Netherlands first, later on a European level. Between 1993 and 2006 he served as Secretary General of the European Distance Selling Trade Association (EMOTA). Currently Weening is Senior Advisor at Ecommerce Europe. Janine Nöthlichs, Editor Janine Nöthlichs (1982) is the editor-in-chief of the international e-commerce news site E-commercefacts.com. Throughout the past years, she has worked on various e-commerce related publications and events, including the European Cross-Border Round Tables and the Global E-Commerce Summit; and is a regular jury member of the Cross-Border E-Commerce Awards at the Global E-Commerce Summit in Barcelona. Previously, Janine has worked for Kantar Media in Paris. Having studied in the Netherlands and Spain. © Ecommerce Europe www.ecommerce-europe.eu Page 72 Bert Nagelvoort, Senior Researcher Bert Nagelvoort (1977) has been working for Ecommerce Europe since 2014. He is involved in international e-commerce and develops the Ecommerce Europe reports. He studied Business Administration at the Radboud University Nijmegen and has a great interest in the international (digital) economy. Previously, Bert has worked as Projectmanager / Consultant in the financial services.
  37. 37. Europe 2012 Key data at a glance West € 158,bn + 18,0% Central €76,3 bn + 20,5% South € 32,4 bn + 29,3% North €28,5 bn + 15,1% East € 13,1 bn + 35,6% Total B2C s of goods & services 48% 64% 100% 820 million people live in Europe 529 million people use the internet 250 million people are e-shoppers 5% Estimated share of online retail in total retail ‘’350 million social media users’’ €16,0 trn GDP 2012 1 3 Top 5 e-commerce countries in turnover (EURO million) 1 United Kingdom € 96,193 2 Germany € 50,000 3 France € 45,000 4 Spain € 12,969 5 Russia € 10,302 © Ecommerce Europe 2013 www.ecommerce-europe.eu info: research@ecommerce-europe.eu Figures and data in compliance with GfK In cooperation with Salesupply and Hybris Top 5 emerging countries in % growth 1 Turkey 75% 2 Greece 61% 3 Ukraine 41% 4 Hungary 35% 5 Romania 33% 2 550,000 estimated online business 2, , jobs directly or indirectly via e-commerce 3,5 billion number of parcels annually (e) Europe € 312 bn +19% EU28 € 277 bn +18% 3,5% Contribution Internet Economy to GDP 5,5% (€17bn) Estimated M-commerce
  38. 38. Eastern Europe B2C Ecommerce Colophon National Associations: Ecommerce Europe Rue d’Accolay 15 box 6 B-1000 Brussels - Belgium Tel: +32 (0) 2 502 31 34 Website: www.ecommerce-europe.eu Contact us at: info@ecommerce-europe.eu For reports: research@ecommerce-europe.eu Twitter: @Ecommerce_eu Powered by: © Ecommerce Europe www.ecommerce-europe.eu Page 74
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×