Ask Questions 02

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Ask Questions 02

  1. 1. Leading Discussions Tips for engaging students in discussion The Art of Asking Questions
  2. 2. Questions Teachers spend 35-50% of their instructional time asking students questions Ask me a question, S. Black Association of School Board Journal, Apr, 2001.
  3. 3. Questions Questioning is 2 nd only to lecturing as a common teaching method Ask me a question, S. Black Association of School Board Journal, Apr, 2001.
  4. 4. Questions Much of the time teachers devote to questioning doesn’t help students learn Ask me a question, S. Black Association of School Board Journal, Apr, 2001.
  5. 5. Developing Skills Discussion and Asking Questions Facilitating Group Discussion Asking Questions Click to Learn More Click to Learn More
  6. 6. <ul><li>Guide and direct </li></ul><ul><li>Review concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce new areas to investigate </li></ul><ul><li>Generate hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>Planning experimental procedures </li></ul>Purposes <ul><li>Discussion purposes: </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Analyze and interpret </li></ul><ul><li>Assess and revise </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate and analyze conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize </li></ul>Purposes <ul><li>Discussion purposes: </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Recall, process and apply levels of thinking can be developed, but…. </li></ul><ul><li>Seventy percent of questions require only recall </li></ul><ul><li>Questions that demand higher level thinking bring similar level responses </li></ul>Discussion and Inquiry <ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>qualities: </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>A mix of low and high level questions = greatest growth in student thinking </li></ul><ul><li>A central component to develop is inquiry skills </li></ul><ul><li>One special technique to develop inquiry skills is creating cognitive conflict </li></ul>Discussion and Inquiry <ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>qualities: </li></ul>Proceed to facilitating discussion Return to menu
  10. 10. Developing Cognitive Conflict Compare student explanations Feign surprise at either a faulty or correct explanation Pose an impossible event implied by a student’s position Establish an expectancy for an outcome that testing will not support Ask for supporting evidence of a rote answer Accept all responses until two conflicting ones emerge Return to previous slide Cognitive Conflict = moment of disagreement This is a moment to be cherished to help students seek resolution and develop problem solving skill
  11. 11. Inquiry Skills Observing Inferring Verifying Hypothesizing All based on experiences in the “field/classroom” Return to previous slide
  12. 12. <ul><li>Encouraging Participation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek divergent views </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invite comments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value diverse “answers ” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supporting group members </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Value each person’s ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Handling error </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask another ? to let student correct self </li></ul></ul>Guidelines <ul><li>Facilitating Discussion Involves: </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Listening attentively </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Really hear what is being said </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use WAIT TIME </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>saying nothing shows acceptance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal cues like “I see” show you are listening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rephrasing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask a question then name someone </li></ul></ul>Guidelines <ul><li>Facilitating Discussion Involves: </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Wait time = essential to discussion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Question by teacher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wait time 3 sec </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student’s response(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wait time 3 sec </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher’s Response </li></ul></ul>Guidelines <ul><li>Facilitating Discussion Involves: </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Plan your strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop questions ahead of time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State the problem clearly and concisely </li></ul><ul><li>Suggest a problem-solving approach </li></ul><ul><li>Accept and clarify communication </li></ul>Nondirective facilitating <ul><li>Facilitating Discussion Involves: </li></ul>Click here to return to menu Click here to return to menu
  16. 16. <ul><li>Withhold judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Accept feelings along with content </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the discussion focused </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize and clarify directions </li></ul><ul><li>Use WAIT TIME to involve the students </li></ul>Nondirective facilitating <ul><li>Facilitating Discussion Involves: </li></ul>Click here to return to menu Click here to return to menu
  17. 17. Basic Questions Types of Questions Types of Questions Basic Questions Phrasing Questions Probing Questions Practice Scenarios Review each section before advancing. Click a column to learn more about each section.
  18. 18. Basic Questions Types of Questions Types of Questions Basic Questions Phrasing Questions Probing Questions Practice Scenarios Review each section before advancing. Return to Main Menu
  19. 19. <ul><li>Clarifying Questions = ask for more </li></ul><ul><li>information to increase understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Can you be more specific? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you mean by ‘stuff’? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you say that another way? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you give us an example? </li></ul><ul><li>Draw that for me </li></ul><ul><li>What are you referring to when you say ….? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you know about that? </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Extending Questions = ask for more elaboration, explanation, alternatives… </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Can you think of other reasons? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you tell us some more about alcohol abuse? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there anything else you would like to add? </li></ul><ul><li>Do refusal skills for smoking have properties similar to any other health behaviors? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you think drug use..? </li></ul><ul><li>What conclusions can you draw? </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Focusing Questions = initiate or shift discussion’s direction </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s go back to our chart, how are these different? </li></ul><ul><li>First we want to analyze the information, can anyone see commonalities? </li></ul><ul><li>Now, what were we discussing a minute ago? </li></ul><ul><li>How does that relate to the topic? </li></ul><ul><li>What other factors should we consider for this?? </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Lifting Questions = try to lift the level of discussion from narrow to broad, Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Accepting the statements on the board are common to both, what can we say about the relationship of __ and __? </li></ul><ul><li>What hypotheses might explain how media influences teen buying? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the relationship of __ to __? </li></ul><ul><li>What conclusions can you draw now? </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Summarizing Questions = used when a lengthy statement buries the meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>How can we put what you just said on the board? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you give us the main idea of what you are saying? </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Asking good questions takes </li></ul><ul><li>planning and practice. The </li></ul><ul><li>following questions use an </li></ul><ul><li>Inquiry approach to begin </li></ul><ul><li>the discussion: </li></ul><ul><li>What do you know about the </li></ul><ul><li>problem? </li></ul><ul><li>What have you learned about </li></ul><ul><li>the problem? </li></ul><ul><li>What do we need to investigate? </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Asking good questions takes </li></ul><ul><li>planning and practice. The </li></ul><ul><li>following questions use an </li></ul><ul><li>Inquiry approach to begin </li></ul><ul><li>the discussion: </li></ul><ul><li>How will we find answers we need to </li></ul><ul><li>solve the problem? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some possible causes? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some possible solutions? </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Clarity and specificity of the </li></ul><ul><li>questions will influence the </li></ul><ul><li>clarity, specificity of student </li></ul><ul><li>answers. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective questions take planning </li></ul><ul><li>and practice and will: </li></ul><ul><li>Contain words that are easily </li></ul><ul><li>understood by students </li></ul><ul><li>Be stated simply, avoiding cluttering </li></ul><ul><li>with more questions or explanations </li></ul><ul><li>Have a clear outcome or goal in mind </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Clarity and specificity of the </li></ul><ul><li>questions will influence the </li></ul><ul><li>clarity, specificity of student </li></ul><ul><li>answers. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective Questions will: </li></ul><ul><li>Be open ended </li></ul><ul><li>Focus students on the content </li></ul><ul><li>Promote thinking about the content </li></ul><ul><li>Demand that the teacher listen </li></ul><ul><li>carefully in order to respond with </li></ul><ul><li>questions that will extend learning </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Probing questions= those </li></ul><ul><li>that follow-up on student </li></ul><ul><li>responses to clarify, extend, </li></ul><ul><li>personalize and/or support </li></ul><ul><li>their thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Demand careful listening in order </li></ul><ul><li>to ask probing questions that move </li></ul><ul><li>the class toward the goal of the </li></ul><ul><li>discussion </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>What do you mean by…? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you considered…? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you know that? </li></ul><ul><li>What is an example of..? </li></ul><ul><li>On what basis did you decide..? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you think drug use…? </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>What conclusions can you draw now? </li></ul><ul><li>What seems important here? </li></ul><ul><li>What does this mean for our problem? </li></ul><ul><li>What other factors might cause…? </li></ul><ul><li>Where else could we find…? </li></ul><ul><li>You are concerned about ___, our </li></ul><ul><li>focus is on ___ explain how these two </li></ul><ul><li>relate. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>What goal might a teacher have in </li></ul><ul><li>mind for asking a question in response </li></ul><ul><li>to this situation? </li></ul><ul><li>What questions might be asked to take </li></ul><ul><li>a discussion further toward the goal? </li></ul><ul><li>How might a teacher use the responses </li></ul><ul><li>To further exploration of the problem? </li></ul>While a teacher is gathering the class’ knowledge about adolescent drug use, a student says, “Only a few kids are really hooked on drugs. Most just do drugs now and then.
  32. 32. <ul><li>What goal might a teacher have in </li></ul><ul><li>mind for asking a question in response </li></ul><ul><li>to this situation? </li></ul><ul><li>What questions might be asked to take </li></ul><ul><li>a discussion further toward the goal? </li></ul><ul><li>How might a teacher use the responses </li></ul><ul><li>To further exploration of the problem? </li></ul>While a teacher is gathering the class’ knowledge about adolescent drug use, a student says, “Marijuana isn’t as bad for you as alcohol, and alcohol is legal.”
  33. 33. <ul><li>What goal might a teacher have in </li></ul><ul><li>mind for asking a question in response </li></ul><ul><li>to this situation? </li></ul><ul><li>What questions might be asked to take </li></ul><ul><li>a discussion further toward the goal? </li></ul><ul><li>How might a teacher use the responses </li></ul><ul><li>To further exploration of the problem? </li></ul>While a teacher is gathering the class’ knowledge about adolescent drug use, a student says, “You drink one drink every hour and not get drunk. So, kids just need to slow down.”
  34. 34. <ul><li>What goal might a teacher have in </li></ul><ul><li>mind for asking a question in response </li></ul><ul><li>to this situation? </li></ul><ul><li>What questions might be asked to take </li></ul><ul><li>a discussion further toward the goal? </li></ul><ul><li>How might a teacher use the responses </li></ul><ul><li>To further exploration of the problem? </li></ul>While a teacher is gathering the class’ solutions to adolescent drug use, a student says, “ Legalize drugs, then it won’t be such a problem.”
  35. 35. <ul><li>What goal might a teacher have in </li></ul><ul><li>mind for asking a question in response </li></ul><ul><li>to this situation? </li></ul><ul><li>What questions might be asked to take </li></ul><ul><li>a discussion further toward the goal? </li></ul><ul><li>How might a teacher use the responses </li></ul><ul><li>To further exploration of the problem? </li></ul>While a teacher is gathering the class’ solutions to adolescent drug use, a student says, “ We need to teach kids how to drink responsibly.”
  36. 36. References Ask me a question, S. Black Association of School Board Journal, Apr, 2001. Michigan Model for Comprehensive School Health Education (2003). Trainer’s Toolkit EMC, Mt. Pleasant, MI FAST, Foundational Approaches in Science Teaching, 2 nd Ed. Instructional Guide (1992). Donald B. Young, Francis M. Pottenger III. CRDG, Honolulu, HI. Contact: Schutmar@gvsu.edu

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