“ Based on interviews with more than 35,000 American adults, this extensive survey by the Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life details the religious makeup, religious beliefs and practices as well as social and political attitudes of the American public.” http://religions.pewforum.org/
The Pew report lists more than one hundred different Christian religions, divided into five main groups, plus “other.”
From the Forward to “ Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream” Pew Research Center, May 2007 http://pewforum.org/surveys/muslim-american/ Muslims constitute a growing and increasingly important segment of American society. Yet there is surprisingly little quantitative research about the attitudes and opinions of this segment of the public for two reasons. First, the U.S. Census is forbidden by law from asking questions about religious belief and affiliation, and, as a result, we know very little about the basic demographic characteristics of Muslim Americans. Second, Muslim Americans comprise such a small percentage of the U.S. population that general population surveys do not interview a sufficient number of them to allow for meaningful analysis. This Pew Research Center study is therefore the first ever nationwide survey to attempt to measure rigorously the demographics, attitudes and experiences of Muslim Americans. It builds on surveys conducted in 2006 by the Pew Global Attitudes Project of Muslim minority publics in Great Britain, France, Germany and Spain. The Muslim American survey also follows on Pew’s global surveys conducted over the past five years with more than 30,000 Muslims in 22 nations around the world since 2002. … “ A major challenge in describing the Muslim American population is estimating its size. Incomplete data and inadequate tools make it difficult to produce reliable estimates of the U.S. Muslim population. The result is a range of different estimates based on different methodologies that use very different data. Scholars and Muslim American advocacy groups agree that currently there is no scientific count of Muslims in the United States. As the New York Times World Almanac cautioned in 2000, all estimates of the U.S. Muslim population should be read as “educated approximations, at best.” “Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream” Pew Research Center, May 2007, page 9
“ Despite the heavy presence of immigrants among the Muslim population, more than three-quarters (77%) of all U.S. Muslims are American citizens. In addition to the 35% who are citizens by birth, a 65% majority of those who were born outside of the U.S. report that they are now naturalized citizens. The vast majority of immigrant Muslims who arrived prior to 1990 have been naturalized (92%), as have most of those who arrived during the 1990s (70%). Among more recent arrivals (2000 and later), 22% so far have become citizens.” Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream, page 22. http://pewforum.org/surveys/muslim-american/
“ The Pew Research Center conducted more than 55,000 interviews to obtain a national sample of 1,050 Muslims living in the United States. Interviews were conducted in English, Arabic, Farsi and Urdu. The resulting study, which draws on Pew's survey research among Muslims around the world, finds that Muslim Americans are a highly diverse population, one largely composed of immigrants. Nonetheless, they are decidedly American in their outlook, values and attitudes. This belief is reflected in Muslim American income and education levels, which generally mirror those of the public. “http://pewforum.org/surveys/muslim-american/
“ Nine-in-10 (91%) converts to Islam were born in the United States, and almost three-fifths (59%) of converts to Islam are African American. A 55% majority of converts identify with Sunni Islam and another quarter (24%) identify with no specific tradition. Only 6% of Muslim converts in America identify themselves as Shia. Almost half (49%) of Muslim converts in America report that their conversion occurred when they were under 21 years of age, another third (34%) converted when they were between ages 21 and 35, and 17% when they were older than 35. The early age of most conversions to Islam resembles the typical pattern of conversion in the general public, where religious change is concentrated in adolescence and early adulthood. Two-thirds (67%) of all converts to Islam in the U.S. came from Protestant churches, 10% came from Catholicism, and just 5% from other religions. Nearly one-in-seven converts to Islam (15%) had no religion before their conversion. Most converts to Islam (58%) cite aspects of the religion as the reason for their conversion. These include references to the truth or appeal of Islam ’ s teachings, the belief that Islam is superior to Christianity, or that the religion just “ made sense ” to them. Just 18% of converts mentioned family reasons, such as marrying a Muslim, as the reason for their conversion. ” From Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream Pew Research Center, May 2007, page 22-23.
Due to rounding of data by the Pew Research Center the numbers add up to 101.
http://religions.pewforum.org/portraits. Due to rounding of data by the Pew Research Center the numbers add up to 101.
“ The number of mosques and mosque participants are experiencing tremendous growth. On average, there are over 1,625 Muslims associated in some way with the religious life of each mosque. Half of mosques have 500 or more Muslims associated with them. The average attendance at Friday prayer is 292 persons. Median attendance is 135. The following table compares these figures with the 1994 Study. 2000 Study 1994 Study Increase Number of Mosques 1209 962 25% “ The Mosque in America : A National Portrait , Council on American – Islamic Relations (CAIR) 2001, page 3. http://www.cair.com/Portals/0/pdf/The_Mosque_in_America_A_National_Portrait.pdf ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ **“Mosques and Islamic centers are being built all over the United States of America and Canada. These projects range from small prefab buildings to grand, monumental structures. To date there are over 2,000 mosques in the United States of America alone.“ http://libraries.mit.edu/guides/subjects/islamicarchitecture/visual/usamosques.html. Author Dr. Omar Khalidi, is staff member at Aga Khan Program for Islamic Architecture at MIT and Harvard University . Dr Khalidi has written extensively on the architecture of American and Canadian mosques. He has also written on Muslim interface with American society in peer-reviewed journals and books. **Islamicity.com http://www.islamicity.com/orgs/
California mosque: “The Islamic Society of Orange County (ISOC) was formally established in 1976 and is conveniently situated in the heart of ethnically diverse Orange County. The facility is now sprawled across 5 acres and includes the KG - 8th grade fully accredited Orange Crescent School which provides quality academic education in a safe, family-orientated environment. Masjid Al-Rahman was completed in November 2001 with generous help and support from community members. It can accommodate almost one and a half thousand worshippers. Upon entering the Main Hall of Masjid Al-Rahman, you will see the striking dome that is inscribed with the 99 Beautiful Names and Attributes of Allah.” http://www.isocmasjid.com/About/masjid.htm Michigan mosque: “The Islamic Center of America is one of North America’s oldest institutions. Established in 1963, the Islamic Center has been serving the needs of Muslims in the greater Detroit area as well as throughout the United States. The Islamic Center of America has a long and rich past that embodies the American Muslim Community's search, struggle and triumph to find a place to belong. The story begins in 1949, when Imam Jawad Chirri, a man who could not speak or understand English came to America at the request of a small group of people who where yearning for Islamic guidance. It culminates as an Islamic Center that has become more than a place of worship but an Institution and a beacon for Islam in North America.” http://www.icofa.com/aboutus/history.html Iowa mosque: “ The oldest existing mosque community in North America is the Islamic Cultural Center in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. A group of Lebanese Sunni immigrants came together in 1925 to start a prayer group. They raised money and began constructing the actual facility in 1929, despite the Great Depression; the fully finished mosque opened to prayer in 1934. Later, the community built its current mosque structure and renamed the organization Islamic Center of Cedar Rapids. The original structure, nicknamed Mother Mosque, has been designated a historic landmark by the State of Iowa.” http://www.cairchicago.org/thescoop.php?file=sc_islamiccenters
“ The majority of community members are refugees from Bosnia, Somalia, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. It is a predominantly younger community, with many children. In the Muslim community of Boise there are approximately 4000 Bosnian refugees, 2000 Somali refugees and 300 Afghan refugees. In total, there are 44 nations represented at the Boise Mosque. There are also a significant number of professionals who are members of the Mosque that moved to Boise for their jobs, and therefore, most of the members are not originally from Idaho. “ The Mosque holds daily congregational prayers for Fajr, Zuhar, Asr, Maghrib and Isha. There is also Friday congregational prayers (Khutba), which begin at 1pm. The Khutba begins with a sermon by the Imam, then prayers, and often concludes with a small community lunch. There is weekly Islamic school for children on Sundays from 12-2pm. Furthermore, Arabic classes are offered daily prior to Magrib prayers. The last Saturday of each month, following Asr prayers, the congregation has a community dinner at the Islamic Center. “ In addition to the prayer schedule, the Islamic Center offers a variety of free community services. These services include refugee orientations, hosting of Muslim speakers, lectures, mosque tours for non-Muslims interested in learning about Islam, language classes, burial assistance, access to a Muslim cemetery, counseling, marriage performances, charity distribution and charity work, Islamic school, and access to an attorney if a member of the Mosque comes under investigation for terrorist related acts.” http://www.pluralism.org/research/profiles/display.php?profile=69223
Year listed is when the congregation moved into its current building.
Ramadan commemorations at the White House began in 1996.
Ramadan 2009 Outreach Presentation Indo
Keberagaman di Amerika 1
Membangun Keyakinan Pertumbuhan Islam di Amerika Serikat 2 Acara peletakan kubah di Masyarakat Islam Baru di Pusat Kebudayaan Boston (Islamic Society of Boston Cultural Center (ISBCC) di Roxbury, Massachusetts, 9 Juni 2007 .
Amerika adalah bangsa yang memiliki keyakinan Dalam populasi dewasa sebanyak 250 juta orang, lebih dari 90 persen percaya pada Tuhan dan lebih dari separuh menempatkan agama sebagai hal yang sangat penting dalam hidup mereka. From U.S. Religious Landscape Survey Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, June 2008 3 Percaya adanya Tuhan Atau “roh universal” Total Populasi 92 persen Kristen 98 persen Yahudi 83 persen Muslim 92 persen Budha 75 persen Hindu 70 persen Tidak berafiliasi 70 persen Percaya agama “sangat penting” Total populasi 56 persen Kristen 70 persen Yahudi 31 persen Muslim 72 persen Budha 35 persen Hindu 45 persen Tidak berafiliasi 16 persen
AS adalah bangsa dengan beragam keyakinan The Pew Forum untuk Agama dan Kehidupan Masyarakat memiliki daftar 140 agama yang berbeda di AS yang dapat dimasukkan dalam enam agama utama. From U.S. Religious Landscape Survey Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, June 2008 4
AS adalah bangsa dengan beragam keyakinan Sekitar 80 persen adalah Kristen, yang terbagi dalam berbagai agama yang lebih kecil. From U.S. Religious Landscape Survey Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, June 2008 5 It’s key that all the necessary in-house coordination be done. Unfortunately this was not the case with… Kristen 78.5 persent Protestan 51.3 persen Katolik 23.9 persen Mormon 1.7 persen Kesaksian Jehovah’ .7 persen Ortodok .6 persen Kristen lainnya .3 persen
AS adalah bangsa dengan beragam keyakinan Selebihnya terdiri atas empat agama utama, dan mereka yang tidak berafiliasi dengan kelompok agama apapun From U.S. Religious Landscape Survey Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, June 2008 6 Yahudi 1.7 persen Muslim .6 persen Buddhist .7 persen Hindu .4 persen Tak Berafiliasi 16 persen
Berapa banyak Muslim? Studi lembaga Pew memperkirakan populasi warga Amerika yang Muslim adalah 0 .6 persen dari total sekitar 2.35 juta Muslim secara nasional From Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream Pew Research Center, May 2007 7 Muslim .6 persen 1.5 juta dewasa (di atas 18) + 850,000 di bawah18 2.35 juta
Dari mana mereka berasal? From Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream Pew Research Center, May 2007 Mayoritas Muslim Amerika – 65% - lahir dari berbagai belahan dunia, lebih dari 50% berimigrasi ke Amerika sejak1980. Tahun Kedatangan 1990 – 2007 39 persen 1980 – 1989 15 persen Sebelum 1980 11 persen Jemaah mendengarkan kotbah sholat Jumat di Masyarakat Islam Amerika Utara 8
Dari mana mereka berasal? Mayoritas Muslim Amerika – 65% - lahir dari berbagai belahan dunia, lebih dari 50% berimigrasi ke Amerika sejak1980. From Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream Pew Research Center, May 2007 9 Seorang imigrant berdoa. Muslim Amerika lahir di luar negeri Wilayah Arab 24 persen Pakistan 8 persen Lainnya – Asia Selatan 10 persent Iran 8 persen Eropa 5 persen Lainnya – Africa 4 persen Lainnya 6 persen Total 65 persen Muslim di AS
Dari mana mereka berasal? Mayoritas Muslim Amerika asli adalah keturunan Afrika, dan mayoritas berpindah agama Islam From Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream Pew Research Center, May 2007 Sholat berjamaah di masjid di Springfield, Massachusetts. 10 Muslim Amerika yang terlahir di AS Amerika-Afrika 20 persen Lainnya 15 persen Total 35 persen Muslim di AS Berpindah ke Islam 21 persen Terlahir Muslim 14 persen Total 35 persen Muslim di AS.
Dimana mereka tinggal? Tempat tinggal Muslim Amerika terbagi rata di berbagai wilayah From Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream Pew Research Center, May 2007 Selatan 32 persen TimurUtara 29 persen BaratTengah 22 persen Barat 18 persen 11
Dimana mereka sembahyang? Distribusi Masjid berdasarkan wilayah di AS Selatan 26 persen TimurUtara 30 persen BaratTengah 29 persen Barat 15 persen From U.S. Religious Landscape Survey Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, June 2008 12
Pertumbuhan jumlah Masjid di AS Jumlah Masjid di AS bertambah dua kali lipat dalam 15 tahun terakhir * The Mosque in America : A National Portrait , Council on American – Islamic Relations (CAIR) 2001 ** Islamic Architecture, Art, and Urbanism , MIT Libraries, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) 2008 ** IslamiCity.com 13 Tahun Jumlah Masjid 1994 962* 2000 1,209* 2008 2,000+**
Pertumbuhan jumlah Masjid di AS Jumlah Masjid di AS bertambah dua kali lipat dalam 15 tahun terakhir California terbanyak – lebih dari 300. Terlihat di foto paling kiri adalah Masyarakat Muslim Orange County, California. Michigan terbesar - Islamic Center of America di Dearborn, Michigan, foto atas. Bangunan seluas 70,000 kaki persegi, dibangun pada 2005, dapat menampung lebih dari 3,000 jemaah. Iowa tertua – Masjid cikal bakal dibangun pada 1934 di Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Meskipun Masjid yang lebih besar dibangun pada akhir 1970-an Masjid ini tetap dipakai. 14
Pertumbuhan Masjid di AS Islamic Center di Boise Shiite and Sunni (Islam) 2719 Stewart Ave, Boise, Idaho 83702 Muslim pertama di Boise, mahasiswa di Universitas Boise State University, tiba pada 1955. Pada 1982 komunitas muslim pertama terbentuk terdiri dari 15-20 orang. Sholat diadakan di rumah individu sampai 1989 ketika komunitas itu mulai menyewa apartemen. Pada 1996 komunitas muslim tumbuh pesat dengan kehadiran perusahaan-perusahaan perangkat lunak komputer dan pengungsi dari Bosnia, Somalia, Pakistan dan Afghanistan. Pada 2002, setelah 12 tahun penggalangan dana, Muslim di Boise membeli bangunan yang kini menjadi Masjid Boise dan Islamic Center. Bangunan itu sebelumnya adalah gereja, dan kemudian sebagai studio dansa From The Pluralism Project at Harvard University Satu contoh bagaimana pertumbuhan masjid di AS 15
Masjid di AS dari pantai ke pantai Dari Boston, Massachusetts ke Garden Grove, California 16
Ucapan Selamat Berpuasa 29 Agustus 2008 Saya ucapkan selamat berpuasa kepada kaum Muslim yang melaksanakan ibadah puasa di Amerika dan seluruh dunia. Bulan suci Ramadan adalah saat istimewa untuk beribadah, berpuasa, dan berbakti. Bagi kaum Muslim, Ramadan berarti juga memperingati turunnya wahyu Tuhan kepada Nabi Muhammad dalam bentuk Al-Qur’an. Saya berterimakasih kepada komunitas Muslim atas sumbangsihnya kepada Amerika. Kecintaan terhadap keluarga dan pengabdian kepada Tuhan telah memperkuat jalinan moral negara kita. Negara kita semakin kuat dan handal karena kemurahan, bakat, dan nurani warga muslim. Laura dan saya mengucapkan salam. Ramadan Mubarak. GEORGE W. BUSH PresidentGeorge W. Bush, kanan, mendengarkan kotbah Imam Talal Eid, kiri, sebelum berbuka puasa di jamuan kenegaraan di White House. 18
Daftar Pustaka dan rujukan Sumber pustaka U.S. Religious Landscape Survey Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, June 2008 http://religions.pewforum.org Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream Pew Research Center, May 2007 http://pewforum.org/surveys/muslim-american The Pluralism Project at Harvard University http://www.pluralism.org The Mosque in America : A National Portrait , Council on American – Islamic Relations (CAIR) 2001 http://www.cair.com Dr. Omar Khalidi , Islamic Architecture, Art, and Urbanism , MIT Libraries, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) http://libraries.mit.edu/guides/subjects/islamicarchitecture/visual/usamosques.html Rujukan foto Aramco Services Company Associated Press Dr. Omar Khalidi, Islamic Architecture Librarian, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) The Pluralism Project at Harvard University 19
Untuk informasi lebih lanjut http://America.gov 20 Departemen Luar Negeri AS/ Biro Program Informasi Internasional