역사 HISTORY was one of the most prolific periods for artists in many disciplines, especially in pottery. A sophisticated aristocracy standardized government operations and cultivated artistic expression during the Goryeo dynasty explores the period’s extraordinary production of ceramics, lacquer wares, Buddhist paintings and sculptures, illustrated manuscripts, and metal crafts in light of these themes. http://asianart.com/exhibitions/korea/intro.html
청자 *Celadonpale green–glazed ceramics
means "Comb-patterned"Jeulmun8000 BC - 1500 BC It is named after the decorated pottery vessels that form a large part of the pottery assemblage consistently over the above period The Jeulmun is significant for the origins of plant cultivation and sedentary societies in the Korean peninsula The Jeulmun was a period of hunting, gathering, and small-scale cultivation of plants. http://gazta.info/stories/south_korea/12593/1.html
Mumun The Mumun period is preceded by the Jeulmun Pottery Period1500 BC - 300 BC This period is named after the Korean name for undecorated or plain cooking and storage vessels that form a large part of the pottery assemblage over the entire length of the period Important long-term traditions related to Mumun ceremonial and mortuary systems originated in this sub-period. These traditions include the construction of megalithic burials, the production of red-burnished pottery, and production of polished ground stone daggers. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mumun_pottery_period
Early Mumun The Early Mumun is characterized by shifting cultivation, fishing, hunting, and discrete settlements with rectangular semi-subterranean pit-houses. The social scale of Early Mumun societies was egalitarian in nature. Early Mumun settlements are relatively concentrated in the river valleys formed by tributaries of the Geum River in West-central Korea. However, one of the largest Early Mumun settlements, Eoeun (Hangeul: ), is located in the Middle Nam River valley in South-central Korea. In the latter Early Mumun, large settlements composed of many long-houses such as Baekseok-dong (Hangeul: ) appeared in the area of modern Cheonan City, Chungcheong Nam-do. Important long-term traditions related to Mumun ceremonial and mortuary systems originated in this sub- period. These traditions include the construction of megalithic burials, the production of red-burnished pottery, and production of polished groundstone daggers.
Middle Mumun The Middle (or Classic) Mumun (c. 850-550 B.C.) is characterized by intensive agriculture, as evidenced by the large and expansive dry- field remains (c. 32,500 square metres) recovered at Daepyeong, a sprawling settlement with several multiple ditch enclosures, hundreds of pit-houses, specialized production, and evidence of the presence of incipient elites and social competition. Representations of a dagger (right)and two human figures, one of which is kneeling (left), carved into the capstone of Megalithic Burial No. 5, Orim-dong, Yeosu, Korea. Burials dating to the latter part of the Middle Mumun (c. 700-550 B.C.) contain a few high status mortuary offerings such as bronze artifacts. Bronze production probably began around this time in Southern Korea. Other high status burials contain greenstone (or jade) ornaments. A number of megalithic burials with deep shaft interments, substantial pavements of rounded cobblestone, and prestige artifacts such as bronze daggers, jade, and red-burnished vessels were built in the vicinity of the southern coast in the Late Middle Mumun. High status megalithic burials and large raised- floor buildings at the Deokcheon-ni (Hangeul: ) and Igeum-dong sites in Gyeongsang Nam-do provide further evidence of the growth of social inequality and the existence of polities that were organized in ways that appear to be similar to simple "chiefdoms".
Late Mumun The Late (or Post-classic) Mumun (550-300 B.C.) is characterized by increasing conflict, fortified hilltop settlements, and a concentration of population in the southern coastal area. A Late Mumun occupation was found at the Namsan settlement, located on the top of a hill 100 m above sea level in modern Changwon City, Gyeongsang Nam-do. A shellmidden (shellmound) was found in the vicinity of Namsan, indicating that, in addition to agriculture, shellfish exploitation was part of the Late Mumun subsistence system in some areas. Pit-houses at Namsan were located inside a ring-ditch that is some 4.2 m deep and 10 m in width. Why would such a formidable ring-ditch, so massive in size, have been necessary? One possible answer is intergroup conflict. Archaeologists propose that the Late Mumun was a period of conflict between groups of people. http://business.ezinemark.com/mumun-pottery-period-red-diode- laser-module-670nm-manufacturer-blue-laser-module-473nm- 31ab5d8a235.html
Early bronze technology, too, was probably first introduced to Korea by Manchurians between 2000 andBronze Age 1000 B.C.800 BC - 300 BC With the introduction of iron technology, the potters wheel, Chinese writing, Buddhism, Confucianism, Chinese culture became firmly embedded on the Korean peninsula. http://www.artsmia.org/art-of-asia/history/korea- neolithic-bronze-age.cfm
The Iron Age is a period generally occurring afterIron Age the Bronze Age, characterized by the widespread(1300 BC – 600 BC) use of iron or steel. The adoption of such material coincided with other changes in society, including differing agricultural practices, religious beliefs and artistic styles. The Iron Age as an archaelogical term indicates the condition as to civilization and culture of a people using iron as the material for their cutting tools and weapons. The Iron Age is the 3rd principal period of the three-age system created by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen for classifying ancient societies and prehistoric stages of progress.
한국어 회화 KO R EA N PA I N T I N G
Foreign Influence The history of Korean painting stretches back to the early murals painted on the walls of tombs during the fourth century. In the fourth century, China was considered, both by itself, as well as by many Asian countries under its influence, to be the center of the universe. As such, many Korean painters were sent to China to learn modern Chinese painting styles. What they learned, influenced not only the paintings of Korea, but also the art of Japan, as many Korean artisans migrated to Japan.
Koryo (918-1392) 고려 The Koryo period was marked by a proliferation of painters as many aristocrats and began painting for the intellectual stimulation, and the flourishing of Buddhism, just as it had created a need for celadon wares for religious ceremonies, likewise created a need for paintings with Buddhist motifs. Another trend which has its roots in the Koryo era was the practice of painting scenes based on their actual appearance which would later become common during the Chosun period.
조선 # Chosun ( 1392-1910) The Chosun period is marked by a great number of changes that occurred in Korean painting. The decline of the strong Buddhist culture also helped to move Korean painting away from its emphasis on religious motifs. Korean artists continued to be influenced by the painters of China but were able to develop a stronger sense of native Korean painting. This stronger sense, of their native land, was further strengthened by the Silhak, or practical learning movement, which emphasized understanding based on actual observance. Korean paintings began to be based on actual scenes of the Korean countryside or Korean people engaged in common activities. The uniquely Korean flavor of painting also could be seen in the stylized depiction of animals, and plants..
Colonial Period (1910-1945) 식민지 시대 The Japanese colonial period nearly wiped out the tradition of Korean painting. During this time, many things Korean were suppressed, such as the language, in an attempt to assimilate the Koreans into the Japanese culture. Korean painting culture was likewise suppressed by the Japanese in favor of Western or Chinese styles - both of which had been adopted by the Japanese. After Koreas liberation from Japan in 1945, Koreas painting tradition was revived by a number of Korean artisans in the same way the art of making celadon was revived.
오늘 Today It continues to the present, in which a great number of Korean artists keep the styles and forms of the traditional artists alive, blend the traditional styles with modern motifs, or paint in a completely modern style.
Types of Korean PaintingsLandscape Often called the realistic landscape school, the practice of painting landscapes based on actual scenes became more popular during the mid- Chosun period.
Genre At the same time as the interest in realistic landscapes surged, so did the practice of painting the realistic scenes of ordinary people doing ordinary things. Genre painting, as this has come to be called, is the most uniquely Korean of all the painting styles and gives us a historic look into the daily lives of the people of the Chosun period. Some of the most notable of the genre painters were Kim Hong-do (1745-1818?) Another of the great genre painters was Shin Yun-bok (1758-?), whos paintings of often risque scenes were both romantic and sensual
Minhwa 최소 정화 Minhwa, or folk paintings are by far the most interesting of the traditional Korean paintings. The characteristics of Minhwa paintings are that they were all painted by unknown artists, and all were painted near the end of, or after the Chosun period. Though many of them appear rather childish, and unrefined, quite a number display great painting skill. Under the Minhwa category of paintings are many sub- categories.
Sub-Categories Landscape Paintings Magpies and Tigers Flowers and Birds Peonies Lotus Flowers The Ten Longevity Symbols Dragons Paintings of Tiger Hide Fish and Crabs Manchurian Hunting Scenes One Hundred Children Paintings of the Life Cycle Bookcases and Scholars Rooms Shamanistic Deities
Four Gracious Plants The Four Gracious Plants Four Gentlemanly Plants, or the Four Seasons symbols, consist of plum blossoms, orchids or wild orchids, chrysanthemums, and bamboo. They were originally Confucian symbols for the four qualities of a learned man, but are now more commonly associated with the four seasons. They are plum blossoms which represented courage, the orchid stood for refinement, the chrysanthemum was a sign of a productive, and fruitful life, and bamboo represented integrity. In modern times, the four have come to be associated with the seasons as well; plums blossoms bravely bloom in the cold of an early spring, orchids disseminate a dim fragrance far in the heat of summer, chrysanthemums overcome the first cold of a late fall and bloom, and bamboo bares its green leaves even in the winter.
Portraits Portraits were painted throughout Korean history but were produced in greater numbers during the Chosun period. The main subjects of the portraits were kings, meritorious subjects, elderly officials, literati or aristocrats, women, and Buddhist monks.
About Korean Paintings Korean-Arts collection of paintings are all hand painted by Korean artisans and represent the rich traditions of landscape, genre, Minhwa, and the Four Gracious Plants. All works are painted on hanging silk scrolls, and feature the painting centered on a patterned background which has a small wood dowel at the top with a hook for hanging, and a dowel at the bottom to keep the scroll hanging true. Many of the paintings are reproductions such as the Minhwa tiger. While others are unique works that follow the traditions of landscape, genre, Minhwa, or the Four Gracious Plants paintings discussed above.
Three Kingdom Period (668-57BC) The first major period of Korean art during recorded history is the period of the Three Kingdoms (c. 57 BCE–668 CE), when the peninsula of Korea was ruled by three monarchies. The Koguryŏ kingdom (37 BCE–668CE). First established in southern Manchuria, the Koguryŏ kingdom had a lifestyle based on the typically austere cultural patterns of northern Asia, evolved in a region characterized by its scarcity of arable land and severity of climate.
The Paekche kingdom (18–660 BC) was centred in southwestern Korea, south of the present-day city of Seoul. Paekche art, therefore, was open and receptive to Chinese influences. Northern Chinese cultural elements were introduced by land through the Koguryŏ kingdom, while southern Chinese influences easily crossed the navigable East Asian seas. The kingdom of Silla (traditionally dated 57 BCE– 668 CE) was the oldest of the monarchies. The original territory of the Silla kingdom, the modern Kyŏngsang-puk province, is a mountain- secluded triangle, a geographic factor that is sometimes offered as an explanation for the distinctiveness and conservatism of its art.
Koguryŏ kingdom Buddhist sculpture probably began in the 5th century. No 5th-century pieces survive, however, except for some fragments of terra-cotta figures. The earliest dated Koguryŏ Buddhist image is a gilt-bronze standing Buddha. It has an inscribed date that may correspond to the year 539. The elongated face, the flared drapery, and the mandorla, or almond- shaped aureole, decorated with a flame pattern, all point to the influence of Chinese sculpture of the Bei (Northern) Wei period In Paekche the Koguryŏ-type Buddha became more naturalistic and thus more Korean in style. The Buddha’s face is rounder and more expressive, with the distinctive “Paekche smile.”
Chosŏn period (1392–1910) By the beginning of the Chosŏn period, the production of traditional religious sculpture had virtually died out because Confucianism had become the new state creed. Nevertheless, Buddhism was patronized by several queens at court, and many small-scale, quiet bronze images were produced. In the late Chosŏn period, many large- scale Buddhist images, some measuring nearly 7 metres (23 feet) in height, were built in clay over a wooden armature. Their gilded bodies are simple, stolid masses covered with loose, yet leatherlike, thick robes. Drapery folds are depicted in a formalized, schematic series of plaits.
Source 출처 http://www.korean- arts.com/about_korean_paintings.htm#The History of Korean Paintings