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THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM It•REPRODUCTION is made up of endocrine glands that secretes •GROWTH hormones and coordinate slower but longer-acting •METABOLISM •METAMORPHOSIS responses to stimuli •OSMOREGULATION •DIGESTION •EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT
Hormone is a chemical signal that is secreted into the blood and communicates regulatory messages within the body Target cells are equipped to respond to these hormones
HYPOTHALAMUS & PITUITARY GLAND Pituitary gland is located at the base of the human brain.
Pituitary Gland (Posterior) FISHES AMPHIBIA REPTILIA AVES MAMMALIA ADH Absent Present Present Present Present OXYSTOCIN Absent Present Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) – controls water balance in the body and blood pressure. Oxytocin – a peptide hormone that stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth.
THE PINEAL GLAND The Pineal gland is located at the midbrain of the vertebrates The Pineal gland secretes Melatonin Fishes Amphibia & Reptilia Aves & Mammalia Function Act as Controls color change Allows to respond to Third eye changes in Photoperiod
THE THYROID GLANDIt produces, stores, andreleases two separatethyroid hormones thatregulate metabolic rate,metamorphosis, growth,and reproduction(Kardong, 2012).2 types of thyroidhormones:Thyroxine (T3)Triiodothyronine (T4)
THE THYROID GLAND Fishes Reptilia Amphibia Aves MammaliaMetabolism Elevate oxygen Unresponsive consumption and heat production by tissuesGrowth & Growth depends on Their thyroid Normal growth dependsDevelopment Thyroid hormones hormones arrest on normal levels of thyroid growth of the larvae hormones and promote metamorphosisMolting Thyroxine promotes sloughing or shedding of the skinReproduction Correlates with gonad Arrest Correlates with gonad maturation and physiological maturation and oogenesis oogenesis or processes that or spermatogenesis spermatogenesis promote reproduction
ULTIMOBRANCHIAL BODY & PARATHYROID GLAND ULTIMOBRANCHIAL BODY secretes calcitonin (thyrocalcitonin), which lowers blood levels of calcium. Calcitonin causes calcium to be extracted from the blood and used to build new bone matrix, causing blood levels of calcium to fall
PARATHYROID GLAND secretes parathyroid hormone ( parathormone), which elevates levels of blood calcium raises blood levels of calcium by promoting kidney retention of calcium, encouraging its absorption across the walls of the digestive tract, and affecting bone deposition
PARATHYROID GLAND Fishes Amphibia Reptilia Aves MammaliaLocation Absent Either on the thyroid or dispersed Mouse, Cat & along the major veins in the neck Human – embedded in the Thyroid gland Goat & Rabbit – embedded near the thyroid gland
ADRENAL GLAND•One of the most importantfunctions of the adrenalgland is coordinating the wholeorganism’s response to stress
THE ADRENAL GLANDS Chromaffin Tissue Corticosteroids releases adrenalin produces the (epinephrine) and corticosteroid hormone norepinephrine in produces aldosterone - times of stress acts in the kidney to promote the uptake of sodium & other salts from the urine
In Fishes: The Chromaffin cells may vary in location. These are found with the sympathetic ganglia in clumps between the anterior kidney and spine or in the interrenal tissue.
In Reptiles: The adrenocortical tissue receives its own arterial and venous blood supply, and does not rely on the kidney and renal portal system for distribution of its secretory products
In Amphibians and Birds: Adrenocortical and Chromaffin tissues mingle or reside adjacent to each other and form strands or rows of adrenal tissue, now lying on or near the kidneys
In Mammals: Adrenocortical and Chromaffin tissues form a cortex and a medulla respectively to create the composite adrenal gland or suprarenal
THE PANCREAS•acomposite glandconsisting of exocrinewhich consists of Acinithat secrete digestiveenzymes into ducts andendocrine portionsknown as the Islets ofLangerhans consists ofmasses of endocrinecells embedded withinthe exocrine pancreas
THE ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secretes insulin and glucagon Insulin removes glucose from the blood. Glucagon returns glucose to the blood. Alpha cells produces glucagon Beta cells insulin
GONADS In males, gonads is known as testes which secretes androgens and testerone. In females, gonads is known as ovaries which secrets estrogen and progesterone
CLASS MAMMALIA TESTES It stimulates bones and musles growth and development of the secondary sexual characters like beard and mustaches
CLASS AVES TESTES It controls the secondary sexual characters like bright plumage colour, comb and spurs.
VERTEBRATES:UNIQUE ENDOCRINE GLANDS
CLASS PISCES: UROPHYSIS A neurosecretory neurohemal organ which is associated with the spinal cord at the base of the tail
CLASS AMPHIBIA In larval stage, the thyroid hormone secretion and glucocorticoid secretion are ultimately stimulated by a single hypothalamic releasing hormone – corticotropin-releasing hormone that stimulates ACTH.
CLASS MAMMALIA THYMUS GLAND It lies in upper part of chest, behind breast-bone and consists of 2 lobes that join in front of trachea. It secretes thymosine that stimulates develoment and differentiation of T cells which defends the body against viruses.
THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Aballe, Karen Marie Sebastian, Marie Elaine