The endocrine system final
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  • It is made up of endocrine glands that secretes hormones and coordinate slower but longer-acting responses to stimuliEvolution of Endocrine Systems | Back to TopMost animals with well-developed nervous and circulatory systems have an endocrine system. Most of the similarities among the endocrine systems of crustaceans, arthropods, and vertebrates are examples of convergent evolution. The vertebrate endocrine system consists of glands (pituitary, thyroid, adrenal), and diffuse cell groups scattered in epithelial tissues.More than fifty different hormones are secreted. Endocrine glands arise during development for all three embryologic tissue layers (endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm). The type of endocrine product is determined by which tissue layer a gland originated in. Glands of ectodermal and endodermal origin produce peptide and amine hormones; mesodermal-origin glands secrete hormones based on lipids.
  • Many hormones are secreted by ductless endocrine glands.Obtain raw materials from and secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream.Exocrine glands have ducts for discharging secretions onto a free surface.Sweat glands, salivary glands, enzyme-secreting glands in the digestive tract.Hormones convey information via the bloodstream to target cells throughout the body.Pheromones carry messages outside the body – to other individuals.Three major classes of molecules function as hormones in vertebrates:Proteins and peptidesAmines derived from amino acids- pituitary, parathyroid, heart, stomach, liver, and kidneysSteroids - GONADS
  • The hypothalamus regulates the neuroendocrine system, maintaining homeostasis in the body.The hypothalamus can use motor nerves to send short-lived electrical messages or hormones to send chemical messages with a longer duration.The hypothalamus produces seven different “releasing” hormones that travel to the pituitary gland.Each releasing hormone stimulates the pituitary to release a corresponding hormone which travels to an endocrine gland and causes it to start producing a particular endocrine hormone.A stalk links the pituitary to the hypothalamus, which controls release of pituitary hormones. The pituitary gland has two lobes: the anterior and posterior lobes. The anterior pituitary is glandular.The hypothalamus maintains homeostatic levels of GH
  • Hypothalamus receptors monitor blood levels of thyroid hormones. Low blood levels of Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) cause the release of TSH-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus, which in turn causes the release of TSH from the anterior pituitary. TSH travels to the thyroid where it promotes production of thyroid hormones, which in turn regulate metabolic rates and body temperatures.The hypothalamus produces seven different “releasing” hormones that travel to the pituitary gland.Each releasing hormone stimulates the pituitary to release a corresponding hormone which travels to an endocrine gland and causes it to start producing a particular endocrine hormone.
  • These hormones act primarily to influence other endocrine glands.Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) – stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine which stimulates oxidative respiration.Luteinizing hormone (LH) plays an important role in the menstrual cycle. It also stimulates the production of testosterone in males.Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) – plays an important role in the menstrual cycle. In males, it causes the testes to produce a hormone that regulates sperm production.Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) – stimulates the adrenal gland to produce steroid hormones. Some regulate glucose production, others balance sodium & potassium in the bloodGrowth hormone (GH) – stimulates the growth of muscle and bone.Prolactin – stimulates milk production.Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) – in reptiles & amphibians, this hormone stimulates color change.
  • The Posterior PituitaryThe posterior pituitary stores and releases hormones into the blood. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin are produced in the hypothalamus and transported by axons to the posterior pituitary where they are dumped into the blood. ADH controls water balance in the body and blood pressure. Oxytocin is a small peptide hormone that stimulates uterine contractions during childbirthAntidiuretic hormone (ADH) regulates the kidney’s retention of water.Oxytocin initiates uterine contraction during childbirth and milk release in mothers.These hormones are actually synthesized in the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary.
  • The hypothalamus and anterior pituitary control the secretion of thyroid hormones through two negative feedback loops.
  • The hormone they produce is parathyroid hormone (PTH) which regulates the level of calcium in the blood.Essential that calcium is kept within narrow limits for muscle contraction, including the heart.
  • The adrenal medulla releases adrenalin (epinephrine) and norepinephrine in times of stress.Identical to the effects of the sympathetic nervous system, but longer lasting.Accelerated heartbeat, increased blood pressure, higher levels of blood sugar and increased blood flow to heart and lungs.The adrenal cortex produces the steroid hormone cortisol (hydrocortisone).Reduces inflammation.Synthetic derivatives such as prednisone are used as anti-inflammatory agents.Stimulates carbohydrate metabolism.s
  • The pancreas is a composite gland consisting of exocrine andendocrine portions (figure 15.11a). The exocrine portionconsists of acini that secrete digestive enzymes into ducts. Theendocrine portion, the pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans),consists of masses of endocrine cells embedded withinthe exocrine pancreas (
  • Insulin is produced by B cells of the islets. Insulin, incooperation with other hormones, controls the overallmetabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
  • It is made up of endocrine glands that secretes hormones and coordinate slower but longer-acting responses to stimuliEvolution of Endocrine Systems | Back to TopMost animals with well-developed nervous and circulatory systems have an endocrine system. Most of the similarities among the endocrine systems of crustaceans, arthropods, and vertebrates are examples of convergent evolution. The vertebrate endocrine system consists of glands (pituitary, thyroid, adrenal), and diffuse cell groups scattered in epithelial tissues.More than fifty different hormones are secreted. Endocrine glands arise during development for all three embryologic tissue layers (endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm). The type of endocrine product is determined by which tissue layer a gland originated in. Glands of ectodermal and endodermal origin produce peptide and amine hormones; mesodermal-origin glands secrete hormones based on lipids.

The endocrine system final Presentation Transcript

  • 1. THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM It•REPRODUCTION is made up of endocrine glands that secretes •GROWTH hormones and coordinate slower but longer-acting •METABOLISM •METAMORPHOSIS responses to stimuli •OSMOREGULATION •DIGESTION •EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT
  • 2.  Hormone is a chemical signal that is secreted into the blood and communicates regulatory messages within the body Target cells are equipped to respond to these hormones
  • 3. HYPOTHALAMUS & PITUITARY GLAND Pituitary gland is located at the base of the human brain.
  • 4. PITUITARY GLAND Anterior lobe This regulates the other endocrine glands Hormones secreted: Somatotropin Prolactin thyroid – stimulating hormone adrenocorticotropic hormone follicle – stimulating hormone luteinizing hormone and; melanocyte – stimulating hormone
  • 5. Posterior lobe This regulates water conservation, milk letdown, and uterine contraction in womenHormones secreted: antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin
  • 6. Pituitary Gland (Anterior) FISHES AMPHIBIA REPTILIA AVES MAMMALIATSH Present Present Present Present PresentLH Present PresentFSH PresentACTH Present PresentGH Present Present Present Present PresentPROLACTIN Absent Absent Absent Present PresentMSH Present Present* Present* Present Present (color change) (color change)
  • 7. Pituitary Gland (Posterior) FISHES AMPHIBIA REPTILIA AVES MAMMALIA ADH Absent Present Present Present Present OXYSTOCIN Absent Present Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) – controls water balance in the body and blood pressure. Oxytocin – a peptide hormone that stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth.
  • 8. THE PINEAL GLAND  The Pineal gland is located at the midbrain of the vertebrates  The Pineal gland secretes Melatonin Fishes Amphibia & Reptilia Aves & Mammalia Function Act as Controls color change Allows to respond to Third eye changes in Photoperiod
  • 9. THE THYROID GLANDIt produces, stores, andreleases two separatethyroid hormones thatregulate metabolic rate,metamorphosis, growth,and reproduction(Kardong, 2012).2 types of thyroidhormones:Thyroxine (T3)Triiodothyronine (T4)
  • 10. THE THYROID GLAND Fishes Reptilia Amphibia Aves MammaliaMetabolism Elevate oxygen Unresponsive consumption and heat production by tissuesGrowth & Growth depends on Their thyroid Normal growth dependsDevelopment Thyroid hormones hormones arrest on normal levels of thyroid growth of the larvae hormones and promote metamorphosisMolting Thyroxine promotes sloughing or shedding of the skinReproduction Correlates with gonad Arrest Correlates with gonad maturation and physiological maturation and oogenesis oogenesis or processes that or spermatogenesis spermatogenesis promote reproduction
  • 11. ULTIMOBRANCHIAL BODY & PARATHYROID GLAND ULTIMOBRANCHIAL BODY  secretes calcitonin (thyrocalcitonin), which lowers blood levels of calcium.  Calcitonin causes calcium to be extracted from the blood and used to build new bone matrix, causing blood levels of calcium to fall
  • 12. PARATHYROID GLAND secretes parathyroid hormone ( parathormone), which elevates levels of blood calcium raises blood levels of calcium by promoting kidney retention of calcium, encouraging its absorption across the walls of the digestive tract, and affecting bone deposition
  • 13. PARATHYROID GLAND Fishes Amphibia Reptilia Aves MammaliaLocation Absent Either on the thyroid or dispersed Mouse, Cat & along the major veins in the neck Human – embedded in the Thyroid gland Goat & Rabbit – embedded near the thyroid gland
  • 14. ADRENAL GLAND•One of the most importantfunctions of the adrenalgland is coordinating the wholeorganism’s response to stress
  • 15. THE ADRENAL GLANDS Chromaffin Tissue Corticosteroids  releases adrenalin  produces the (epinephrine) and corticosteroid hormone norepinephrine in  produces aldosterone - times of stress acts in the kidney to promote the uptake of sodium & other salts from the urine
  • 16.  In Fishes: The Chromaffin cells may vary in location. These are found with the sympathetic ganglia in clumps between the anterior kidney and spine or in the interrenal tissue.
  • 17.  In Reptiles: The adrenocortical tissue receives its own arterial and venous blood supply, and does not rely on the kidney and renal portal system for distribution of its secretory products
  • 18.  In Amphibians and Birds: Adrenocortical and Chromaffin tissues mingle or reside adjacent to each other and form strands or rows of adrenal tissue, now lying on or near the kidneys
  • 19.  In Mammals: Adrenocortical and Chromaffin tissues form a cortex and a medulla respectively to create the composite adrenal gland or suprarenal
  • 20. THE PANCREAS•acomposite glandconsisting of exocrinewhich consists of Acinithat secrete digestiveenzymes into ducts andendocrine portionsknown as the Islets ofLangerhans consists ofmasses of endocrinecells embedded withinthe exocrine pancreas
  • 21. THE ISLETS OF LANGERHANS  secretes insulin and glucagon Insulin removes glucose from the blood. Glucagon returns glucose to the blood.  Alpha cells produces glucagon  Beta cells insulin
  • 22. GONADS In males, gonads is known as testes which secretes androgens and testerone. In females, gonads is known as ovaries which secrets estrogen and progesterone
  • 23. CLASS MAMMALIA TESTES It stimulates bones and musles growth and development of the secondary sexual characters like beard and mustaches
  • 24. CLASS AVES TESTES It controls the secondary sexual characters like bright plumage colour, comb and spurs.
  • 25. VERTEBRATES:UNIQUE ENDOCRINE GLANDS
  • 26. CLASS PISCES: UROPHYSIS A neurosecretory neurohemal organ which is associated with the spinal cord at the base of the tail
  • 27. CLASS AMPHIBIA  In larval stage, the thyroid hormone secretion and glucocorticoid secretion are ultimately stimulated by a single hypothalamic releasing hormone – corticotropin-releasing hormone that stimulates ACTH.
  • 28. CLASS MAMMALIA THYMUS GLAND It lies in upper part of chest, behind breast-bone and consists of 2 lobes that join in front of trachea. It secretes thymosine that stimulates develoment and differentiation of T cells which defends the body against viruses.
  • 29. THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Aballe, Karen Marie Sebastian, Marie Elaine