The russian revolution pt 1
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The russian revolution pt 1

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Soviet Union

Soviet Union

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The russian revolution pt 1 The russian revolution pt 1 Presentation Transcript

  • The Russian Revolutions Background to Revolution & Competing Ideologies, 1895-1917
  • Generalizations about Tsarist Rule • Autocratic • Repress lower classes and minorities • Sporadic attempts to modernize • Change only with backs to the wall
  • Road to Revolution: 1890-1905 • Russia was going through a period of rapid change at the turn of the century—industrialization • Industrialization = low wages/ dangerous/ overcrowded cities • Growth of political activism— workers & peasants press for rights – Illegal political parties— Liberals, Social Revolutionaries, & Social Democratic Party
  • Revolution of 1905  Military defeats in Russo-Japanese War & worker/peasant unrest • Bloody Sunday (9 Jan 1905) •Tsar passes October Manifesto->Duma + placates middle class unrest
  • Peace and Quiet 1906
  • Ilya Repin – Demonstration on 17 October 1905
  • Battleship Potemkin Mutiny (June 1905) •Sailors mutiny from their oppressive officers
  • Quote about Tsar Nicholas from historian Graham Darby, “Historians seeking to say something nice about him usually point out that he was devoutly religious, a family man, and reasonable at organizing picnics.”
  • Reforms and War: 1906-1917 • 4 Dumas between 1906-1917 – limited powers – Tsar could rule by decree when not in session – People were disappointed • Stolypin’s reforms – PM from 1906-1911 – Tried to placate peasants w/land reforms—mirs and kulaks • Start of WWI—economy collapses
  • Competing Ideologies in Russian Revolution • Kadets—Conservatives and some liberals from nobility, civil service, land owners, military, & professionals • Social Revolutionaries—Largest revolutionary grouping, made up of soldiers and peasants • Mensheviks—Largest of the Social Democratic factions, made up of industrial workers • Bolsheviks—Smallest of the Social Democratic factions, made up of workers
  • Lenin’s Background • Born V. I. Ulyanov—1870 • Middle class family • Dad minor noble & school inspector • Brother executed in 1887 • Lawyer—part time • Revolutionary—full-time • Exile in Siberia 1895-1900, then to Switzerland • Returned to Russia in April 1917—German help • Marxist and Bolshevik
  • Ideological Debate • Debate was over what kind of revolution should take place, who should rule, and how to rule • SRs and Mensheviks felt Russia needed a liberal gov’t to modernize Russia then the socialist society could be created—Marx • Lenin and the Bolsheviks felt that there needed to be a ‘dictatorship of the proletariat’ • Kadets were diverse in their views —most wanted to keep Tsar