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The french revolution, part 1
The french revolution, part 1
The french revolution, part 1
The french revolution, part 1
The french revolution, part 1
The french revolution, part 1
The french revolution, part 1
The french revolution, part 1
The french revolution, part 1
The french revolution, part 1
The french revolution, part 1
The french revolution, part 1
The french revolution, part 1
The french revolution, part 1
The french revolution, part 1
The french revolution, part 1
The french revolution, part 1
The french revolution, part 1
The french revolution, part 1
The french revolution, part 1
The french revolution, part 1
The french revolution, part 1
The french revolution, part 1
The french revolution, part 1
The french revolution, part 1
The french revolution, part 1
The french revolution, part 1
The french revolution, part 1
The french revolution, part 1
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The french revolution, part 1

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18th and 19th Century Europe

18th and 19th Century Europe

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  • 1. The French Revolution Part 1: 1789-1793
  • 2. Introduction • The French Revolution was the central event in Western society in the late 1700s: – Transformed European society from feudalism & absolute monarchy into one based on Enlightenment principles of “liberty, equality, & fraternity” – Along with the American Revolution, sparked the overthrow of monarchs and the rise of democratic revolutions throughout the Atlantic world – Terror & the rise of Napoleon, and eventually to counter-revolution and a return to the old order
  • 3. The Ancien Regime 15th -late 18th cent. • The French call the pre-Revolutionary period the “ancien regime,” or “old order.” – King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette ruled France in the strong tradition of absolute monarchy
  • 4. The Three Estates • Before the Revolution, France was divided into three classes, or estates: – First Estate • Clergy – Second Estate • Nobles – Third Estate • Peasants • Bourgeoisie
  • 5. “We must hope that things will soon sort themselves out.”
  • 6. The Calling of the Estates General • In May 1789, under threat from the 1st & 2nd Estates, King Louis calls for a meeting of the three estates together (1st time since 1614) • The delegates to the Estates General drew up lists of grievances and “abuses” perpetrated by the King and the Ancien Regime. • The Third Estate tried to rally the 1st & 2nd Estates to their cause; king locks them out
  • 7. The Tennis Court Oath • In June 1789, locked out by the king, Third Estate delegates met on a tennis court and vowed not to bow to force. • The king gave in, and allowed the three estates to meet together and form a National Assembly, with the power to give France a written constitution.
  • 8. “Tennis Court Oath” by Jacques-Louis David
  • 9. The Storming of the Bastille • Louis was still being a jerk, so, on July 14, 1789 (Bastille Day), insurgents in search of arms attacked the Bastille, an old fortress & prison. • After 4 hours of resistance, the king’s troops surrendered & the insurgents stormed in. • This incident assumed great symbolic importance as the first victory of the people in the name of “liberty” over “despotism”
  • 10. Storming of the Bastille
  • 11. After the Storming of the Bastille, the other two estates (clergy and nobles) dance to the tune of the Third Estate
  • 12. Declaration of the Rights of Man • On August 26, 1789, the National Assembly passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man, based on Enlightenment principles of “liberty, equality, & fraternity”
  • 13. Write a detailed paragraph response to the following question: • How did the French Revolution become radicalized and who was responsible for that radical shift?
  • 14. Women March on Versailles On October 5, 1789, several hundred Parisian men and women marched the 12 miles to Louis’s palace at Versailles to protest the lack of bread .
  • 15. Civil Constitution of the Clergy • The National Assembly reduced the power of the Catholic Church in France to make it serve the state • This was a fatal error that would greatly harm the Revolutionary cause among the 1st estate.
  • 16. “How happy is this day, my sisters! Yes, the peaceful names of "mother" and "wife" are much preferable to that of "nun", they give you all the Rights of Nature, thus to us."
  • 17. The Constitution of 1791 The first French Constitution went even further, creating: • limited monarchy with a clear separation of powers • a Legislative Assembly with power to override a king’s veto • indirect voting for over 2/3 of adult male citizens
  • 18. King Louis Dethroned • The first elected Legislative Assembly convened in October 1791. • At this moment France was gearing up for war against the Austrians and Prussians • Many French saw King Louis as a traitor in support of France’s enemies & had him literally removed from the throne
  • 19. The Paris Prison Massacres • For 3 days in September 1792, groups of Parisians invaded the prisons, set up mock trials, & executed more than 1,000 prisoners • No official dared try to stop the slaughter. • Revolutionary leaders saw this as a model for how to deal with potential enemies of the new republic – a REIGN OF TERROR.
  • 20. Jacobins vs. Girondists • By October 1792, the first phase of the Revolution was complete, & two groups were vying for power: – Girondins: moderate, mostly middle-class republicans who wanted a sensible government – Jacobins: radical, both middle-class & poor who wanted an overthrow of the king & top 2 estates • most radical of the Jacobins were the sans- culottes, literally “without breeches” because they were lower-class & wore long pants, not knee-breeches
  • 21. The Beheading of Louis XVI • After a trial in the National Assembly, King Louis XVI was found guilty of treason & sentenced to die. • On January 21, 1793, Louis was beheaded • The moderate phase of the revolution was over

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