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Post world war i

Post world war i



Causes and Outcomes of The Great War

Causes and Outcomes of The Great War



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    Post world war i Post world war i Presentation Transcript

    • First World War Peace Settlements Part 1: The Treaty of Versailles
    • With the failure of the Ludendorf Offensive, and with the exhausted state of Germany, the German generals recognized that it was time to sue for peace with the Allies. The Kaiser was forced to abdicate on the 8th November and a new democratic republic was established. But how would the Allies deal with a defeated Germany?
    • On 8th November 1918, Imperial Germany came to an end when a democratic republic was established. Though it was intended to have Wilhelm tried as a ‘war criminal’ he was eventually allowed to spend the rest of his life in exile in the Netherlands. He died in 1941.
    • The Aftermath of WWI• Soon after WWI ended in Nov. 1918, President Wilson left for Paris to attend the peace conference • There, he met with other “Big Four” leaders to talk peace
    • David Lloyd-George [Great Britain] Vittorio Orlando [Italy] Georges Clemenceau [France] Woodrow Wilson [USA]
    • Paris Peace Conference• Held at Versailles & lasted over 6 months • Opened 18 January 1919— anniversary of unification of Germany in 1871 • Over 10,000 people attending from 32 countries • Process streamlined to being run by Big Four nations • One result was English replaced French as language of diplomacy
    • Problems for the Winners
    • Main Leaders at the Conference • France—Georges Clemenceau: – Wished for harsh treatment of Germany & was the hardliner – Wanted to ensure French security • UK—David Lloyd George: – Wanted to force Germany to pay reparations for war damages – More interested in protecting British interests (esp. colonies) • US—Woodrow Wilson: – Saw WWI as “war to end all wars” & “make world safe for democracy” – Wanted Germany to be treated fairly and self-determination for all nations
    • Wilson’s Fourteen Points• Wilson, however, had an idealistic view of foreign relations, summed up in his “Fourteen Points” • These were based on Wilson’s idea that WWI would be “the war to end all wars” by basing the peace treaty on international justice
    • The Fourteen Points1. Open diplomacy 6-13. Specific provisions 2. Freedom of seas relating to disputes 3. Lower tariffs between countries 4. Arms reductions in Europe 5. Decolonization 14. “A general association of nations”—a.k.a a League of Nations
    • The Treaty of Versailles• The other 3 leaders won the argument with Wilson • The Treaty called for: – punishment of Germany with huge reparations – breaking up Austria- Hungary into small nations – breaking up the Ottoman Empire into mandates – Few of Wilson’s 14 Points met Reparations: France wanted $200 Billion Britain wanted $120 Billion U.S. wanted $22 Billion 1921: 6.6 Billion Pounds in gold marks
    • German Losses at Versailles
    • 1914--------------------1919
    • Territorial Changes
    • THE TERMS OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES 1919 WAR GUILT CLAUSE GERMAN NATIONAL TERRITORY GERMANY’S MILITARY FORCES REDUCED GERMAN OVERSEAS TERRITORRIES NO UNION WITH AUSTRIA REPARATIONS Germany had to accept blame for starting WW1 - Army restricted to 100,000 men. - No modern weapons such as tanks, military air force. - Navy could not have battle ships over 10,000 tons and no U-Boats. - Germany lost national territory which was given to Belgium and Denmark, most went to Poland. Germany lost Chinese ports [Amoy and Tsingtao], Pacific Islands, and African colonies [Tanganika and German SW Africa]. RHINELAND TO BE DE-MILITARISED Germany forced to pay massive fine for war damages - 1,000,000,000 Marks (6.6bn pounds). The Treaty was designed to cripple Germany militarily, territorially and economically
    • ARTICLE 231 (of Treaty of Versailles) “The Allied and Associated Governments affirm and Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies.”
    • Impact on Germany • Since end of the War Germany was in turmoil • New gov’t met in Weimar and set up a liberal gov’t • May 1919—Treaty presented to Germans to sign • Threatened with continued blockade if refused to sign • 28 June 1919—Germany signed the treaty
    • Assessing the Treaty • Wrong to blame only Germany—created resentment and instability • Punished the people instead of just the leaders • Military leaders left in power—remained a political force in Germany • Germans felt that they had been manipulated by 14 Pts • German economy would be damaged by reparations— impact on other countries
    • Other Treaties 1919- 1923• Treaty of St Germain (1919)— Austria • Treaty of Neuilly (1919)—Bulgaria • Treaty of Trianon (1920)—Hungary • Treaty of Sevres (1920)—Turkey • Treaty of Lausanne (1923) —Turkey