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Early power of mao



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  • 1. China Under Mao:1961-76China Under Mao:1961-76 Power Struggle, the CulturalPower Struggle, the Cultural Revolution, and Mao’s LegacyRevolution, and Mao’s Legacy
  • 2. The Power Struggle,The Power Struggle, 1961-661961-66  Great Leap Forward hadGreat Leap Forward had damaged Mao’s reputationdamaged Mao’s reputation in Partyin Party  He called on President LiuHe called on President Liu Shaoqi, Prime MinisterShaoqi, Prime Minister Zhou Enlai, & PartyZhou Enlai, & Party General Secretary DengGeneral Secretary Deng Xiaoping to end chaosXiaoping to end chaos  They called for marketThey called for market reforms to providereforms to provide incentive for peasants toincentive for peasants to produce surplusproduce surplus Liu Shaoqi, Zhou Enlai and Deng Xiaoping Increase production & Practice thrift, food stuffs and steel to the center
  • 3. Propaganda & PurgesPropaganda & Purges  Mao, uneasy w/ Liu &Mao, uneasy w/ Liu & Deng’s ideas, feared heDeng’s ideas, feared he was losing his grip on thewas losing his grip on the PartyParty  He turned to Lin Biao, aHe turned to Lin Biao, a loyalist who co-editedloyalist who co-edited TheThe Little Red Book,Little Red Book, aa collection of Mao’s quotescollection of Mao’s quotes given to every citizengiven to every citizen  Mao’s wife Jiang Qing ledMao’s wife Jiang Qing led Shanghai Forum, whichShanghai Forum, which attacked Liu & Deng andattacked Liu & Deng and other rivals such as theother rivals such as the Group of FiveGroup of Five Study and respect comrade Jiang Qing Lin BiaoLin Biao Hold aloft the Red Banner of Maoist Thought, Smash the reactionary line of Liu and Deng
  • 4. Great Proletarian CulturalGreat Proletarian Cultural Revolution BeginsRevolution Begins  Aug. 18 1966—over 1Aug. 18 1966—over 1 million youths packedmillion youths packed Tiananmen Square for pro-Tiananmen Square for pro- Mao rallyMao rally  This started the CulturalThis started the Cultural Revolution, Mao’s attemptRevolution, Mao’s attempt to reassert his will onto reassert his will on China by enlisting theChina by enlisting the youth as his instrumentyouth as his instrument  ““Great disorder across theGreat disorder across the land leading to greatland leading to great order.” - Maoorder.” - Mao Revolutionary Committees are Good Enthusiastically welcome the creation of the Peking Revolutionary Committee
  • 5. Attacks on the “Four Olds”Attacks on the “Four Olds”  Mao urged the young RedMao urged the young Red Guards to attackGuards to attack – Old cultureOld culture – Old thoughtsOld thoughts – Old customsOld customs – Old habitsOld habits  Confucian thought banned asConfucian thought banned as rightist & reactionaryrightist & reactionary  To do this, Mao needed toTo do this, Mao needed to subvert the party bureaucracysubvert the party bureaucracy & appeal directly to the people& appeal directly to the people  Afraid of Soviet-style “reforms”Afraid of Soviet-style “reforms” taking hold in Chinataking hold in China Down with Soviet revisionism
  • 6. Mao’s Attacks on theMao’s Attacks on the IntellectualsIntellectuals  To preserve theTo preserve the revolution as a peasantrevolution as a peasant movement, Mao attackedmovement, Mao attacked the urban intelligentsiathe urban intelligentsia who had criticized thewho had criticized the Great Leap ForwardGreat Leap Forward  He saw the bureaucrats &He saw the bureaucrats & intellectuals as privileged,intellectuals as privileged, soft, and in need of “re-soft, and in need of “re- education”education”  The Cultural RevolutionThe Cultural Revolution thus turned into an anti-thus turned into an anti- intellectual vendettaintellectual vendetta
  • 7. A Swarm of UgliesA Swarm of Uglies
  • 8. Cultural Revolution—First PhaseCultural Revolution—First Phase  Summer ’66—poster campaign onSummer ’66—poster campaign on college campuses—Red Guardcollege campuses—Red Guard attacks on professorsattacks on professors  Mao swims the Yangzi RiverMao swims the Yangzi River  (Video)(Video)  Summons Central Committee &Summons Central Committee & condemns opponentscondemns opponents  Replaces Deng & Liu with LinReplaces Deng & Liu with Lin Biao, who addresses Red GuardBiao, who addresses Red Guard rallies in Tiananmen Squarerallies in Tiananmen Square  Jiang Qing helps organize actionsJiang Qing helps organize actions
  • 9. Red Guard Terror TacticsRed Guard Terror Tactics  Mao had shaped Red GuardsMao had shaped Red Guards as loyal, willing, & brutal forceas loyal, willing, & brutal force  Not necessarily irrational, butNot necessarily irrational, but they adored Mao and saw himthey adored Mao and saw him as nearly divinely inspiredas nearly divinely inspired  Used youthful idealism, peer-Used youthful idealism, peer- group conformity, & brutalitygroup conformity, & brutality to stoke hatred of traditions orto stoke hatred of traditions or Western capitalist decadenceWestern capitalist decadence  Teachers, professors, writers,Teachers, professors, writers, doctors especially targeteddoctors especially targeted Nuns being publicly shamed
  • 10. ‘‘Struggle Sessions’Struggle Sessions’  Five categories targeted forFive categories targeted for public humiliation—landlords,public humiliation—landlords, rich peasants, reactionaries,rich peasants, reactionaries, bad elements, & rightistsbad elements, & rightists  Those deemed most guilty ofThose deemed most guilty of counter-revolutionary activitycounter-revolutionary activity were subjected to a set ofwere subjected to a set of humiliations known ashumiliations known as ‘struggle sessions’:‘struggle sessions’: – Forced study of MaoismForced study of Maoism – Self-criticism & confessionSelf-criticism & confession – Rejection of confessionsRejection of confessions – Physical & verbal torturePhysical & verbal torture Struggle Session The victims humiliated
  • 11. LaogaiLaogai  Trans. – “re-education through labor”Trans. – “re-education through labor”  Mao’s prison camps for counter-Mao’s prison camps for counter- revolutionariesrevolutionaries  10,000 camps by 197610,000 camps by 1976  Average # of prisoners each year = 10 milAverage # of prisoners each year = 10 mil  25 million prisoners dead25 million prisoners dead
  • 12. A doctor who was terrorized during the Cultural Revolution —exiled to the western reaches of the country, where his wife committed suicide—later said this of the lesson he learned: To survive in China you must reveal nothing to others. Or it could be used against you… That’s why I’ve come to think the deepest part of the self is best left unclear. Like mist and clouds in a Chinese landscape painting, hide the private part behind your social persona. Let your public self be like rice in a dinner: bland and inconspicuous, taking on the flavors of its surroundings while giving off no flavor of its own.
  • 13. Who led the Cultural Revolution?Who led the Cultural Revolution?  Although it appeared to beAlthough it appeared to be led by youthful Red Guards,led by youthful Red Guards, not sonot so  The Cultural Revolution wasThe Cultural Revolution was directed from the top, withdirected from the top, with Mao’s assent, by Jiang andMao’s assent, by Jiang and Lin, w/ Army & PartyLin, w/ Army & Party enforcing itenforcing it  Conflicts between PLA &Conflicts between PLA & Red Guards; & students &Red Guards; & students & workersworkers Long Live the Great Chinese People’s Liberation Army!
  • 14. ““The Great Cultural Revolution….causedThe Great Cultural Revolution….caused the most devastating setback and heavythe most devastating setback and heavy losses to the party, the state, and thelosses to the party, the state, and the people in the history of the People’speople in the history of the People’s Republic, and this Great CulturalRepublic, and this Great Cultural Revolution was initiated and led byRevolution was initiated and led by Comrade Mao Zedong” – CPC 1981Comrade Mao Zedong” – CPC 1981
  • 15. Key Figures to KnowKey Figures to Know  Deng XiaopingDeng Xiaoping – Party Secretary-General– Party Secretary-General 54-66 – purged – early successor to Mao54-66 – purged – early successor to Mao  Lin BiaoLin Biao – helped create Cult of Mao – 2– helped create Cult of Mao – 2ndnd successor to Maosuccessor to Mao  Zhou EnlaiZhou Enlai – Foreign Minister – moderating– Foreign Minister – moderating influence on GPCRinfluence on GPCR  Liu ShaoqiLiu Shaoqi – Vice-Chairman – attacked– Vice-Chairman – attacked during GPCR – died in prison 1969during GPCR – died in prison 1969  Jiang QingJiang Qing – Mao’s Wife – helped radicalize– Mao’s Wife – helped radicalize GPCRGPCR
  • 16. Reshaping Chinese CultureReshaping Chinese Culture  Jiang Qing led suppressionJiang Qing led suppression of traditional Chinese societyof traditional Chinese society through censorshipthrough censorship  Anything related to “four olds”Anything related to “four olds”  Anything “non-proletarian”Anything “non-proletarian”  All Western classical musicAll Western classical music  Only Deng dared disagree—Only Deng dared disagree— and he was persecutedand he was persecuted  Result of CulturalResult of Cultural Revolution = “no culture”Revolution = “no culture” Revolutionary Operas are good
  • 17. There is “no such thing asThere is “no such thing as art for art’s sake, art thatart for art’s sake, art that stands above classes, artstands above classes, art that is detached from orthat is detached from or independent of politics.independent of politics. Proletarian literature andProletarian literature and art are part of the wholeart are part of the whole revolutionary cause.”revolutionary cause.” -Mao-Mao
  • 18. Final Phase of Cultural RevolutionFinal Phase of Cultural Revolution  Deciding matters had goneDeciding matters had gone far enough, Mao orderedfar enough, Mao ordered work of Red Guards to bework of Red Guards to be taken over by PLA unitstaken over by PLA units  Over 12 million urban youthsOver 12 million urban youths (many Red Guards) sent to(many Red Guards) sent to live in countryside tolive in countryside to experience “dignity of labor”experience “dignity of labor”  Chinese disillusionmentChinese disillusionment increased, but no criticism ofincreased, but no criticism of Mao until after his deathMao until after his death Protect the great results of the Great Cultural Revolution The Youth must got to the countryside to be reeducated by the poor peasants
  • 19.  Lei FengLei Feng: For me,: For me, Chairman Mao’s works areChairman Mao’s works are like food, weapons and thelike food, weapons and the steering wheel of my truck.steering wheel of my truck. One cannot live withoutOne cannot live without eating. A war cannot be woneating. A war cannot be won without weapons. A truckwithout weapons. A truck cannot be driven without acannot be driven without a steering wheel. One cannotsteering wheel. One cannot make revolution withoutmake revolution without studying Chairman Mao’sstudying Chairman Mao’s
  • 20. Four Pests CampaignFour Pests Campaign  RatsRats  FliesFlies  MosquitoesMosquitoes  SparrowsSparrows  LOCUSTS!LOCUSTS! ““The more brutal, the more revolutionary”The more brutal, the more revolutionary” children should knock the heads off of flowerschildren should knock the heads off of flowers to show their rejection of bourgeois conceptsto show their rejection of bourgeois concepts of beauty. - Maoof beauty. - Mao
  • 21. Fall of Lin BiaoFall of Lin Biao  Lin, seeing himself as aLin, seeing himself as a potential victim of thepotential victim of the Cultural Revolution, wasCultural Revolution, was involved in plot toinvolved in plot to assassinate Maoassassinate Mao  Upon discovery, planeUpon discovery, plane with Lin & familywith Lin & family “mysteriously” crashed on“mysteriously” crashed on way to escape to USSRway to escape to USSR in Sept. 1971in Sept. 1971 ‘Deepen criticism of Lin & Confucius, energetically increase production’ Lin Biao’s Plane wreckage
  • 22. Rise of Zhou & DengRise of Zhou & Deng  Zhou Enlai re-emerges asZhou Enlai re-emerges as leader in efforts to improveleader in efforts to improve ties with West, especiallyties with West, especially President Nixon’s visit inPresident Nixon’s visit in 19721972  Deng Xiaoping comes outDeng Xiaoping comes out of solitary confinement withof solitary confinement with new credibility as moderatenew credibility as moderate  Zhou’s death—’TiananmenZhou’s death—’Tiananmen incident’ leads to dismissalincident’ leads to dismissal of Deng as Party Secretaryof Deng as Party Secretary ‘At the side of Comrade Zhou’ Deng Xiaoping
  • 23. The Death of MaoThe Death of Mao  Last 3 years of hisLast 3 years of his life, Mao waslife, Mao was incapacitatedincapacitated  Left Jiang Qing &Left Jiang Qing & Gang of Four inGang of Four in controlcontrol  Summer 1976—Summer 1976— massive earthquakemassive earthquake kills 250,000kills 250,000  Sept. 1976—MaoSept. 1976—Mao diesdies Gang of Four Smash the Gang of Four Earthquakes don’t scare us, the people will surely vanquish nature
  • 24. Gang ofGang of Four…….ModernizationsFour…….Modernizations  ArrestedArrested  Scapegoats -AgricultureScapegoats -Agriculture  Death/Life in Prison -IndustryDeath/Life in Prison -Industry  Jiang Qing commits -Science/Tech.Jiang Qing commits -Science/Tech. suicide in 1991 -Defensesuicide in 1991 -Defense
  • 25. Legacy of Cultural RevolutionLegacy of Cultural Revolution  Disastrous economicallyDisastrous economically – Education/training ceasedEducation/training ceased – Industrial/agricultural slumpIndustrial/agricultural slump  Organized terrorOrganized terror  cultureculture of callousness & brutalityof callousness & brutality  Overall death figures run inOverall death figures run in the millionsthe millions  Biggest victim: “Truth itself”Biggest victim: “Truth itself”